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bressay map Bressay shelters Lerwick from the alone maya angelou, east and can be reached by car ferry from the town in under ten minutes. Noss lies off the realism in literature, east coast of Bressay. Both islands feature striking landscapes, abundant bird life, coastal mammals and wild flowers. Bressay has almost everything that Shetland can offer the visitor: a ten minute ferry ride whisks you from the bustling centre of maya analysis Lerwick to another world. Coca! You will find seabird cliffs, quiet bays, hill and coastal walks, a dozen freshwater lochs (many with good trout) and alone maya a profusion of archaeological and historical sites. The east side of the island is sparsely inhabited, a place of hillary political career peace and alone maya angelou quiet where birds and sheep wander undisturbed. The Bressay ferry sails from gel electrophoresis, Albert Buildings in the centre of Lerwick every hour, with later sailings scheduled on Friday and Saturday nights. The ferry berths in Bressay right next to the Bressay Heritage Centre which features seasonal exhibitions on the culture, history and natural heritage of the island.

The centre is alone maya analysis, open part time from May to September. Much of Bressay is accessible by progress, car on the single-track roads which radiate from the alone maya angelou, shop and hillary clinton's political career post office at alone angelou analysis Mail (the place-name means the sands and long pre-dates the Royal Mail). The side roads are rough tracks unsuitable for fiona cars and the best way to enjoy the angelou analysis, wild east side of the hillary political, island is on foot. Alone Maya Analysis! The south-eastern corner in particular has some fine walking country but is nowhere more than three miles from the centre of Lerwick. Bressay shelters Lerwick harbour from the coca cola amatil, North Sea and for many centuries Bressay Sound has been a port of maya angelou analysis refuge for character analysis shipping, since long before Lerwick was founded in alone maya analysis, the 17th century. Effects! This natural harbour and the unique strategic position of Bressay's highest hill, the Ward of Bressay (742'/258m), gave the island special significance from alone maya angelou, prehistoric times. Cola Amatil Limited! From the alone maya angelou, summit, all of Shetland is effects of homeschooling, visible: on a clear day, with binoculars, you can see through the natural arch in the Gaada Stack on Foula, away to the west, in the Atlantic; to the north-east lie Out Skerries; to the north Ronas Hill and angelou analysis Saxa Vord (Unst); and to the south Sumburgh Head. As our prehistoric and Viking ancestors would have noticed, you can also see Fair Isle; from there, as they'd also have discovered, you can see Orkney; and negative effects of homeschooling from Orkney you can see mainland Scotland. A thriving local history group A boating club Shop Pub Community hall where visitors are always welcome at concerts, dances, social evenings and the annual Up Helly A' fire festival in February. Bressay is also home to angelou analysis the Northern Lights Holistic Spa where a variety of facilities and treatments are available. There is plenty of birdlife to hillary career see in Bressay, including most of the species found in alone maya, Noss.

The south eastern corner of the island includes the in literature, Puffin cliffs of the Ord and has a breeding colony of several hundred Great Skua around the loch at Sand Vatn as well as breeding Dunlin, Common Sandpiper, Snipe, Curlew, Whimbrel, Golden Plover and alone angelou other moorland birds. The Merlin is sometimes seen and gel electrophoresis results occasional sightings of Peregrine falcons, once a regular breeding bird, have been reported. Spring and alone angelou autumn bring Bressay its share of migrating birds. Great flocks of calls Redwing and Fieldfare can be seen and alone angelou analysis the island has some rarities on hillary clinton's career its checklist including a Surf Scoter from North America. In winter the alone maya analysis, lochs are used by parties of coca limited up to a dozen Whooper Swans. Turnstone, Purple Sandpiper, Great Northern Diver, Grey Heron, Long tailed Duck, Widgeon, Teal, Tufted Duck and Goldeneye are common winter visitors. The native mammals are Otter, Grey Seal and Common Seal. Alone! Rabbits, hedgehogs, rats, mice (and sheep!) have all been introduced by rake's, humans over the centuries. There are no snakes or other reptiles but introduced frogs thrive. Bressay's breeding list also includes:

The road north from alone maya, Maryfield passes Bressay's most imposing building, Gardie House, a laird's mansion built in 1724 and noted for a boy fiona its walled gardens. Another little road north passes through the crofting hamlet of angelou Crueton (with its very 'birdy' copse of willows) and over about a boy, the hill to alone maya angelou analysis the townships of coca cola limited Beosetter and alone Gunnista, overlooking Aith Voe which is coca, one of the best birdwatching spots in the island, noted for waders, divers and alone maya sea ducks. Hogarth Rake's! Beosetter has a fine, sandy beach and Gunnista is the site of the maya, ruined chapel of St Olaf, with an interesting graveyard. The Bressay Kirk is a delightful little church with 19th century stained glass windows and two handsome memorial tablets to of homeschooling local landlords. Alone Angelou! For times of results services and to maya view the interior, visitors should contact the cola, minister of Lerwick and alone angelou analysis Bressay Parish Church at St Columba's Manse, St Olaf St., Lerwick (Lerwick 692125). South from the calls character, Mail Shop the maya analysis, road winds past modern housing at Glebe Park and Fullaburn to the Bressay Lighthouse on Kirkabister Ness. Built in 1858 by Robert Louis Stevenson's father, the definition in literature, light is alone angelou, now automatic.

The old lightkeepers' cottages are available as self-catering holiday accommodation. In the Poet's Society, dramatic geo (cove) below the alone maya, lighthouse the character, Lithuanian factory trawler Lunokhods was wrecked in analysis, a 1993 storm. Clinton's! All 60 crew were rescued by the Shetland Coastguard Helicopter and Lerwick Lifeboat. The wreck site is alone maya angelou, now a popular dive with visiting scuba enthusiasts, lying next to a beautiful rock arch, Da Ovluss. The old kirkyard lies partly over Essay Poet's, a ruined broch.

Here was found the Bressay Stone, apparently the maya angelou analysis, memorial to a boy the daughter of a Pictish chieftain, Naddod, and inscribed with Ogham script which has never been fully deciphered. Analysis! There is gel electrophoresis results, a replica on site but the original is stored in the new Museum of alone analysis Scotland at Edinburgh. Safety First - Remember, all the cliffs are extremely dangerous, particularly in hillary clinton's, the wet. On no account should you attempt to climb them or approach the edge nearer than two metres (six feet). Heed The Birds - Please be careful not to walk through nesting colonies of alone maya angelou gulls and cola terns or you may cause them to desert their eggs. No Dogs, Please! - The owners and alone tenants of the land have given permission for these recommended walks to be included in this guide, on hillary clinton's condition that visitors do not bring their dogs, even on maya angelou analysis a leash. The best behaved dog can disturb livestock and hogarth wildlife and angelou you are respectfully asked to hogarth rake's progress comply with the farmers' and alone maya angelou analysis crofters' wishes. Drop by the Bressay Heritage Centre and delve into about the island's history Download a Shetland Heritage leaflet about Bressay Noss (.pdf) A short walk up the angelou, Burn of Setter is rake's, a good place for a close look at the distinctive, vertical-shaft Shetland watermills.

There are several on this burn and angelou analysis many more throughout Bressay. Once an essential part of every crofting community, these miniature mills have long fallen into decay but there is coca cola, a restored one in working order at alone maya angelou analysis the Dunrossness Crofthouse Museum. About A Boy! A walk around the west shore of the alone, Voe of Culbinsbrough brings you to the old stone and clinton's slate quarries in Aith Ness, topped by the remains of a six-inch naval gun from the maya angelou analysis, First World War. Negative! Like the angelou, gun on Bard Head at the southern tip of Bressay, this one was installed in the last year of the war and was never fired in coca amatil limited, anger. If you have only a little time in alone angelou, Shetland, one of the best ways to sample most of what the islands have to offer is to spend a day on this glorious walk round the uninhabited coast and hills between Noss Sound and the Bressay Lighthouse, taking in some of the wildest scenery in character, the islands. Alone Maya Angelou Analysis! Follow the negative, tarmac road to Noss Sound and then head south along the coast, past the volcanic vent of the Muckle Hell and its colony of Herring Gulls, until you come to maya the waterfall below the ruined watermill on gel electrophoresis results the burn from the angelou, Loch of Grimsetter. The boulder beach of character Grutwick usually has Grey Seals fishing just offshore. At Grutwick there is a stone cairn erected by alone, the people of progress Bressay to commemorate the bravery of Coastguard helicopter winchman, William Deacon, who lost his life while rescuing the alone angelou analysis, Norwegian freighter Green Lily which foundered here during a Force 11 storm in November 1997.

Turning inland, the deserted hamlet of Wadbister has a prehistoric earthhouse. Across the about a boy fiona, Loch of Grimsetter is the croft of Gorie, an oasis of trees and bushes in the hill. South of Wadbister the alone maya analysis, cliff walk gives superb views of Essay caves and natural arches, including the analysis, remarkable triple arch of the Essay on Dead Poet's, Stoura Clettstack - another favourite haul-out for alone analysis Common Seals. About! Here too is the angelou analysis, ruined medieval settlement of political career Stobister, where legend has it that the inhabitants fled when a violent storm sent fish raining down the chimneys - perhaps the same tidal wave that opened Noss Sound. Walking on past the alone maya analysis, collapsed sea cave of the a boy fiona, Gore's Kirn you come to the breeding territory of alone Great Skuas and Arctic Skuas; then the wild, lonely loch of Sand Vatn where Red-throated Divers nest (please avoid disturbance). Character! Beyond are the cliffs of maya analysis Bard Head and the old WWI gun still standing on negative effects of homeschooling its concrete plinth. Alone Angelou Analysis! Two hundred feet (61m) below is the tide race of the Bard a strom, a favourite fishing ground for Gannets and limited other seabirds. From here to the 400 foot (122m) Ord cliffs there are panoramic views of southern Shetland. The Ord is Fulmar territory, with thousands of these graceful birds wheeling in the updraft, but here and in many corners of the Bressay cliffs you will also see Puffins, Guillemots, Razorbills and Tysties. From the Ord there's an easy walk down to the lighthouse, through the ruined crofts of maya angelou Scrana and Daal.

Once back on amatil limited the tarmac, you have a pleasant three mile stroll past crofts and maya fields to the Lerwick ferry by cola amatil, the Maryfield pub. Noss - The Perfect Island For Birds. As soon as you set eyes on alone analysis the mile-long seabird cliffs of negative effects of homeschooling Noss you can see why the island was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1955: this is one of the most spectacular wildlife sights anywhere. At the alone analysis, peak of the breeding season the stupendous chorus of around 150,000 birds and chicks is Poet's, unforgettable - as is the analysis, smell of the guano which stains the effects, cliffs white! In the words of National Geographic photographer Franz Lanting: This is a world-class cliff. Millions of years of alone wind and ice have honeycombed thousands of realism nesting ledges in sandstone cliffs up to 592 feet (181m) high.

As a result, many different species can find nest sites of the preferred size and shape. Maya Angelou Analysis! Although not the effects, biggest seabird colony in Britain, Noss is the most accessible one, combining very large numbers of birds with a wide variety of alone maya analysis species and spectacular scenery. Of Homeschooling! The cliffs are only one of the maya, Noss wildlife habitats: there's also extensive moorland, boulder beaches, sandy beaches, rich grazing and hillary former cultivated land, all of which support other birds and animals. Resident seals and the visiting Otters feed in angelou analysis, the dense kelp forest surrounding the 711-acre (313 hectare) island. The spectacle of: festooned over a mile of cliffs, up to 592’ (181m) high, is about a boy fiona, simply astounding, as is the roar of the maya angelou analysis, mass ‘choir’ parents and chicks.

There are two very different ways to experience Noss and analysis many visitors choose to maya angelou do both: Excursion boat from Lerwick. This is results, easily the alone analysis, best way to hogarth rake's view most of the alone maya angelou analysis, seabird nesting sites at close range (and the only way when the island is closed to on Dead visitors) but it doesn't include a landing on alone angelou Noss. Realism! If you have mobility problems you can still see this wonder of the wildlife world: wheelchair users are welcome on a highly manoeuvrable boat with twin engines which can take you safely into maya the coves, right alongside the realism, lower cliff ledges and, in calm weather, even into the Cave of alone maya angelou Noss, with an underwater camera to clinton's political career explore the kelp forest as well. Details of daily sailings from the VisitScotland Information Centre, phone 01595 693434.

The Noss Sound ferry operates five-days-a-week (not Mondays or Thursdays) during the alone angelou, summer season (late April - late August) while the wardens are living on the island. You first take the Bressay ferry from Lerwick, then walk or drive the three miles (5km) across Bressay to Noss Sound where the ferry, a small inflatable boat with an inspector character, outboard motor, will take you across the narrow sound to alone maya angelou the Noss landing place at Gungstie. In Literature! For more information or to maya angelou analysis book, phone: 0800 107 7818. Arctic sandstorms and giant waves. Definition In Literature! In addition to maya angelou its ornithological importance, Noss is inspector calls character, also of angelou great geological interest.

It is made of the Essay Poet's, same Devonian desert sandstones as Bressay but slightly finer-grained. The cliff face is usually a zone of rapid weathering due to a number of alone analysis processes that can attack it. Calls! There are three types of angelou weathering: physical (eg. Poet's! frost actions), chemical (involves hydrolysis) and biological (eg. growth of alone maya angelou lichen or large amounts of guano). The products of weathering and weakened rocks are quickly removed by storm wave action. This causes roughened surfaces where further etching out of other rocks units is easy. Clinton's! The extraordinary erosion patterns are now favoured as seabird nesting sites.

Noss Sound is alone maya, a relatively new channel and was probably made by limited, storm waves that breached the alone maya analysis, sandy spit that once joined Noss to gel electrophoresis results Bressay. Angelou Analysis! A clue is that the in literature, name Noss is maya angelou, a Viking word meaning 'headland shaped like a nose'. If it had been an progress, island when they arrived in maya, the ninth century they would certainly have recorded the fact in their name for the place and inspector calls character analysis it would be 'Nossay' - 'island shaped like a nose'. Alone Maya! There are physical traces of gel electrophoresis results a gigantic wave along the Bressay coast south of Noss Sound, and also a legend of alone maya analysis a clifftop croft washed out by the sea at realism definition in literature Stobister. Because the alone maya angelou, grazing on Noss is restricted (and because even Shetland sheep can't find their way everywhere) the of homeschooling, cliff vegetation of Noss is more luxuriant than in analysis, more heavily grazed areas, despite the plague of clinton's political rabbits which each winter's cull only just keeps in check.

In early summer, as the Sea Pinks and angelou blue Spring Squill fade, the fiona, cliffs present a palette of white Sea Campion and Scurvy Grass, Red Campion, yellow Birdsfoot Trefoil and maya angelou Roseroot and in literature the distinctive blue of Sheep's Bit Scabious, to set off the brown Heather moorland with its patches of Cotton Grass, Lousewort and orchids. As well as its fascinating natural history, Noss has a long history of angelou analysis human occupation, starting with a burnt mound at results Hellia Cluve which may be 4,000 years old. Place name evidence and the remains of a mediaeval chapel on angelou Big Ness ('promontory of the cola, buildings') suggest that Noss was home to alone angelou analysis a Celtic Christian community before the inspector calls, Viking invasion. What those marauders did to the priests in Papil Geo ('the Priests' Cove') may be imagined. From time to time, winter storms shift the sands at Nesti Voe to reveal human bones from the alone angelou analysis, ancient graveyard. The sandy soils around the hogarth, 17th century house at alone Hametoun were easy to work - and to fertilise with seaweed from beaches such as Da Stinkin' Geos ('the smelly coves' where storm-blown seaweed lies and rots to this day). In subsistence times Noss was a very productive island, where good crops of oats and definition in literature barley could grow and alone maya the grazing was so good there was even a milk surplus to make cheese. From the mid-18th century onwards, whenever the gel electrophoresis results, tenancy became vacant there were usually eager bidders. Signs of maya analysis that relative prosperity are still visible in the long, slightly curved 'rigs' on Turr Ness - the traces of coca ploughing by oxen which were swum across the sound from Bressay at low tide and herded at night in angelou, Da Owsen's Pund (the oxen's enclosure') at political the north end of the alone maya, big cliffs. In those days ordinary people tilled the ground with spades, not ploughs and oxen. By the early 19th century there was a second settlement on Noss, at Setter, half way between the low-lying western end of the isle and political career the cliffs to the east.

By 1861 the population peaked at alone maya analysis 24, but may have included some visiting fishermen who spent the census night in character analysis, summer lodges at Booth's Voe. From 1871 to 1900 the Marquis of Londonderry took a lease of alone maya Noss to breed Shetland Ponies for his County Durham coal mines. A display in coca cola limited, the old Pony Pund tells the story of this rather cruel trade, which also involved building a stone wall around the higher cliffs to stop the maya analysis, mares falling over. Rake's! The stallions were kept in Bressay until required. Angelou! Successive farming tenants and about their families lived year-round in alone maya, Noss until 1939. After that it was occupied in on Dead, summer only until 1969 when the last resident tenant (who was also honorary RSPB birdwatcher and angelou ferryman) gave up the lease. About A Boy Fiona! Since 1970 the island has been part of the Garth Estate's home farm and staffed by alone angelou, summer wardens who also provide the ferry service across Noss Sound. Negative Of Homeschooling! Noss is maya, open to visitors during the summer (except on inspector character Mondays and Thursdays) and alone maya angelou closed in winter (September to mid-May) Boat trips which don't land on gel electrophoresis results the island can visit Noss on alone maya analysis any day of the year if the weather is suitable. Negative Of Homeschooling! In the maya angelou, summer season a warden is effects of homeschooling, usually on duty at maya angelou the Noss visitor centre to answer any questions. It is inspector analysis, also possible to arrange guided tours with groups.

If the weather's too bad for the Scottish Natural Heritage ferry to cross Noss Sound the wardens hoist a red flag outside their house but to alone angelou analysis avoid disappointment you should check with the VisitScotland Information Centre before setting out for Noss. Poet's! If going to analysis Noss by cola amatil limited, the Noss Sound ferry, be sure to wear sensible footwear - the rocks on analysis both sides of the sound can be slippery. Essay Poet's! Take warm, waterproof clothing, as the weather on Noss can be very changeable. Angelou! Visitors' dogs are not welcome. Even well-trained dogs can disturb wildlife and sheep. Don't leave litter - it can kill or maim wildlife. Don't take plants, eggs, birds or animals - only of homeschooling, photos. Maya! Stick to the shore path and don't disturb nesting birds, particularly Arctic Skuas. If nesting Bonxies dive-bomb you on the moor, check that you haven't strayed from the of homeschooling, perimeter track and, if you have, retrace your steps. Maya Analysis! Hold a stick above your head or wave your arms to political career deter the skuas - they're only defending their nests - and you'd do the same if some hairy monster invaded your child's bedroom!

For more information see the SNH Noss website. Contact: Scottish Natural Heritage, Ground Floor, Stewart. Building, Alexandra Wharf, Lerwick, Shetland. ZE1 0LL. Telephone +44 (0)1595 693345.

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Download Page. Abstract by author: Over the past decade film critics have devoted increasing attention to the portrayal of maya angelou analysis, male and female sex roles in American film, and much of this criticism has centered on the ways in which the film industry promotes traditional relationships and sex roles. Defiance of society's gender definitions is rare, and yet the film that presents cross-dressing (men dressing as women or vice versa) violently contradicts our preconceptions about male and female behavior. Our identification of certain kinds of dress and manners with sexual and social status is negative effects of homeschooling pervasive. Although the cross-dressing film might appear to angelou, be an oddity, well over two-hundred films use some form of transvestism and results, the concomitant sex role reversal as a motif or as a key device of the narrative. The silent period is marked by a great deal of freedom and variety in alone maya angelou, the types of male and career, female cross-dressing, but from about 1935 to 1960, Hollywood self-censorship restricted female impersonation to farcical matrons of relatively low prestige. Women often gained in maya angelou analysis, status and freedom by imitating males, and we see a wide range of types, from Dietrich's sultry cabaret performances to Doris Day's buffoonish portrayal of Calamity Jane. With the last twenty years, the incidence of realism definition in literature, female impersonation has increased dramatically, and it is angelou marked by effects, a flourishing variety of types, many of which are powerful figures. Maya Analysis? Male impersonation, on the other hand, has diminished, and the vestigial imitation of definition, masculine clothing represents not so much a role reversal as it indicates a natural extension of the growing variety of roles availability to women in our society. The method for examining the films is to maya, analyze in some depth films that are representative of each decade, determining the extent to which the filmmakers and stars celebrate androgyny or, in realism in literature, contrast, the extent to which the film represents an attempt to alone maya, reconcile the male and female characters to standard sex roles.

The occurrence of the definition in literature transvestite or androgynous figure sounds a discordant note, regardless of the decade or the type of film in which it occurs. From the silent period to the present day, films that reverse our unwritten codes of dress and mannerisms are telling indicators of the popular culture's beliefs about male and maya, female identities. Publication No . 8128000. Bolin AE (1983). In search of negative, eve: transsexual rites of passage . PH.D. Thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder, DAI, Vol. 44-04A, p. 1139, 404 pages. Abstract by author: This study concerns 16 male transsexuals in the process of becoming women.

The research spanned two years using participant-observation as the primary method, supplemented by life histories, questionnaires, and masculinity-femininity indices. The research involved attendance at weekly meetings of the Berdache Society, a transsexual support group, and immersion in transsexuals' everyday lives. The transsexuals' metamorphosis was a patterned development that had the characteristics of a rite of alone angelou, passage. Their rite of passage was dramatized by important stages and events that punctuated their progress towards the sex change surgery. Gel Electrophoresis? The medical profession, transsexual intra-group interaction, stigma, and transsexuals' perceptions of women were the salient factors shaping their passage to womenhood. Transsexuals were followed as they separated themselves from their former male lives after finding the alone maya label transsexual, as they began a therapeutic relationship with their medical overseers, including female hormone therapy, as they prepared for and actually adopted the gel electrophoresis results female role, and as they were finally incorporated into society as women after the maya angelou analysis surgical conversion. The approach taken here did not assume that transsexuals began their rite of passage with fully crystallized feminine identities, but rather regarded these identities as gradually emerging in conjunction with changes in social identity and amatil, physical appearance. Several findings of this study refute commonly held notions about transsexuals.

Transsexuals were not shown to have family histories with dominant mothers and absent fathers, exclusive homosexual orientation, effeminate childhoods, nor did they view their penises as organs of hate and disgust. In addition, contrary to reports in the literature, transsexuals generally were not hyperfeminine in gender identity or role. These findings may contribute to the study of gender dysphoria and to a growing body of anthropological work on secular ritual and symbol in contemporary America. Publication No . 8317643. Bonfilio VP III (1980). Gender dysphoria: examining a typology . Alone? PH.D. Essay Poet's? Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, Berkeley/Alameda, DAI, Vol. 41-12B, p. 4652, 103 pages. Abstract by author: An ever-increasing number of angelou analysis, men are presenting themselves at mental health clinics and hospitals complaining of negative, feelings of discomfort with their gender and maya, requesting assistance in preparing for and obtaining hormonal, surgical and cola amatil, legal sex reassignment to the female gender.

However, there has only alone maya analysis, been one replicatable study to determine, first, if these men form an homogeneous group and, second, what is the relationship of career, this group to other groups of men who have cross-gender feelings and behaviors. Buhrich and McConaghy (1977a, 1977b, 1978, 1979) proposed a model for the study of alone, differences between the within transsexual and transvestite groups. The primary objective of this study is to test the generalizability of Buhrich and McConaghy's model to a diverse gender dysphoric population. The second objective of this study is to expand the utility of Buhrich and McConaghy's model by the measurement of personality characteristics of men who present with gender dysphoria complaints. Sixty-three participants were recruited from three sources in the San Francisco Bay Area, two community mental health centers which serve persons with gender conflicts and Essay on Dead Poet's, a private organization of transsexuals and transvestites. Alone Maya Angelou Analysis? Data were collected on Essay on Dead Poet's these men by two interviewers using three types of instruments, questionnaire, structured interview and the California Psychological Inventory. The areas of inquiry included demographic information, family history and alone angelou analysis, present living situation, experiences when growing up, feelings about body, history of cola limited, living as a woman, cross-dressing, hormones and sex reassignment, sex behavior, fetish, and dreams and fantasies. Based on the work of Buhrich and McConaghy (1977a, 1978), the 63 participants were placed in four groups: true transsexuals (N = 20), fetishistic transsexuals (N = 18), transvestites (N = 11) and residual (N = 11).

Three subjects were judged to be psychotic and alone, were eliminated from the study. The multivariate analysis of variance of the results CPI scales by alone maya angelou analysis, four groups simultaneously revealed significant differences between groups. Amatil Limited? However, the multivariate analysis of variance of the CPI by three groups, excluding the residual group, revealed no differences between groups. An inspection of the differences between four groups indicated that the residual group was significantly different from the other three groups in terms of mental health. Since the residual group was not central to the study, it was excluded from further analyses.

One-way analyses of variance were calculated on interval level variables from the alone maya analysis questionnaire and the structured interview. Chi-square analyses were calculated on nominal and ordinal level variables. Realism Definition? The analyses revealed differences between true transsexuals, fetishistic transsexuals and alone angelou analysis, transvestites on 51 variables. Differences were most often found in the conceptual areas of sex behavior, living as a women, fetishism, cross-dressing and coca, experiences when growing up. True transsexuals were found to rate highest on variables concerned with feminine and/or homosexual identity and behavior, followed in order by fetishistic transsexuals and transvestites. These findings are similar to the findings of Buhrich and McConaghy. In conclusion, this study supports Buhrich and McConaghy's findings of differences between gender dysphoric groups. This study should be replicated on maya analysis a larger sample in an effort to find personality differences between groups. Future research should compare Buhrich and McConaghy's model systematically with other models of gender dysphoria. Publication No . 8110171.

Bowman AR (1996). Acoustical and perceptual measurements of transsexual voice. M.S. Thesis, MGH Institute of Health Professions, MAI, vol. 35-01, p. Coca Limited? 238, 33 pages. Abstract by author: Utterances produced by three male-to-female transsexuals were acoustically analyzed for feminine voice characteristics, including mean fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, shifts in fundamental frequency and angelou analysis, breathiness. The utterances were also submitted to negative, perceptual evaluations. Alone Maya Angelou? Results for all the utterances produced by each speaker indicated variation in acoustical signal and no clear trend in gel electrophoresis, any one acoustical characteristic for production of feminine speech by transsexual speakers. Acoustical and perceptual analysis of individual utterances indicated that when all the vocal parameters were produced within the range for feminine speech, the speakers were perceived to be feminine. Publication No . 1381620.

Chang H-H (1990). Transvestite sub/versions: power, performance, and seduction in Shakespeare's comedies . PH.D. Thesis, The University of Michigan, DAI, Vol. Alone? 52-01A, p. 166, 208 pages. Abstract by author: This study is an attempt to explore the hogarth subject of female transvestism in Shakespeare's comedies under a feminist both/and politics of reading. The central discussion is situated among competing discourses on transvestism - the humanist one which emphasizes the discrepancy between the outer appearance and the inner essence; the modernist one which privileges the notion of a wardrobe of costume selves; the postmodernist one which exteriorizes gender as merely a corporeal stylization through costume, voice, gesture and body movement. Three theoretical frameworks - the maya materialist, the deconstructive, and the psychoanalytic - are adopted to map out respectively the ideological and theatrical sub/versions of the three individual plays - The Merchant of Venice, As You Like It, and hogarth rake's progress, Twelfth Night. The materialist approach highlights the political aspect of gender fashioning the The Merchant of Venice. It explores Portia's courtroom cross-dressing as the site of gender/race/class conflict: it challenges the gender/power asymmetry but reestablishes race and class hierarchies. The deconstructive approach offers a critique of the alone binary oppositions of masculinity/femininity, reality/appearance, signified/signifier, truth/fiction and origin/copy foregrounded by the theatrical practice of transvestism in As You Like It. It plays on gender indeterminacy and amplifies the dissonance of sex, gender and clothes created by the composite figure of Rosalind/Ganymede/boy-actor.

The psychoanalytic approach draws attention to the process of hogarth progress, sexual differentiation and the heterosexual discourse of desire in maya angelou, Twelfth Night. It demonstrates how sexual difference between men and women is finally achieved in the play by a repression of the results difference within men and women: Cesario, Viola's transvestite internal-double, is irrevocably replaced by Sebastian, Viola's biological external-double. Working together, these three theoretical frameworks help to alone angelou analysis, construct the plays as texts with multiple sites of struggle and negative, contestation, and make my reading of them more self-consciously polyvocal and de-centered. As an on-going negotiation among the Shakespearean canon, feminist politics and poststucturalism, this study thus reads Shakespeare with reference to theory and, equally, reads theory with reference to Shakespeare. Publication No . 9116144. Chauncey GA Jr (1989). Angelou? Gay New York: urban culture and the making of a gay male world, 1890-1940 . PH.D. Essay Poet's? Thesis, Yale University, DAI, Vol. 51-01A, p. 270, 416 pages. Abstract by author: This dissertation examines the construction of angelou, gay male identities and communities in New York City, 1890-1940.

It analyzes the representation of homosexuality in popular culture and progress, the street-level cultural dynamics that influenced the ways in which homosexually-active men were labelled, understood themselves, and interacted with others. Alone Maya? It focuses on the changing configuration of gender and sexuality in the construction of gay identities and in the boundaries drawn between normal and deviant men. By early in the century, the thesis argues, gay men had constructed a highly elaborated subculture, or a gay world, to use their own term, with its own institutions, argot, cultural norms and gel electrophoresis, traditions, and geographical enclaves. This study examines the alone analysis development of the commercial institutions-saloons, speakeasies and bars, bathhouses, cheap cafeterias and elegant restaurants-which sustained that world, the stratagems gay men developed to protect them, and effects, the role they played in alone angelou analysis, the process by which men identified themselves as gay. It argues that gay men developed extensive social networks on the basis of realism definition in literature, their sexual ties and shared experience of marginalization. They also created cultural institutions and rituals (such as regularly-held transvestite balls, some of which drew thousands of participants in the 1920s) that sustained and enhanced their communal ties and analysis, group identity, much as the ethnic theater and dances of immigrant groups did. And they forged a culture that provided them with the resources they needed to effects of homeschooling, negotiate their presence in a hostile world and to resist internalizing the negative attitudes about homosexuals pervasive in their society. Publication No . 9015238. Costopoulos J (1986). Homosexuality on the new York stage: its critical reception, 1926 to alone maya, 1968.

PH.D. Thesis, New York University, DAI, Vol. 47-09A, p. 3243, 525 pages. Abstract by author: Public reaction to results, homosexuality on maya angelou the New York professional stage from 1926 to 1968 included measures taken by officials, particularly through forms of legal and administrative censorship. Essay Poet's? The Captive (1926) and The Drag (1927), the first two plays centered on a homosexual theme, precipitated raids on Broadway, arrests, trials, and jailings. Mae West's transvestite Pleasure Man (1928) was also raided. Subsequent productions with a homosexual content, to avoid being closed, became ambiguous. Alone Maya Angelou Analysis? In the 1930s, Girls in realism definition in literature, Uniform and The Green Bay Tree escaped censorship action, but The Children's Hour, not equally covert in alone angelou analysis, its homosexual implications, was denied the Pulitzer Prize and its production blocked in Boston and coca cola amatil limited, London. When the License Commissioner shut down Trio in 1944, the theatre community's unified protest led to legislation restricting outside interference in the theatre. Drama critics exerted another kind of censorship by determining what was publicly acceptable, but their positions were often as ambivalent as the alone maya angelou analysis productions themselves. They blamed Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1955) with being evasive, but panned openly homosexual plays, such as The Immoralist (1955) and Compulsion (1957).

In the hillary late 1950s and 1960s, certain critics attacked homosexual playwrights, notably Tennessee Williams, William Inge, and Edward Albee, for the submerged homosexuality in their plays, and boycotted dramas, such as Fortune and Men's Eyes (1965), which unrestrainedly depicted it. By the alone angelou analysis early 1960s, homosexuality in American performance succeeded irrespective of reviews; British dramas containing homosexuality flourished on Broadway, and a homosexual theatre group, the Caffe Cino, inaugurated Off Off-Broadway. With the success of The Boys in the Band (1968), which paralleled the emerging gay liberation movement, homosexual theatre acquired a freedom that continues to the present. The dissertation relies heavily on newspaper and magazine articles in examining contemporary public and dramatic reaction. It studies text and production modes of significant plays to clinton's career, compare productions with critical response. Publication No . 8614497. Crawford KV (1984).

The transvestite heroine in Seventeenth-Century popular literature . PH.D. Thesis, Harvard University, DAI, Vol. 45-07A, p. 2109, 391 pages. Abstract by author: This is a study of a recurrent image in seventeenth-century popular English literature - that of the alone woman in masculine disguise. Chapter One traces an outline of the history of attitudes towards transvestism in the West, and links cross-dressing with various concepts of androgyny.

The Elizabethan literature on the subject of Amazons is referred to, and an eighteenth-century transvestite's autobiography is examined. This chapter concludes with a survey of nineteenth- and twentieth-century feminist explanations of female transvestism. Chapter Two provides some background information against which to read the material in subsequent chapters. The meaning of masculinity and political, femininity in seventeenth-century England is examined. I look at the role of women in the religious and political movements of the maya angelou analysis period, as well as discussing pamphlets, tracts and progress, poems written by women. Finally, this chapter discusses the controversy over fashions in clothing which were perceived as blurring the angelou analysis distinction between men and women. Chapter Three is concerned with the ballad, which I argue is both a medium by means of which the dominant ideology is expressed at the popular level, and a means of subversion. Chapter Four examines the transvestite heroine in Shakespeare's plays, whilst Chapter Five scrutinises the Society gender-disguised woman in non-Shakespearean drama. Alone Maya Analysis? I discuss this character under various headings, such as the negative satirist of male manners, the woman stripped of social protection, the self-sacrificing.

Chapter Six is a study of the extant writings about Mary Frith, the Roaring Girl. I refer to satires, plays and angelou, a biography. Publication No . 8419319. Devor HJ (1990). Political Career? A comparison of gender schema constructs and conformity among female-to-male transsexuals, lesbian and heterosexual women. PH.D.

Thesis, University of Washington, DAI, Vol. 51-06A, p. 2160, 367 pages. Abstract by author: The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and a version of the Sex-Rep Test were administered to 30 female-to-male transsexuals, 30 lesbian and 30 heterosexual women. Angelou Analysis? The BSRI measures conformity to dominant gender schema gender role constructs; the Sex-Rep Test measures conformity with personal gender schema gender role constructs. I hypothesized that female-to-male transsexual participants would perform on these tests similarly to men, that heterosexual participants would be the most traditionally feminine of the three groups, that lesbian participants would be the least gender role conforming, and that Sex-Rep Test results would show the hypothesized trends more strongly than would the BSRI. The data provided some support for these contentions.

BSRI Femininity scores for all three groups unexpectedly were not significantly different from one another and within the normative range for men. This may have been a result of realism definition in literature, a stronger than expected feminist bias among lesbian and heterosexual participants. BSRI Masculinity scores for heterosexual women were within published norms for females; transsexual and lesbian participants' Masculinity scores were within the normative range for males but lesbian participants' Masculinity scores were not significantly different from those of heterosexual or transsexual participants. Sex-Rep Test personal gender schema gender role constructs showed little overlap with those on the BSRI. Sex-Rep Test Femininity and Masculinity scores for transsexual and lesbian participants differed from BSRI scores in the expected direction. Heterosexual participants' scores did not differ significantly on either scale or test. Female-to-male transsexual participants tended to be categorized, as expected, into high Masculinity gender role categories. Heterosexual participants tended to be categorized, as expected, into alone maya analysis high Femininity gender role classifications. Lesbian participants were least consistent in their gender role categorizations, thus supporting their hypothesized position as least traditional of the three groups. In conclusion, I argued that variations in gender role categorizations among the three groups might be partially accounted for by variations in gel electrophoresis, the gendered sexual identities of the alone maya angelou three groups rather than simply by gender or sex.

I therefore suggested a model of the definition social construction of gendered sexuality. Publication No . 9025997. Donnell SE (1994). Clothes make the angelou man: transvestism or the re-dressing of masculine identity in spanish golden age and colonial theatre. PH.D. Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, DAI, Vol.

55-09A, p. 2854, 260 pages. Abstract by author: If we rethink our traditional readings of the comedia as a conformist genre, we discover that gender identity in Early Modern Spain and Colonial America was more fluid than previously thought. By employing feminist and gender theories, I expose the amatil categories of man and woman as performative gender identities, repetitions which have no essential nature. My chapters on Lope de Vega's peninsular work, El paraiso de Laura, and Sor Juana's colonial piece, Los empenos de una casa, pay special attention to alone angelou analysis, the power that the male cross-dresser derives from cultural anxiety over instability in gender and results, its alliance with the transgressive power of the gracioso (or 'comic figure'). I also discuss the classed dimensions to these gendered subversions as well as other intersecting identities, such as political identity and ethnicity. In my chapters on maya Monroy y Silva's peninsular comedia, El caballero dama, and Calderon de la Barca's libretto for clinton's political, the zarzuela, La purpura de la rosa, I turn to cross-dressing in mythological themes and their performance. My study of Monroy's version of the myth of the cross-dressed Achilles places emphasis on angelou both the betweenness of the cross-gendered subject, known as Aurora, and hogarth, the actress' performance of zig-zagging gender and class identities. The final chapter deals with Calderon's retelling of the love triangle between Mars, Venus, and alone maya angelou, Adonis. Here I look at the cross-gendered performance of masculinity in the context of female singers playing the roles of the mythological heroes, especially in colonial and negative effects, present-day revivals. In all four chapters, I focus on how cross-dressing leads to the possibility of same-sex desire which, in turn, undermines closure in alone angelou analysis, the comedia.

These transvestite comedias undermine both generic conventions of effects of homeschooling, form and alone maya, content as well as past interpretations of the cola limited comedia as a monolithic genre. The conventional attempt to maya angelou analysis, re-establish order through marriage becomes just another performative repetition in these cross-gendered plays. Publication No . 9503750. Ezdinl L (1988). George Sand's literary transvestism: pre-texts and context s. PH.D. Thesis, Princeton University, DAI, Vol. Definition? 49-02A, p. 264, 291 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation situates George Sand within the sociological context of analysis, women writing during the Romantic period in France. Most critical work to date presents Sand as the only talented woman in a male canon and concludes that she is the prototypical woman writer of the period. In contrast, I show that Sand's highly complex authorial self-representation can be properly interpreted only by relocating her literary career within the socio-historical context of Essay on Dead Society, women's writing in France. The French Romantic period was characterized by the rise of the novel, the growth of the publishing industry, and the commercialization of literature. The thesis demonstrates how intense sexual rivalry within the alone analysis literary marketplace led to gel electrophoresis, the concept of the femme auteur as a pejorative label invoked by male critics to discourage female literary ambition.

I explore the tensions that resulted from alone maya angelou analysis, such images for the women writing at the time, especially as they are reflected in hogarth progress, the prefatory practices of the period. I argue that the preface became an independent literary genre of great interest because it was associated with the construction of a marketable authorial persona. I then analyze the alone maya analysis strategies of women who used their prefaces to gel electrophoresis results, protect themselves from the threat of social and commercial marginalization. Finally, I position Sand in relation to other women writers of her period and develop the ways in which Sand's literary transvestism served as a self-empowering literary strategy created to differentiate her from all other writers, both female and male. It is not because of her male pseudonym that Sand stands apart from other women writers of this period, but rather because of her status as a literary transvestite: a writer publicly perceived as having a double gender identity. Maya Analysis? While other French women writers of this period disguised their sex behind male pseudonyms, Sand alone succeeded in transforming her masculine signature into an authorial persona that was recognized as female yet categorized as male. The act of constituting herself as a male subject in her prefatory discourse when readers knew that George Sand was actually female signalled her as a different kind of woman: one who possessed male prerogatives, addressed her (male) critics as an equal, and continually proclaimed her own difference. Publication No . 8804848.

Friedli LK (1987). Crossing gender boundaries in Eighteenth Century England. PH.D. Thesis, University of Essex, DAI, Vol. Negative Of Homeschooling? 49-11A, p. Alone Angelou? 3478, 471 pages. Abstract by definition, author: This thesis is alone maya concerned with processes of gender constitution, transgression and transformation during the Eighteenth Century, with specific reference to three figures: the maternal woman, the hermaphrodite and the transvestite. The significance of gel electrophoresis, these figures is discussed in relation to a series of debates regarding the meaning of sexual differences. Alone Analysis? Four sites are selected as examples of areas in which the term 'woman' gained new meanings: in relation to the law, the amatil limited family, employment and alone analysis, the institution. The importance of competing versions of sexual difference is then discussed from the perspective of an gel electrophoresis results enlightenment epistemology, medical discourse and religious debate.

Texts from an eighteenth-century 'feminist debate' are then considered in terms of the retheorisation of political subjectivity which provided a language for the articulation of alone angelou, 'female rights', and in terms of the specific concerns of negative effects of homeschooling, female apologists. The examples of women who dressed as men, definitions of effeminacy and mid-century debates regarding hermaphrodites are used to provide an account of the possibility, meaning and significance of gender transgression. Maya Angelou? In conclusion it is argued that during the Eighteenth Century, more precise definitions of gendered categories produced both normative versions of masculinity and femininity and the proliferation of gender deviants who became the focus of epistemological concern. Publication No . D-84396. Fryrear VL (1989). Transsexual students in the classroom: implications for teachers, counselors and effects of homeschooling, administrators . ED.D. Analysis? Thesis, Seattle University, DAI, Vol. 50-10B, p. Of Homeschooling? 4794, 167 pages.

Abstract by author: This study examines the early childhood experiences of the transsexual in the family setting which might have contributed to gender dysphoria. Also examined are classroom experiences, including attitudes and practices of teachers, that may have influenced the alone maya angelou transsexual identity. The Survey Instrument for Sample Population of Transsexuals and the Survey Instrument for the Sample Population of Parents of Transsexuals were developed to generate data about childrearing patterns inherent in the families of selected transsexual subjects and the classroom methods utilized by teachers of these transsexuals. These survey instruments were administered to twenty-five identified transsexuals and four parents of transsexuals in political, Seattle, Washington, and San Diego, California. Summary statistics and alone analysis, analyses were compiled to determine commonalities and/or relationships. The study found several commonalities among the childrearing experiences of the twenty-five transsexuals in the sample.

Eighty-four percent said loneliness is effects common for them. Parents of these transsexuals disapproved of alone maya, their children's sexual identities when the children were between the in literature ages of alone angelou analysis, six to ten years. These transsexuals were often ridiculed as being either sissies or tomboys. One hundred percent of the transsexuals interviewed related that they, as children, had often envied members of the opposite negative sex. Fathers were identified as the primary disciplinarian in the homes of these transsexuals, especially when the alone maya child had committed forbidden acts like dressing in clothes appropriate for the opposite sex. Ninety-two percent remember being closer to their mothers than to their fathers. While the majority of rake's, transsexuals in this study waited until adulthood to decide to change their anatomical sex, 84 percent remember feeling different from others of maya, their sex before the age of ten, and 60 percent knew before the age of five. Sixty percent stated that their fathers were physically or psychologically absent during most of the transsexuals' early childhood years.

Ninety-six percent of the transsexuals interviewed remember negative relationships with other students and some teachers. Poet's Society? Physical education classes were listed as the most traumatic. While many childhood and angelou, school-related problems were discussed, most participants perceive transsexualism as something that occurs before birth, not after. Publication No . 9007606. Gurvich SE (1991). The transsexual husband: the wife's experience . PH.D. Thesis, Texas Woman?s University, DAI, Vol. 52-08A, p. 3089, 159 pages. Abstract by author: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact upon a woman when her husband considers himself to be transsexual.

Specific areas examined included the on Dead woman's reaction to her husband's desire for sex reassignment, her coping mechanisms, and maya angelou analysis, her use of support systems. In-depth interviews using open ended questions were used to obtain individual perspectives from the coca amatil respondents. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and coded by the researcher and two other professionals for content themes. The final form of the data was organized according to angelou analysis, the research questions using quotations from the individual interviews to illustrate identified themes. Information concerning demographic data took on a supportive role to cola limited, the content analysis of the interview. The 10 women in this study were impacted in many aspects of their lives by the fact that their husbands were transsexual. The women were initially unaware of the significance of their husband's transsexual feelings, and their perceptions of their relationships changed drastically after disclosure.

These women appeared to consider their partner to be in alone angelou, charge of the hillary career relationship and experienced themselves as fairly powerless in the situation. Strong emotional and physical reactions were present in these women, including: feelings of abandonment and maya analysis, rejection; shock, horror, and negative effects, disbelief; anger and feelings of betrayal; depression and anxiety; feelings of helplessness and maya analysis, confusion; self blame; loss of self confidence and self esteem; weight changes; sleep difficulties; and stomach and digestive difficulties. The women felt that their husbands had unrealistic views of being female in clinton's political career, today's society. The women's sexual relationships with their partners were affected, as well as the women's feelings about their own femininity. Minimal support was available to help these women deal with their experience. The women were concerned that their partner's transsexualism would negatively impact their children. The women's expectations for alone, the future were drastically affected by their husband's transsexualism, and these expectations were overlaid with fear of future relationships.

Publication No . 9203121. Hausman BL (1992). On Dead Poet's? Demanding subjectivity and producing gender: transsexualism, semiotics, and the technologies of medicine . PH.D. Thesis, The University of maya angelou, Iowa, DAI, Vol. 54-02B, p. 1139, 350 pages. Abstract by author: This dissertation is an examination of the gel electrophoresis results emergence of modern transsexualism and maya, the production of the concept of gender in the twentieth century. The definition of transsexualism - a gender identity disorder that manifests itself in the desire to change sex - relies on management protocols developed in the 1950s for the treatment of hogarth rake's progress, intersexual patients. In this context, the term gender was used to describe a subject's psychological orientation toward his/her physiological sex and its cultural meanings. The production of the idea of gender to alone, describe the social articulation of sex effected a semiotic reversal such that gender became the conceptual ground for sex.

Clinicians' and critics' reliance on the idea of gender as a cause for transsexualism has limited both clinical management of transsexual subjects and critical assessments of the cultural significance of the of homeschooling transsexual phenomenon. In addition, gender is a problematic category for angelou, feminism, since it is based in a theoretically untenable distinction between the natural body and hillary political career, its cultural identity. The theoretical analysis is derived from Barthes' work on mythology and Baudrillard's on simulated hyper-reality. Gender has transformed the alone semiotics of sex into a mythology that operates on the order of simulation. This transformation occurred as developments in the technologies of medicine made it possible to alter physiological signifiers of sex. Effects Of Homeschooling? That is, the human body can be made to simulate the other sex. The development of the maya idea of gender as the psychological core of sex is one result of these developments in technology that, while enabling intersexual subjects to have a sex at all, ultimately discredited physiology as a reliable signifier of sex identity.

Gender effects a compulsive deconstruction of the idea of sexual difference. This is enacted literally by transsexuals, who demand the coca cola amatil excision of their sexual organs and the manufacture of new ones to alone, reflect their felt sense of core gender identity. Transsexuals act as the agents of Essay Society, gender in the semiotic deconstruction of the body as signifier of sex. Feminists must resist the mythology of gender by reinvigorating theories of sex that avoid the maya angelou nature/culture opposition between sex and gender. Publication No . 9318441. Hefner CJ (1994). Ludruk folk theatre of east Java: toward a theory of symbolic action.

PH.D. Poet's Society? Thesis, University of Hawaii, DAI, Vol. 55-10A, p. Alone? 3225, 346 pages. Abstract by author: In this study I treat ludruk folk theatre of East Java, Indonesia as a dynamic, aesthetic performing arts genre that effectively works to evoke fundamental notions constitutive of the world view of the coca cola limited participants. Performances are considered as expressive cultural events which amplify and heighten issues of social importance drawn from everyday life. I explore how ludruk performances establish an important social and political forum, negotiating issues of control, power, authority, and local identity. Ludruk is meaningful in the lives of the participants because it appropriates local meanings, and offers methods to deal with sources of alone angelou analysis, conflict and tension in their society.

Important to understanding context, I present an rake's progress overview of the history and development of ludruk, explore the East Javanese social matrix, and discuss the form and structure of the ludruk performance. Performance is then considered as a cultural method of positing, legislating and alone maya angelou analysis, channeling subjects of importance. Actors in ludruk align themselves with a larger, more encompassing social identity through the aesthetic use of sung poetry, dance, songs, music, and melodramatic folk stories. Hypothetical constructs onstage allow the conceptual space for moral imagination enabling the participants to ponder alternatives for social action. Through symbolic action in the performance, situations can be mocked, tested, discussed, and realized in coca amatil limited, a fashion not available through any other means. Two important characters, the transvestite and the clown, seek to reckon incongruities between social and angelou, political ideals and everyday lived experience. The transvestite negotiates issues of gender, status and morals, while the privileged expressions of the clowns offer an incisive critical function. Through their use of cleverly constructed humor, sarcasm, and parody, the clowns in ludruk offer not only liberating cathartic relief, but also powerful social criticism.

Meanings emerge in the negotiated process of cultural interpretation and arbitration. A semiotic approach deepens our understandings of how performances enrich society, by hogarth progress, moving analysis beyond a referential focus as the primary locus of meaning. Reading the alone maya analysis performance reflexively adds a resonating echo to hillary political career, the importance of social action portrayed on the ludruk stage. Publication No . Alone Maya Analysis? 9506209. Hogan-Finlay MT (1995). Development of the cross-gender lifestyle and comparison of cross-gendered men with heterosexual controls . PH.D. Thesis, Carleton University, DAI, Vol. 57-06B, p. Gel Electrophoresis? 4075, 00225 pages, ISBN: 0-612-08844-8. Abstract by author: This study had two main goals. The first goal was to test the hypothesis that a cross-gendered lifestyle progresses in a developmental and invariant order. The second was to compare non-clinical cross-gendered men (N = 101) and heterosexual controls (N = 101) with respect to demographics, childhood experiences, psychological functioning and gender issues.

The Cross-gender lifestyle encompassed different phases that progressed with age, in an invariant order for maya analysis, (84%) of the men in this study. Essay On Dead Poet's? This lifestyle occurred during two main age periods: adolescence through early twenties where private cross-gender activities predominate (fantasies, cross-dressing, fetishism), and the mid-thirties through early forties when a public cross-gender lifestyle occurs; some pass in public and use a femme name, while others take hormones, live more as a woman and alone, may have sex-reassignment. Cross-gendered men were classified into three groups, Transsexuals, Group 1 (n = 27) identified most a woman, were most gender disturbed and psychologically distressed, and took steps to live permanently as a woman. Transvestites in Group 2 (n = 51) identified with both male and female roles, were moderately gender disturbed, highly fetishistic, and were satisfied to enjoy the cross-gender lifestyle on a temporary basis. Transvestites in Group 3 (n = 13) were similar to on Dead Poet's Society, Group 2, without demonstrating physiological fantasies (breast, pregnancy, menstruating) of being a woman. The Cross-Gender Lifestyle Inventory developed for this research is proposed as a possible instrument to identify phases of the angelou analysis cross-gender development. Typically, transvestites and heterosexual controls were similar on hogarth rake's progress demographics. Groups were discriminated only on having been dressed as a girl, gender identity, gender disturbance, fetishism, and, psychological distress: Transsexuals reported having been dressed as a girl during childhood more frequently than the alone analysis two transvestite groups, controls were hardly ever dressed as a girl; Transsexuals were more highly distressed compared with transvestites and controls who scored within the normal range; Transsexuals identified more as females, were more gender disturbed compared to the tranvestites groups or controls. There is no support for transvestism being considered a psychiatric category. Publication No . NN08844. Hotchkiss VR (1990).

Clothes make the gel electrophoresis man: female transvestism in alone angelou, the Middle Ages. PH.D. Thesis, Yale University, DAI, Vol. 51-07A, p. 2375, 250 pages. Abstract by author: In numerous and diverse medieval texts women use gender disguise to participate in such male activities as monastic life, ecclesiastical governance, travel, business, rescue missions, and warfare. A hitherto overlooked topic, female cross-dressing is so widespread in medieval literature and, to a lesser extent, history that feminine stereotypes, women's roles in literature, and in literature, the perception of women in maya angelou analysis, the Middle Ages must be reexamined in light of this phenomenon. As alternative models for female heroism, disguised women combine traditional feminine virtues with male qualities such as adventuresomeness, strength, and definition in literature, perseverance. Paradoxically, however, the empowering force of male disguise reveals the limitations imposed upon women in medieval society since their success is analysis contingent upon suppression of female identity. Moreover, emphasis on the femininity of women in disguise often betrays biases against women; according to many sources women are exemplary precisely because they strive to be like men.

This study of medieval cross-dressing covers the following topics: the symbolism underlying the popular vitae of transvestite saints; the confluence of hagiography and biography in definition in literature, the historical case of Hildegund von Schonau; the legend of the female pope and its diverse interpretations before and during the maya Reformation; the phenomenon of rake's progress, disguise in secular literature, particularly tales of wives and lovers who use disguise to rescue men or regain their affections; and, finally, extraordinary cases of female protagonists in courtly romance who experience a crisis of sexual identity. Alone Maya Angelou? In these discussion, literary analysis is in literature combined with sociological and historical approached to explore the wide range of meanings and manifestations of alone angelou, transvestism in the Middle Ages. Publication No . 9034212. Humphrey GW (1989). Cross-dressing in males: the attempt to retain the realism comforting object . PH.D. Thesis, California School of maya angelou, Professional Psychology, San Diego, DAI, Vol. 50-11B, p. 5318, 186 pages. Abstract by author: The present study investigated an alternative understanding of cross-dressing in definition in literature, males. Transvestism has traditionally been viewed as an maya analysis oedipal problem, viz., anxieties associated with fear of bodily injury (castration anxiety) yield a compromised sexuality where erotic stimulation is safely achieved through a representation of the object (female clothing). Transsexualism has been seen as consequent upon an overly close symbiosis with mother resulting in problems of gender identity. Taking an object relations respective, the gel electrophoresis present research conceptualizes both transvestism and alone, transsexualism as related, preoedipal phenomena.

Use of female clothing is discussed in this context as a transitional object, i.e., assisting the cross-dressed individual to political career, evoke a sense of soothing. Seventy-one birth-biological, adult, males were able to maya angelou, be assigned to a control, transvestite, pre-operative transsexual, or post-operative transsexual group based on DSM III-R criteria. Individuals completed a demographic questionnaire, an instrument developed by the researcher to assess stimulation versus calming function of female clothing, the political career Hansburg Separation Anxiety Test (SAT), and the Bell Object Relations Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI). A discriminant analysis was employed to derive variables which would best differentiate these groups. Results suggest both transvestites and transsexuals may use female clothing as a transitional object to dissipate anxiety, lift depression, and generally enhance feelings of calm and soothing. Alone Angelou? High scores on a clothing-to-soothe variable by post-op transsexuals (in the same range as transvestites), suggests an underlying sense of insecurity has not been assuaged by results, SRS. Lower scores of pre-op transsexuals on this calming variable are interpreted as failure of the transitional object resulting in a merger fantasy (SRS) seen as the antidote to alone angelou, insecurity. Definition In Literature? Scores on anxious attachment (SAT) also discriminated groups, with both transsexual groups scoring highest. Anxiety around attachment issues is angelou interpreted as suggesting a borderline level of ego organization in the three cross-dressing groups. Findings suggest that transvestism be removed from the DSM III-R paraphilia classification.

Further, there is some support for seeing transvestism and transsexualism as progressions along a continuum within the borderline personality spectrum. Lastly, further support is offered to the growing evidence that SRS may served as a momentary palliative, but does not resolve the transsexuals elusive search for Essay on Dead Society, security. Publication No . 9009611. Jafari M (1997). A descriptive study of male to alone maya angelou, female transsexualism: the prevalence and use of Essay Poet's Society, dissociative experiences . PH.D., California School of Professional Psychology, DAI, Vol. 58-05B, p. 2736, 109 pages. Abstract by author: The transsexuals' account of alienation and detachment from their biological gender, in maya analysis, particular from their genitals, is analogous to reports of individuals with depersonalization experiences. Hillary Clinton's Political? Depersonalization is a subcategory of the defense of dissociation. In this study the maya angelou analysis prevalence of gel electrophoresis results, dissociative experiences of Male to Female transsexuals was evaluated and compared to the prevalence of dissociative experiences in angelou analysis, a control group of realism definition in literature, males and females.

The study group consisted of twenty-seven male to female transsexuals. The control group consisted of twenty-seven males and twenty-seven females, matched to the study group in respect to age and education. The participants' ages ranged from twenty-one to sixty-five. The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and the Questionnaire for Experiences of dissociation (QED) were used to assess dissociative experiences. A statistically significant difference was identified comparing the mean DES score of the group of MF-transsexuals with the entire control group, consisting of twenty-seven males and twenty-seven females (T = 2.5; P = 0.2). Forty-one percent of the transsexual participants compared to seventeen percent of the alone maya angelou control group scored at or above the cutoff score of fifteen on the DES. Clinton's Political? This difference was statistically significant (p =.02). Twenty-two percent of the transsexual participants scored above twenty on the DES. A statistically significant difference was identified comparing the alone maya analysis mean QED score of the MF-transsexuals with the effects Mean QED score of the alone analysis entire control group (T = 2.5; P =.01).

Of the twenty-seven Male to Female transsexual participants, seventeen reported having experienced abuse including physical and/or sexual abuse. Ten participants did not report any abuse. The mean DES scores of the two groups of transsexuals (abused and amatil, not abused) were compared. The transsexual participants reporting abuse had a significantly higher mean DES score in comparison to transsexual participants who did not report childhood abuse (T = 2.6; p .01). In addition to this data, information on family history and personal meanings of femininity and masculinity are presented in maya analysis, a qualitative data analysis and realism definition, the etiology of transsexualism is reconsidered.

Further research is suggested to evaluate the occurrence of dissociation in transsexualism and, in general, in the etiology of gender disorders. Publication No . 9734269. Johnson Sl (1987). The relationship of the typological features of male transsexualism to psycho/social adjustment and disturbance . PH.D. Thesis, University of Washington, DAI, Vol. Alone Maya Angelou Analysis? 48-03A, p. 604, 121 pages. Abstract by author: Cumulative research on the psychological well-being of male transsexuals has concluded that mental health in this population varies along the effects of homeschooling entire spectrum of adjustment. Alone Maya Angelou? As the debate on whether or not these variations are accounted for by some pathogenic mechanism within transsexualism has proven unproductive, another approach seeking to isolate the variables that moderate psychological adjustment has been undertaken. To date only one variable, gender reorientation, an indicator of gender adjustment, has been isolated.

In a search to uncover additional variables, this study examined features which have been empirically linked to characteristics of cola amatil, male transsexual typology. Data from 25 male transsexual volunteers was examined by means of multiple regression analysis to determine whether symptoms of introversion, depression or tension, as well as, adjustment to work and alone maya analysis, gender reorientation could be linked to the typological variables of gel electrophoresis results, Androphilia, Gynephilia, Cross-gender Fetishism, Feminine Gender Identity in Childhood and Age of Onset of maya angelou, transsexualism. Results indicate there is a significant relationship between social Gender Reorientation and the feature of Androphilia and between Work Adjustment and Gynephilia. This differential adaptation is explained in coca cola limited, terms of the different course that transsexualism takes within each typological subgroup. These findings offer evidence as to why some transsexuals may more readily adopt a female gender identity than others, and further validates the view that the sub-category of homosexuality-heterosexuality accounts for the greatest percentage of interindividual variation in the transsexual population. Alone Maya Angelou? There was no relationship found between the typological features and those variables measuring psychological disturbance. The results are tempered by the limitations of sample size and sampling distribution.

It is suggested that further research include other variables in cola amatil limited, addition to maya analysis, those relating to typology. Publication No . 8713376. Latimer RM (1987). Genderplex: the tradition of the transsexual character in western literature . M.A. Hillary Career? Thesis, MAI, Vol. 26-02, p. Angelou Analysis? 187, 100 pages.

Abstract by author: The transsexual character, who appears in Classical literature as a warrior, lover, or seer, possesses firm traditions upon which Modernist writers like Joyce, Eliot, Woolf, and cola, Djuna Barnes capitalize in their own works. Modernist idiom portrays the transsexual as more of a consciousness than a character, a fact arguing that the Modernist transsexual, like its forebears in Classical literature and in fairy tale, legend, and fantasy, succumbs to the representational norms of the era in which it appears. Maya? The Ovidian link of Tiresias and Narcissus, revived in Modernism, as well as other evidence suggests that the literary transsexual subsumes other sexual categories such as homosexuality, bisexuality, hermaphrodism, androgyny and narcissism. The Modernists use the general transsexual figure and hillary clinton's, the revived Tiresias and Narcissus link to stand as a metaphor for alone maya angelou analysis, the philosophical and gel electrophoresis, aesthetic dilemmas subsequent to an empirical worldview. Angelou? They also use the transsexual to challenge the patriarchal worldview. Publication No . 1331689. Li SL (1995). Hogarth Rake's? Gender, cross-dressing and analysis, Chinese theatre. PH.D. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, DAI, Vol. 56-08A, p. 3131, 229 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation employs an interdisciplinary approach to address the various configurations of the theatrical tradition of cross-dressing in classical Chinese drama as well as in today's regional operas, placing them in a larger cultural and theoretical context of gender studies. Drawing on cultural theory and viewing the various dramatic and performance texts as signs of Essay on Dead Society, historical processes, this study investigates gender construction and gender politics in Chinese theatre in terms of the highly mediated representations of women, gender, eroticism, and cross-dressing presented in a variety of discourses from the Yuan period to the present time. Focusing on alone angelou analysis cross-dressing as a destabilizing force, it addresses issues of the male/female transvestite theatre and modes of erotic desire, the participation of on Dead Poet's Society, female players in the cultural (re)production and subversion of gender differences in various historical moments, the figure of the woman warrior and the complexities of gender politics in representing female resistance and maya angelou analysis, containment in relation to the contemporary sociopolitical context, the instability of gender representation in textual and visual media, and the generation of the unsettling notion of gender as performance in of homeschooling, traditional Chinese theatrical discourse. The prevalent cross-dressing practice on stage combined with an obsession with prettiness and artistry in traditional theatre criticism and aesthetics have engendered the subversive feminine, rendering Chinese theatre an unstable site of ideological contestation embodying a simultaneous perpetuation and alone maya angelou analysis, dismantling of bipolar gender notions and sociopolitical hierarchies. This dissertation also attempts to show that critical reflections on traditional culture can be made to speak to the concerns of today's ideological resistance to rake's, political hegemony and cultural dominants, by way of the angelou unveiling of polyvalent meanings of gendering and gendered differences that are constructed, reproduced, dismantled, and contested in that particular site of Chinese culture, i.e., the negative effects theatre. Publication No . AAI9541126. Miller JE (1993). Service and subjectivity: the maya angelou cross-dressed woman in early modern english drama.

PH.D. Thesis, The University of Utah, DAI, Vol. 54-11A, p. 4104, 230 pages. Abstract by author: This dissertation begins with the notion that identity is a discursive formation, that we are produced by and limited to gel electrophoresis results, the kinds of angelou, things that are said or can be said about ourselves at any historical moment. Stories about definition in literature, cross-dressed women in early modern literature seem to represent an awareness of the constructed nature of gender and identity, and even some anxiety about the ability of social forces to define a person in alone maya analysis, any stable or natural way. In plays that represent the cross-dressed woman working in some way (the familiar girl-p., for instance), we can better understand the drama's contributions to society if we consider work or service as one of the major social forces that creates subjectivity, gives a sense of identity, and helps to define gender. Although cross-dressing is often looked at effects of homeschooling, as a recurring phenomenon in a survey of the Renaissance literary scene, this is a more narrowly focused reading of three English plays with transvestite hero/ines representing a range of class status and dramatic technique. By placing the issue of cross-dressing within the historical context of analysis, women's work in gel electrophoresis results, the Renaissance, we can see it as more than a psycho-sexual phenomenon, but as a way of affecting a woman's value in society. Social historians suggest that the growing separation of alone angelou analysis, private households and public workspaces contributed to definition, the oppression of early modern women. The cross-dressed hero/ines in Shakespeare's Cymbeline, Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster, and Middleton and Dekker's The Roaring Girl challenge public/private and masculine/feminine dichotomies, and perhaps even binary thinking itself, as they take active serving roles and make themselves necessary to alone maya, their communities.

If work is a social force that helps to shape us as subjects, it is important to consider cross-dressing as, at least in part, a strategy by which women avoided passivity and commodification, whether as ornamental wives or as overworked, underpaid drudges. These plays suggest that cross-dressing can be read as an implicating gesture that subjects a woman to service while allowing her to assert a kind of subjectivity usually reserved for men who serve their society. Publication No . 9410300. Mumper AD (1989). Latent male gender dysphoria as measured by the GD scale of the MMPI: a prediction and Essay on Dead, construct validation study . Maya Analysis? PH.D. Thesis, The University of Akron, DAI, Vol. 50-01B, p. 349, 265 pages. Abstract by author: Research focused on a criterion group of men who did not present to therapy with gender dysphoric complaints, yet were identified by the Gd scale of the MMPI as potentially having gender dysphoria.

The purpose of the study was to negative, (a) offer diagnostic confirmation of this potentially gender dysphoric group and Gd scale construct validation, (b) improve diagnostic confidence of gender dysphoria as a latent entity, (c) improve understanding of the Gd scale and gender dysphoria multidimensionality, and (d) explore nonbiological gender dysphoria dimensions. The study investigated five problems: (a) factor structure underlying the Gd scale, (b) validity of the Gd scale in applied nongender clinic settings, (c) the existence of latent gender dysphoria, (d) differences between high MMPI Scale 5 significant vs. Alone? nonsignificant Gd scale groups, and (e) generation of discriminant prediction equations to classify gender/nongender dysphoria groups. The design was ex post facto. Scales of the MMPI, MCMI, and Gd scale were employed and included a gender dysphoria variable predictor set (P1). Coca Cola? This set was used in confirmatory, cross-validation, and alone maya analysis, discriminant procedures. Results revealed that (a) confirmatory evidence of gender dysphoric traits existed in individuals who had high Gd scale scores but who had not presented to treatment with gender dysphoria complaints; (b) the criterion group was confirmed as having gender dysphoric traits, therefore, the Gd scale withstood a test of construct validation; (c) P1 showed diagnostic prediction potential (rsp2 =.4756, p =.01); (d) three discrete factors underlie the Gd scale; (e) evidence of a subtype of latent gender dysphoria was found; and (f) a discriminant prediction equation classified subjects at an 80% level, accounted for 40% of the definition in literature variance, and remained stable in cross-validation with less than 10% shrinkage. Results suggested that a subtype of alone analysis, gender dysphoric men may exist that do not have transsexual anatomic rejection and may not want to be biologically different, but may want the effects feelings, interests, and activities of a female in a nonbiological sense due to discomfort and a sense of inappropriateness about one's assigned sex. Alone Maya Angelou? The Gd scale, in this initial investigation, appears to have diagnostic value in men who do not present with gender dysphoric complaints. As a first study, many research recommendations were made. Publication No . Hogarth Rake's Progress? 8907758.

Piedmont O (1996). The veils of arjuna: androgyny in gay spirituality, east and west. PH.D. Thesis, California Institute of maya analysis, Integral Studies, DAI, Vol. 57-06B, p. 4076, 401 pages. Abstract by author: The thesis is a hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry into the meaning of gay spirituality in the U.S and India utilizing the symbol of the androgyne as a tool for investigation. Themes of gender transcendence, transformation, healing, psychic equilibrium, and embodied spirituality emerge in a cross-cultural analysis of religious symbols and myths of androgyny between Indian Hinduism and American gay culture. A perspective of archetypal and sociological meanings is presented, including an understanding of gayness as a developmental force leading gay men through stages of individuation.

The author labels these stages as unconscious androgyny, homosexual identified, gay identified, and conscious androgyny. Part I deals with Western themes of androgyny related to sex positive, embodied consciousness, drawing from the Native American berdache tradition of third-gender transvestite men and women. The coming-out process is seen as a major developmental task for gay men that must be incorporated into hogarth rake's progress one's identity before higher levels of alone maya angelou analysis, spiritual growth can occur. The spiritual significance of drag and community space is analyzed. Synthetic models of gay development are presented incorporating both essentialist and constructivist arguments. Part II presents Eastern themes of androgyny connected to homosexuality as found in Hindu literature and gel electrophoresis results, rituals in India. References to classical Hindu literature, including the Kama Sutra, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, reveal a historically positive attitude toward homosexuality and gender diversity. Description is alone angelou given to a mythology of androgynous gods, including Ardhanarisvara, Siva-Sakti, Harihara, and Visnu/Mohini, relevant to the gay psyche. Specific reference to Skanda as the god of homosexuals is given.

Eunuchs are analyzed as third-gender people inclusive of homosexuality and manifesting in literary, religious and definition in literature, sexual transvestism. Contemporary attitudes in India toward homosexuality reflect an emerging ambivalence characterized by alone maya angelou analysis, both homophobia and open displays of same-sex eroticism. Particular attention is paid to the institution of same-sex friendships, yaari, and its high value of meaning for Indian men. The study ends with a synthesis of Eastern and Western perspectives into an energy (chakra) system incorporating images and negative effects of homeschooling, symbols of relevance to gay ontology and spiritual development. Publication No . Alone Maya? 9633907. Prosser JD (1996). Transitional matters: the body narratives of transsexual autobiography . Negative Effects? PH.D. Alone Angelou? Thesis, City University of New York, DAI, Vol. Hillary Clinton's Political Career? 57-10A, p. 4372, 00429 pages. Abstract by author: Centering on the relations between transsexual bodies and autobiographical narratives, this dissertation argues that transsexual subjectivity depends on self-narration.

I network between published autobiographies, medical case histories and contemporary theories of gender and representation to consider how transsexuality has been shaped as an identity through autobiographical acts. Maya Angelou? The somatic and social transitions of transsexuality are entangled with narrative transitions. Drawing on cola amatil limited feminist, gender and queer theory, this project also considers what transsexual trajectories can contribute to their current debates about sex, gender, the body, narrative and construction. Publication No . 9707144. Schjelderup N (1994). Alone Angelou Analysis? Oral histories of black gay men and a black transgender person in the San Francisco bay area. M.A. Thesis, San Jose State University, MAI, Vol. 33-01, p. Political Career? 66, 114 pages. Abstract by author: This thesis addresses the topic of the lives of black gay men and maya angelou analysis, transgender people, using the disciplines of anthropology and gel electrophoresis, sociology.

A literature review revealed that very limited information was available on this population. Twenty-five interviews were conducted with 13 people, using the oral history approach. The goal for alone angelou analysis, this study has been to collect information about what the thirteen people interviewed see as important in their lives, and to contribute to a better understanding of a group of people little research has been devoted to in the past. Some of the topics addressed are: family relations, racism in cola amatil, the gay community, homophobia in the black community, choice of partners, relationships with women, and the process of defining a gay or transgender identity. This thesis identifies some of the issues associated with being black and alone analysis, gay or transgender in regards to these topics. Publication No . 1358226.

Smith ME (1996). Cross-dressing in men: the relationship of the male gender dysphoria descriptive dimensions to psychosocial development . Realism? PH.D. Alone Angelou? Thesis, Indiana University, DAI, Vol. 57-12B, p. 7744, 210 pages. Abstract by progress, author: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between descriptive dimensions of the male gender dysphoria typology and resolution of conflicts in psychosocial development. For many years, psychoanalytic and core feminine identity theories dominated diagnostic and treatment approaches to maya analysis, male cross-dressing and contributed to a faulty dichotomy in the literature: sexual motivation (i.e., transvestism) versus gender motivation (i.e., transsexualism) for cross-dressing. Typology studies have attempted to broaden our understanding of the variations of cross-dressing through empirical identification of salient, descriptive dimensions. Another body of literature has investigated the negative psychosocial adjustment of cross-dressers and often gives a mixed picture. The present study hypothesized that three descriptive dimensions-cross-gender fetishism, autogynephilia, and adult gender dysphoria- would contribute to problems in resolving developmental conflicts because those dimensions represent, respectively, interpersonal inhibition, self-absorption, and years of alone maya analysis, identity confusion. Sixty-two adult males were volunteer participants in this study.

All acknowledged cross-dressing and experiences of feeling like a woman. The participants completed two questionnaires: the Measures of Psychosocial Development and a questionnaire that included scales used in previous studies to political career, measure descriptive dimensions and socially desirable response tendencies, as well as items developed for maya, this study to assess additional descriptive dimensions, demographic information, and anecdotal information. Significant findings indicated that cross-dressers' self-identification in a transsexual direction, socializing in a female role, and satisfaction with counseling were associated with resolution of Society, conflicts in psychosocial development. Results did not support the hypotheses for the three descriptive dimensions. This may have been because the majority of participants in the study were well-educated, tended to present themselves in socially favorable ways, and had been in contact with a counselor. An exploratory factor analysis revealed one apparently stable factor having to do with feminine gender identity and a less useful factor having to do with sexual arousal. Discussion focused on the importance of the social aspects of cross-gender presentations and cross-dressers' apparent lack of awareness of or need to alone maya angelou analysis, mask sexual issues. Publication No . 9716501. Rubin HS (1996).

Transformations: emerging female to rake's, male transsexual identities. PH.D. Thesis, Brandeis University, DAI, Vol. 57-04A, p. 1865, 268 pages. Abstract by author: Female-to-male transsexualism is a relatively new category of identity, though individuals have existed throughout history who have felt the way female-to-male transsexuals (FTMs) have felt. Men who start their lives in female bodies, at this historical juncture, identify as transsexuals and alone maya angelou analysis, many use surgical and in literature, hormonal medical technologies to become the men that they feel they really were all along. A significant portion of maya analysis, FTMs have had lesbian careers; they had once assumed and then discarded a lesbian identity. Essay Society? Yet, FTMs demonstrate a strong resistance to being identified as or with lesbians. They are not lesbian because they are not women. Though they have female bodies, they are male-identified.

These social facts plus a larger cultural context which confuses lesbian women and FTM transsexuals is explained by an historical analysis of the early 1970s; a critical epoch in the reformulation of alone angelou, modern categories of sex, gender and sexuality. The 1970s saw a proliferation of categories of female-bodied deviance. Where once there had been gender inverts, modern America now has lesbians, cross-dressers and transsexuals. A revolutionary collaboration between feminism and lesbianism criticized and eventually erased the gendered identities which had previously structured old gay life (prior to effects, 1970). The lesbian-feminist revolution required lesbians to identify with and as women.

The new identity category, transsexual emerged as an alternate place for female-bodied gender inverts. Interviews with FTMs provide a phenomenology of FTM transsexualism to complement the history of angelou analysis, these categories. Hogarth Rake's Progress? FTMs need to maya analysis, make sense of their lesbian careers, but most refuse an historical explanation. Results? Instead, FTMs experience a deep, internal sense of difference from others with female bodies. They do identity work in order to organize this experience of difference into an identity and provide rationales for their transition from female to male.

FTMs locate their differences from lesbians deep within their flesh. Maya Angelou? Their essentialist rhetoric is on Dead Poet's analyzed for the function it performs in justifying their extraordinary life projects. Publication No . 9626008. Steinmeyer SM (1986). Transsexuals in transition: the impact of alone angelou analysis, a pre-surgical treatment program upon psychological adjustment and self-esteem . PH.D. On Dead Poet's? Thesis, United States International University, DAI, Vol.

47-05B, p. 2216, 147 pages. Abstract by author: The Problem. Maya Angelou? The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of homeschooling impact of a pre-surgical management program for transsexual clients upon the self-esteem and psychological adjustment of its participants. Methods. The study was a non-experimental post-hoc design. Two self-administered inventories, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, were presented to 28 transsexual clients at the onset and at the conclusion of their participation in a pre-surgical treatment program which included endocrine treatment, cross-dressing and membership in an educational/support group under the supervision of a clinical psychologist. Alone Maya Analysis? For one-third of the participants additional data were available in the form of post-surgical repetitions of these measures. To supplement the hillary political career psychometric information, survey questionnaires were distributed among past and current group members to alone analysis, solicit their experiential accounts of the program and thus to hogarth progress, add a more subjective point of view. Results. The t-test analyses of pre- and post-program measures revealed that many self-esteem variables were significantly improved in male-to-female subjects.

These gains appeared to alone, hold for realism, post-surgical subjects. Female-to-male subjects experienced a decline in self-esteem, particularly with reference to family relationships. For subjects of both genders significant positive changes in psychological adjustment occurred, the pattern of these changes appearing to be consistent with sex-role behavior of the adopted gender. A review of two-point profile codes revealed that the configurations were most frequently characterological in nature, and that a sense of non-conformity and independence was the characteristic most resistant to change over time. Correlational analyses of self-esteem and personality measures suggested that the adoption of gender-congruent behavior was not related to enhanced self-esteem. Survey responses emphasized the value of the program as a source of information and mutual support. However, these subjects indicated that they continued to have difficulty in maya angelou analysis, establishing close or intimate interpersonal relationships. Publication No . 8617921. Theron A (1979). Identification of male-to-female transsexuals and adjustment before and after sex reassignment.

D.LITT., University of South Africa, DAI, Vol. 41-04B, p. Poet's? 1530, pages. Abstract by author: Ever since the sensational publication of Christine Jorgensen's sex reassignment operation in 1953 medical doctors are faced increasingly with requests by alone, transsexuals for such operations. Hillary Career? The result of this is that the number of sex reassignment operations increases every year. Despite this increase it appears that, compared to other psychopathological disorders, transsexualism is the field that receives least attention from researchers. This state of affairs has resulted in a situation where those who have to evaluate transsexuals for sex reassignment often have to rely on their own subjective judgement instead of scientifically based criteria. The problem of evaluation is further complicated by alone maya angelou analysis, the fact that some homosexuals and transvestites also apply for on Dead, sex reassignment. Because they are regarded as poor candidates for sex reassignment it is essential that they should be identified as such during the maya angelou analysis evaluation. Although criteria exist for the identification of pseudo-transsexuals, practical experience has shown that it is often difficult to apply these criteria because the evaluator is dependent on the information which the Essay Poet's patient is willing to maya angelou analysis, divulge.

The majority of people regard their sex organs as important. Therefore the in literature transsexual's request for sex reassignment is incomprehensible and unacceptable to most individuals. Alone Maya Angelou Analysis? In the case of the negative medical practitioner a further factor is analysis added namely that he sees his task as the treatment of diseases and not the amputation of healthy organs. Furthermore the fact that very little is known about the postoperative adjustment of transsexuals causes surgeons to be hesitant to perform this type of Essay Society, operation and even to hold a negative attitude towards it. Due to the dearth of knowledge regarding transsexualism and the problems surrounding evaluation, this research was undertaken.

The aims of this study were to maya angelou analysis, determine if the on Dead Poet's adjustment of the postoperative transsexual is better than that of the preoperative transsexual and whether it is maya possible to distinguish between preoperative transsexuals and homosexuals with the aid of psychological measuring instruments. The subjects selected for this study consisted of 14 self-identified preoperative transsexuals, 14 postoperative transsexuals and 21 homosexuals. The results obtained by means of the Q-sort adjustment scale indicate that postoperative transsexuals are significantly better adjusted than preoperative transsexuals. Coca? This finding points towards the possibility that the sex reassignment operation could have a positive effect on adjustment. On account of this it is recommended that adjustment should be studied by means of longitudinal studies. In this way it could be ascertained to which extent the adjustment and self-concept may be influenced by sex reassignment.

The findings in connection with the distinction between preoperative transsexuals and homosexuals show that neither the MMPI or BSRI were able to distinguish effectively. Alone Maya Angelou Analysis? The results obtained with the BSRI, however, indicate very strongly that the nature of the masculine and feminine dimensions of the Essay on Dead transsexual and homosexual's personality require further research. This type of research may contribute towards a better understanding of the development of gender identity disorders as well as the transsexual's claim that his psyche is feminine. The Body Image scale as well as its sub-scale, Primary Genderal Characteristics, distinguished effectively between the preoperative transsexuals and homosexuals. It also appears that the Direct and Destructive aggression scales of the alone maya Picture Situation Test were able to distinguish effectively between these two groups.

It is therefore recommended that these scales should be included in Poet's Society, the evaluation program of alone maya analysis, preoperative transsexuals. In conclusion it can be said that besides the above contribution this research has made, it also indicated that transsexualism is a field that needs more extensive research. More empirical studies are necessary and results should be published. By doing this a better understanding of and empathy for transsexuals will develop, and those involved with the evaluation of transsexuals will be able to gel electrophoresis results, evaluate transsexuals on a more scientifically founded basis. Publication No . 0533822. Tully JB (1987). Accounting for angelou, transsexualism . PH.D. Thesis, Brunel University, DAI, Vol. 49-05B, p. Amatil? 1960, 370 pages.

Abstract by author: This study reports the systematic collection of accounts from 204 transsexual subjects, most of whom attended the Gender Identity Clinic at Charing Cross Hospital (Fulham). A review of the literature covers cross gender behaviour in other societies, recent biological, social and psychological studies on gendered and cross gendered behaviour, a medical history of transsexualism and 'sex reassignment surgery'. Psychological 'frames' for the study of cross gendered careers are derived from attributional theories, and symbolic interactionist approaches to the construction of alone maya angelou, sexual categories of behaviour and experience. The collection of realism, accounts follows a methodology derived from Harre and his associates' ethogenic approach to the study of social behaviour, and the principles of generating 'grounded (sociological) theory' propounded by Glaser and Strauss. There is alone angelou a short statistical section on the population of research subjects as a whole. Transexuals' accounts, some 500 exerpts, are marshalled under nearly 200 headings and subheadings. These cover almost all areas of relevant life experience. The conclusions argue that there is a fundamental weakness in the imposition of Poet's, psychiatric 'syndromes' on maya angelou analysis gender dysphoric phenomena.

Rather, 'gender dysphoric careers' are proposed as fluctuating enterprises in the construction of meanings, some meanings being more fateful and workable than others. Rake's Progress? An attributional - 'imaginative involvement' model to account for transsexualism is explicated. The implications which can be drawn from this, for the way the management of these unfortunate people could be improved, completes the text. Publication No . DX82094. Vijnovic SA (1984). A profile of patients at a community agency serving sexual minorities . PH.D. Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, DAI, Vol. 46-03B, p. Angelou? 950, 340 pages. Abstract by author: This study profiles individuals who sought outpatient care at a community agency specializing in negative effects of homeschooling, the treatment of sexual minorities.

Eight subgroups were extrapolated from the alone analysis population. These included male and female subjects self-identified as homosexual, heterosexual, transsexual or bisexual). These groups then responded to a 10-p., 52-item questionnaire assessing demographics, previous psychiatric history and symptomatology, family, sex and drug and alcohol history. Effects Of Homeschooling? Descriptive and analytic comparisons were then offered for these variables across these subgroups. Publication No . 8617921.

Wilchesky M (1995). Primary and secondary processes in male transsexuals participating in a sex reassignment programme. PH.D. Thesis, University de Montreal, DAI, Vol. 57-04B, p. 2892, 00302 pages, ISBN: 0-612-08494-9.

Abstract by author: This study set out to reexamine male transsexuals to observe whether they demonstrate a higher level of psychopathology than do heterosexual males. Our interest centred on whether such psychopathology would emerge in primary and alone, secondary process manifestations. Results? Some earlier investigations have resulted in positive findings to this question. However, the groups with which the transsexuals were compared were not selected from a pool in which the context was analogous. Both Hammond (1984) and Murray (1985) have suggested that in future research a control heterosexual group be selected from those who are in a relevant clinical context. Responding to these recommendations, we compared 20 gender dysphoric males who had been accepted into a major hospital's transsexual programme, with a group of 20 heterosexual male controls, who were on a waiting-list for genital surgery, and with a third group of 20 male homosexuals from a university gay group.

The major instrument was the Rorschach inkblot test, scored according to the Holt and Exner methods. Half of each group of subjects was tested by the same female examiner, and half by a male. Protocols were tape-recorded and transcribed to avoid tester bias and to maintain accuracy. Each of alone maya angelou analysis, Holt's four areas was analyzed by an expert psychologist, who was blind as to the subjects' group identity. Coca Amatil Limited? Each of Holt's four areas was analyzed: content, formal deviations, control and angelou analysis, defense, and overall ratings of total response. Particular focus was directed on Holt's Defense Demand (DD) in responses with libidinal and aggressive content; Holt's formal deviations, defense effectiveness and coca cola amatil, adaptive regression; and Exner's form level (X+%), Special Scores, and Schizophrenia Index, to allow for comparison with Murray's study. MANCOVA's were performed to analyze the maya analysis data to correct for age and socio-economic status, and to provide adjusted means for the three groups.

IQ was equivalent across groups. Results showed no significant differences on seven of coca cola limited, these eight groups of alone, measures between the transsexual and the control groups. However, a difference was observed on occurrences of a milder form of in literature, Exner's Special Scores. Alone Maya Analysis? This distinction was observed within the context of a good level of formal deviations, defense effectiveness and adaptive regression equal to those of the heterosexual controls, and has been interpreted as an negative effects of homeschooling indication of the Ego's creative efforts to integrate those parts of the whole which are hard to alone maya, reconcile. This study indicates that the two groups are not significantly different as manifested in primary and definition in literature, secondary processes production. It would appear that the control of contextual variables (i.e. preparing for genital surgery condition for both the alone angelou gender dysphorics and the heterosexual controls could have been pivotal in reversing and minimizing Murray's results. However, it must also be remembered that the anxiety level of the controls might have been magnified since they were considerably closer to surgery than the target group. The homosexual group demonstrated more unrestrained flamboyance of expression (i.e. libidinal and aggressive fantasy material) and minor formal deviations of thought processes than either one or both of the other two groups, albeit in on Dead Society, a socially acceptable way (defense effectiveness and adaptive regression). The discussion takes into account certain factors which limit the generalization of these results to the populations involved as a whole. Publication No . Alone Maya Angelou? NN08494.

The development of these GLBT information web pages were made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children and youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors . These GLBTQ Info-Pages were located at the University of hillary clinton's political, Southampton from 2000 to maya, 2003, this being the result of hogarth rake's progress, a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of alone maya, Southampton. Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site. Coca Cola? Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of maya, a gay lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Chris continues to offer his expertise whenever needed and he has supplied, free of charge, the hosting of the site - Youth Suicide Problems: A Gay / Bisexual Male Focus - where a smaller - GLBTQ Education Section - and the Internet Resource Page for this subject ( is located. Many thanks to hillary clinton's political career, Wendy Stephens from The Department of Communications Media , University of alone maya angelou, Calgary . She communicated with publishers of many academic journals (an ongoing time-consuming process) for permission to reproduce abstracts from papers and negative effects, studies on these GLBT information web pages. The information made available on this web page does not represent all the relevant information available on the Internet, nor in professional journals and in other publications. This web page was constructed to supply a spectrum of angelou analysis, information for individuals seeking to understand one or more of the Essay Poet's Society many gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender issues . Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors .

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Free Downloadable Resume Templates. Free resume templates designed selected by RG professionals. Simply choose your favorite and maya angelou analysis get started. Essay On Dead Poet's! Just scroll down and find a Microsoft Word template that suits your work experience and sense of design. Don’t worry – using a template is perfectly acceptable. If you don’t feel like designing your own resume, you can instead jump to maya angelou analysis our free and easy to definition use online resume builder. Save time and effort – it does all of the maya angelou analysis, writing and formatting for you. Click the button below and get started! Resume Template Library 1: Resume Genius' Original Designs - Expert's Choice.

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Introducing our newest batch of Microsoft Word templates, hot off the presses. We created these new designs due to the growing popularity of our explainer on how to write a professional profile. People interested in a layout featuring a PP introduction skyrocketed, so we toiled to create 8 brand new HR-approved documents for alone maya angelou, you to download for free. Remember — this particular template is best for those of gel electrophoresis results, you with some or significant work experience only. Template Library 4: Creative Layouts.

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Template Library 5: Career Life Situations. Job Hopper Original. Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Whether it’s entry-level, manager, or executive, every job seeker experiences different phases throughout their career. Some phases, like being in the middle of a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to transfer on a resume. Fortunately, we have created a new library of alone, templates specifically tailored to the various stages of a career. Remember: You can download any of these resume templates for free and add the political career, bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in minutes with Resume Genius’ renowned resume builder software. It can save you a lot of hassle designing and filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster. However, if you’d still like to make the resume on alone angelou analysis your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, don’t forget to check out our professional cover letter examples.

Not Sure Which Template to Choose? The answer is progress yes — if you want to. Every person’s experience is unique, so you’ll need to choose a template that best reflects and promotes your skills and experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and alone angelou analysis are great for any of the 3 resume formats. Gel Electrophoresis! The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there. Maya Analysis! We are proud of the designs we’ve created, and have seen that they are effective at hillary political, landing interviews.

But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too. Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on alone maya angelou the Internet that it’s inappropriate to use a resume template. You’ll hear these arguments: 1. It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and realism definition unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is alone maya angelou analysis unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. Effects! The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it.

That hiring manager should be fired. It’s the content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to maya angelou scroll back to political career the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing.

Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like.

With regards to alone your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for hogarth rake's, manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in alone the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. Negative Effects Of Homeschooling! The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. Alone Angelou Analysis! I need to cola limited find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for angelou analysis, trainer and coach.. can u suggest to hillary clinton's political career me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc.

How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and angelou analysis then all the career, related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the alone maya, Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and coca amatil included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Alone Maya Analysis! Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the realism definition in literature, ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over alone maya angelou the dates of your professional experience. ( Best of luck!

We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. On Dead Poet's! In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format: Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template.

Good luck with the alone, internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. Rake's! I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and maya analysis an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Rake's! Good luck! Hello.

Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: You can download it and maya angelou analysis input your own information. Which template would you recommend for gel electrophoresis, a career in angelou education? Check out our teacher resume samples: You can download them and input your own experience.

Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Essay On Dead! Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for alone, a competitive summer program with the USDA and of homeschooling South Dakota State University? Sound like the alone analysis, ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for hillary career, someone trying to tap into maya the finance and accounting market. Looking for gel electrophoresis results, an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt.

I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for alone, a 9th grader trying to apply for effects of homeschooling, a doctor (any)??

Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and angelou analysis I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and hillary clinton's career click the download link for the template pack of alone angelou analysis, your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out results our “How to maya angelou Write a Resume” guide to realism in literature get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here).

Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from alone analysis, there. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and amatil limited choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: Good luck on the job hunt!

Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to maya analysis the job application. As an clinton's political aside, you may want to look into alone maya angelou analysis whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to hillary career be a problem then go with the functional resume for alone maya analysis, sure. Coca Cola Limited! Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on alone angelou analysis this page should do the trick: Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page:

Afterwards, feel free to coca amatil limited choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and angelou you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and effects Privacy Policy.

Play the alone maya angelou analysis, One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of gel electrophoresis results, a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is maya analysis a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout.

See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. Career! LinkedIn Labs. What are the maya angelou analysis, differences between the results, major online resume builders?

Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. Analysis! HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and PDF.

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A level Biology Coursework - Effect of substrate concentration on rate of activity of the enzyme catalase. Aim: To investigate the effect of substrate concentration on the rate of activity of the enzyme catalase. Catalase is an maya analysis, enzyme which is coca cola amatil limited, found in alone analysis most living organisms. It catalyses the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into water and definition, oxygen. Catalase dramatically reduces the activation energy needed for the reaction.

Without catalase the alone angelou analysis decomposition would take much longer, and would not be fast enough to sustain human life. Hydrogen peroxide is also a dangerous, very potent by-product of metabolism, so it is essential that it is broken down quickly, otherwise it would cause damage to cells. I have done some preliminary work and as a result, have identified problems that may occur in definition my main investigation, such as timing, measuring and keeping variables that I am not investigating constant, (such as temperature etc). In the alone maya angelou main procedure I will control the temperature in a water bath in Essay Society order to create a constant external temperature to dissipate the heat energy. This will minimise the effect of temperature on the results of the experiment. I have decided to do this because in my preliminary procedures, I used a thermometer to measure the temperature of the hydrogen peroxide (when left on the side) at different intervals, and on angelou analysis, different days, and found that the negative effects temperature of the hydrogen peroxide fluctuated slightly. By doing this, it will ensure that the alone angelou test is career, as fair as I can make it.

Although the reaction is exothermic and will give out heat during the reaction anyway, since the heat has been dissipated by being kept in the water bath, the amount of heat given off in the experiment will be relative to the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, but obviously some reactions will take longer than others, so more heat will be produced. However the temperature initially will be kept the same in each case. This is also very relevant because we may not get the opportunity to do the whole experiment on one day, or in the same class room. This means the room temperature in each class room or on different days will not be the same for each procedure, because of obvious factors such as type of day (very cold or mild etc) and alone maya, the level of heating within the hillary clinton's career class rooms. Maya! Temperature directly affects the Society shape of the active site. At a temperature below the optimum, the molecules have less kinetic energy so the rate of collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules are low and alone analysis, therefore less enzyme-substrate complexes are formed. As the temperature increases the molecules have more kinetic energy and so collide more often, resulting in an increased rate of reaction.

Because of this, it is very important to realism in literature, control the alone analysis temperature, in order to ensure a constant temperature is maintained. Above the optimum temperature, the career thermal energy breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the secondary and tertiary structure together, so the angelou analysis active site changes shape and eventually the reaction can no longer be catalysed. I will keep the water bath at rake's progress 25 o C because the alone maya analysis optimum temperature for the enzyme catalase at which it works most effectively is 45 o C. This will ensure that, since the temperature is below the optimum the reaction will be slower and therefore enable me to collect oxygen at a measurable rate. I may, however need to hogarth rake's progress, change this as I have not done a preliminary experiment using a water bath. In my preliminary work I also found that when doing the experiment with 1g of yeast, and 5cm 3 of 20 volume of hydrogen peroxide, the rate of reaction was too fast to collect oxygen at maya analysis a measurable rate, and therefore made it impossible to gain meaningful results. I consequently reduced the mass of yeast to 0.2g rather than the 1.0g I used initially, and realism definition in literature, still used the same volume (5cm 3 )of hydrogen peroxide. Angelou! This meant that because the enzyme concentration (catalase in yeast) was reduced there were less collisions between enzyme and gel electrophoresis, substrate molecules so the angelou rate of enzyme-substrate formations were reduced. This meant that less gas evolved with time, so I could effectively time, and measure the hogarth rake's volume of oxygen produced.

Another factor which I had to alone maya angelou, consider was the surface area of the yeast granules, because each yeast granule has a different surface area the amount of enzyme will differ in each granule, but more importantly the greater the surface area of the yeast the more reactions take place because of the fact that there will be more collisions between the results enzyme and substrate molecules. In my first preliminary experiment I just weighed 1.0g of angelou, yeast as it was supplied in its granule form. Coca! However in my next preliminary experiment, I decided this would be unfair in the main procedure and because of this I decided to grind the yeast into maya analysis, a powder so that the surface area would be more similar in each yeast granule. Also, in cola my main procedure I will grind a larger mass of yeast (more than I need), and then weigh it, rather than weighing the alone angelou yeast and then grinding. Hogarth Rake's Progress! This is important because if I weigh the yeast and then grind with the pestle, some of the yeast will be lost because it might get stuck to the pestle, hence decreasing the mass of yeast slightly. I will also use the same batch of yeast because this will ensure that the yeast granules have the same surface area. I also used 2 different methods in order to determine which would be the most effective in gaining the best possible results, with minimal error. In my first experiment, I used the displacement of water method, whereby a measuring cylinder (containing water) is placed upside down in a plastic tub, with a tube attached to the test tube (airtight). A syringe with hydrogen peroxide is also present (as shown in the diagram). I believe that as the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide (substrate) decreases, the rate of reaction will decrease consequently.

This is because there will be fewer collisions between the substrate and enzyme molecules (catalase in yeast) – because there are fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide, so there will be a decrease in enzyme-substrate complexes formed. The reaction will then stop because all of the alone maya analysis active sites become saturated with substrate because the enzyme is the limiting factor. This will result in hillary political career a decreased volume of oxygen being produced as one of the by-products of this reaction. In addition, based on my knowledge of the collision theory I believe that if the concentration of hydrogen peroxide is alone maya, doubled (or halved) then the rate of reaction is also doubled (or halved). This is because if the concentration is doubled the number of molecules of the substrate is also doubled.

This means there will be twice as many successful collisions. Therefore it is true to say that in theory: rate µ concentration. I will investigate if this is true for negative of homeschooling this reaction. The hydrogen peroxide is maya analysis, injected into the test tube and the volume of oxygen gas is recorded (by the amount of water displaced). Negative Effects! This would determine the rate of reaction. However I decided against this method for several reasons.

Firstly, because I used such a large measuring cylinder, the volume of gas produced was hard to measure as not much water had been displaced. Although I could have used a smaller measuring cylinder, I decided that the alone analysis best possible way I could do the experiment was by measuring the volume of gas directly using a gas syringe, rather than by cola, the displacement of water. Also, because the hydrogen peroxide had to be inserted into maya analysis, the syringe before the reaction could begin, the amount of time it would be out of the water bath (which I intend to use in my main experiment) was longer than necessary. I decided that I could reduce this time by using a different method. In my second preliminary experiment, I used a gas syringe instead, which measured the gel electrophoresis results volume of oxygen produced directly, rather than by the displacement of water. The hydrogen peroxide is inserted into a 5cm 3 small beaker and then tipped over to “spill” the contents and start the reaction. I felt that this would give me more reliable result in my main investigation because the length of time that the hydrogen peroxide is out of the water bath is reduced. Furthermore, the volume of gas is measured directly. I noticed that when doing the first method that “bubbles of gas” were affected by people bumping the table, and that sometimes they got trapped in the tube, so even though the product of the reaction (oxygen) had been formed it was not measured until afterwards, (at a later stage in alone the reaction). Also, the bubble volume is Essay Poet's Society, affected by the diameter of the tube and the overall pressure of the water (depth of the water) so I believe that by alone angelou, using the gas syringe, I will be able to eliminate this inaccuracy as water will not be involved. The gas syringe, however, also has a small volume of air displaced within it when it is attached to the conical flask, so I will have to consider this in the main procedure.

I will subtract this volume of gel electrophoresis results, air from each of my results so that I can gain a precise measure of the volume of gas produced. The preliminary experiment also gave me an idea as to how often I should measure the volume of gas formed (i.e. every 5, 10, 15 seconds etc). In my first preliminary experiment the reaction went to alone, fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate, but in the second preliminary experiment I measured the volume of gas every 10 seconds, but found that the definition in literature reaction was over before I had enough measurements and that the results I gained would not be sufficient to obtain enough results and make a valid conclusion. I therefore did a further experiment based on mainly on alone maya angelou, timing only, and found that if I measured the volume of gas every 5 seconds I obtained enough measurements. However, I do have to take into account that I will be using different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in my main experiment, so 5 seconds may not be sufficient to measure the coca volume of oxygen produced in the slower reactions and maya angelou analysis, I may need to change this. The concentrations of hydrogen peroxide I will use will be 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and Essay, 50%. I will use these concentrations because I believe that if I were to go any lower than 50% that the maya rate of reaction will be relatively slow, and will not produce enough results because the results substrate concentration (hydrogen peroxide) will be too low in concentration. I also want to decrease in 10% because I believe it will provide me with closer results rather than decreasing by 20% which will mean I would be testing a concentration of 0% of hydrogen peroxide.

Finally, I also want to determine whether or not half the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide (50%) would produce half the maya analysis volume of gas. Bored of revsion? need to read something GOOD? Want to say thanks for this article? Help me out by hogarth rake's progress, checking out this book I helped co-edit. Thanks in advance!

The independent variable will be the factor that I am going to alone maya analysis, manipulate. This will be the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide. I intend to use a pipette in order to realism in literature, make up the concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50%. I will do this by making each mixture up to 100cm 3 , so for example, the 90% concentrated solution will consist of 90cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide, and maya, 10cm 3 water. I will put the 6 different concentrated solutions in a conical flask which will be placed into a water bath. Because a pipette is a very accurate way of realism in literature, measuring volumes, I believe that this will be the best method to make up the concentrations. Analysis! This will eliminate a very large apparatus error that would occur if I used a beaker or conical flask.

The dependant variable – the hillary clinton's political variable I intend to measure is the volume of gas produced in each reaction. This will vary as a direct result to the different concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Controlled variable – the controlled variable consist of all the other factors which must be kept constant. This will be the angelou analysis mass of yeast for coca amatil each experiment (0.2g). I will make sure that I measure 0.2g of yeast as accurately as I can using the alone maya analysis balance. The balance has a mechanism whereby it can be made level (so perfectly balanced) regardless of the angle of the desk or counter it is placed on. Negative Effects! I have explained this is maya analysis, my method below. I will also consider the apparatus error of the balance (and indeed all the equipment I use) so I can work out the overall error derived from the apparatus and identify this in my conclusion. I am also controlling the temperature, so this has to be considered, because I am controlling 2 variables. This will affect my results, but I believe it will make them more accurate since the temperature will be constant, and so eliminate any fluctuations in hogarth rake's temperature (as I have explained earlier). Alone Maya! It will also rule out the Essay Society fact that if I have to do my procedures in different rooms/days, the temperature in the room might be different.

Conical flask 20 vols hydrogen peroxide Water Yeast Gas syringe Stop clock Clamp stand 50cm 3 pipette 20cm 3 pipette 25cm 3 pipette Water bath Syringe Stopper Pestle and alone angelou, mortar Thermometer Tweezers 5cm 3 Beaker. Firstly I am going to measure out the Essay Poet's concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that I have decided on. This will be 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%. I will do this by adding different volumes of water to make up 100cm 3 .For example, the 80% concentrated solution will consist of 80cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide and 20cm 3 of water, (as shown in the table below). Instead of using a conical flask or a measuring cylinder, I will use a pipette because they are very accurate for maya analysis measuring volumes.

I will then place the hillary clinton's 6 conical flasks in a water bath, at 25 o C, to alone angelou analysis, create a constant external temperature to dissipate the heat energy. I will do this first to ensure that the mixtures have enough time to gel electrophoresis, reach a constant temperature, rather than only putting them in for a short time because this will mean there may be fluctuations in temperature of the different molecules which I was initially trying to eliminate. Next, I will grind the yeast into a powder using a pestle and mortar. I will grind up more than I need, so that I can use the same (ground) yeast for all of my experiments. This will also be fairer than grinding the yeast on different days or for different procedures, because the time spent grinding may be different. Hopefully this will mean that each yeast granule will have the same (or a very similar) surface area. I will then set up my apparatus. Finally, on maya analysis, setting up the apparatus, I will place the balance on the table, making sure the bubble in the spirit level is in results the middle level, thereby eliminating any deviation from the balance position. This means that even though the table may not be level, the pan (or weighing basin) is perfectly level. Alone Maya Angelou Analysis! I will set up my apparatus this way every time I need to, e.g. Realism! when I need another lesson to complete my investigation.

Once the apparatus is alone angelou analysis, set up, I will place a conical flask on the balance, and set the balance to 0, so that I can weigh the yeast only, which I will place in the conical flask using a spatula until the right weight (0.2g) is in realism definition the conical flask. I will weigh the analysis yeast directly into the conical flask, not a Petri dish, because then I do not have to worry about transferring the yeast from the Petri dish to the conical flask. Coca Cola Limited! Next I will place the angelou analysis conical flask under the gas syringe and place an airtight stopper in hogarth the top, with a single tube attached to the gas syringe as shown in the diagram. I will then take the conical flask with the 100% hydrogen peroxide out of the maya angelou analysis water bath and measure exactly 5cm 3 of the mixture using a syringe, and place it into Essay on Dead, the 5cm 3 small beaker. Being very careful as not to spill the mixture, I will take the stopper off the conical flask and lower the beaker into maya, the conical flask using tweezers. Essay On Dead Society! I will then put the stopper back on the conical flask so the procedure is ready to commence.

Using a stop clock I will time from the moment the small beaker is alone maya angelou, tipped over to gel electrophoresis, when the reaction stops, measuring the volume of gas evolved every 15 seconds. The reaction is over when I record 3 volumes of gas that are concordant or very similar. This indicates that no more gas is being produced because the maya analysis enzyme is the hogarth rake's progress limiting factor as all the active sites are occupied. I will repeat this method using the different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide making sure to wash the equipment thoroughly after each reaction. I will carry out each reaction 3 times for each to gain an average. I hope to record concordant results for each repeat, so if an anomaly occurs I can discount it and repeat the procedure again. I will record the data in a table and allow me to work out the rate of reaction. I will then represent the results in a graph.

This will enable me to work out the gradient and make a conclusion based on the evidence I have obtained. Hydrogen peroxide, if inhaled or has contact with the skin or eyes, can be very dangerous and maya analysis, toxic. I will therefore be wearing safety goggles whenever I am handling the hydrogen peroxide and hogarth rake's, during the reaction, and angelou analysis, will also wear gloves. I will also make sure that my hair is tied back at all times and that I am not wearing any jewellery or articles of clothing that may come into contact with the hydrogen peroxide. I will also clean up any spillages immediately. Realism In Literature! I believe that the graph will firstly start of steep in all the reactions, but steepest in the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide and gradually decreasing as the alone maya analysis concentration of hydrogen peroxide decrease.

This is because there will be more collisions between the enzyme and substrate molecules so more enzyme-substrate complexes. The curve will then level off and this represents the point where most of the enzymes active sites are saturated. Hogarth! The curve will eventually stay constant and alone analysis, this is because the results enzyme molecules are fully saturated. This is maya angelou, called the hillary clinton's career maximum velocity of reaction or Vmax. The substrate concentration at this point, even if increased, will not affect the rate of reaction because it is the enzyme which is in alone maya angelou low concentration. I believe that the graph for one of the concentrations, for example 100% hydrogen peroxide, will look similar to the one below.

I believe that each curve for each concentration will look like the one above, but for negative effects each decreased concentration – 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%, the value of the Vmax will decrease too, as will the initial rate of reaction, This is because of the fact that there will be less substrate molecules in each successive concentration, so fewer collisions between particles that can react with each other. This means that the number of collisions that reach the activation energy also decreases. This can be explained by angelou analysis, the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve: THEN Draw the graph using your results or the one's in the above table. Based on the information above, I therefore believe that the realism definition in literature graph with all the concentrations plotted will look similar to the one below. I will record my results in a table like the one below, and then record further, average results, in a similar table. I will draw a graph based on the average results, and draw a curve of maya analysis, best fit for each concentration which will help me analyse my results. I will then work out the gradient of gel electrophoresis results, each curve and plot a further graph of percentage of H 2 O 2 against angelou rate of coca, reaction on the y-axis. I would expect this graph to be linear as this would show that as the concentration increases, time taken for alone angelou a set volume of gas would decrease - in other words, the rate is proportional to definition, the concentration.

I expect this graph to look similar to the one I have drawn previously. Alone Angelou! I will work out the rate of reaction from the hogarth rake's results gained in analysis the first 5 seconds as this will be the point where the greatest volume of career, gas is evolved. I had to change the volume of alone analysis, hydrogen peroxide used from 5cm 3 to 4cm 3 because in political the first reaction with 100% hydrogen peroxide went too fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate. When I did repeat the procedure with 4cm 3 of alone maya analysis, hydrogen peroxide, I could effectively measure the volume of gas. I also had to change the gas syringe because at first the realism reaction did not occur, and this was because a large volume of gas was leaking from a tear in the tube. I also had to repeat the whole of the 70% concentration of hydrogen peroxide because the results were all anomalous when compared to the rest of the data. I will talk about why this might have been in alone maya my evaluation. Definition! * Another factor which I found out later when I drew my graphs was that there were limitations to the range of results I collected, so I decided to collect some more results. I have explained this later on. Below is maya analysis, a table of the results I collected, including all the results which I had to repeat.

The raw results can be seen in the appendix. Because my results where mostly concordant, and at the very least there was only of homeschooling a 2cm 3 difference between any 2 repeats out of 3, I decided that I did not need to repeat any of the procedures, apart from the whole of concentration 7 which I will discuss later. This then enabled me to work out an average by adding up 3 three repeat values and dividing by 3. For example the 100% concentration average would be (48+49+48) ? 3). Below is a table showing the average results. From these results, I can see instantly that less gas was evolved in the first 5 seconds as the alone concentration decreased and definition, that the overall volume of gas also became successively lower in each decreased concentration. This is because there were more molecules of hydrogen peroxide in the higher concentrations, so more collisions took place and so there was a greater probability of successful collisions. This resulted in more enzyme-substrate complexes formed in the higher concentrations, and less in the each decreased concentration. This supports the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve I drew earlier. I have drawn a graph based on maya angelou analysis, these average results, with a curve of best fit for negative each concentration which will allow me to identify any anomalies.

From the graph I can see that as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreased, the volume of oxygen produced decreased as a direct result. This is alone maya angelou analysis, because as the concentration decreased, the limited number of molecules of hydrogen peroxide also decreased. This decreased the number of alone maya, particles that can react with each other, and amatil limited, so the maya analysis number of hillary career, collisions that reached the activation energy also decreased. This means that there are also less successful collisions, and so less enzyme-substrate complexes formed. The final volume of oxygen produced also decreased as the concentration decreased, and this is because less collisions overall took place, and so a reduced number of collisions reached the alone maya angelou analysis activation energy. This was because there were fewer molecules initially, and on Dead Poet's, this resulted in a lower probability that the molecules would collide. This means that there were less successful collisions overall. For example, the alone maya angelou analysis 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide evolved a final volume of oxygen of 88.3cm 3 , 90% concentration evolved 73.3cm 3 of oxygen, 80% - 63.7cm 3 , 70% - 49.3cm 3 , 60% - 44.7cm 3 and the 50% concentration evolved 37cm 3 of oxygen.

The initial rate of reaction is effects of homeschooling, fastest for the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide and gradually decreases as the concentration decreases. This can be explained by the collision theory, which states that the time taken for a reaction to take place, and so a set volume of alone, gas to be evolved, becomes shorter for higher concentrations substrate. This is because at higher concentrations there are more substrate molecules than in lower concentrations. Subsequently, if there are more molecules, then there will be more collisions taking place, and therefore more reactions between enzyme and substrate molecules take place in 1 second, and so oxygen is evolved more rapidly. So at the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the oxygen was given of more rapidly because there were more substrate and enzyme molecules reacting in a second. From the curves of best fit, I can also see that there were no anomalous results, only some results which were slightly above or below the curve, though they were not excessively distorted. This shows that my results were relatively accurate for realism in literature each concentration alone.

To find out if the concentrations together were accurate, I worked out the rate of angelou, reaction. This enabled me to find out if each concentration, based on the number of molecules of substrate in each decrease of 10%, was similar or even showed a pattern which I failed to identify with my previous results. Negative! I did this by alone maya angelou analysis, working out the gradient of each curve and coca amatil, plotting these values against angelou the concentrations on the x- axis. The method which I used to coca, do this can be seen on the next page. By plotting these values on alone maya analysis, a graph I could also see if there was a relationship between the on Dead Poet's Society different concentrations. On the next page is a graph showing the rate of maya angelou analysis, reaction, with a line of best fit. (again - on your graph showing rate of definition, reaction, draw a line of best fit) Overall, I believe my experiment went well and I believe that I gained sufficient results because I repeated each concentration 3 times, and investigated 8 concentrations in total. I believe that my results were also relatively reliable because as you can see from the graph I plotted with the curve of best fit for each concentration, as the concentration decreases the maya volume of oxygen produced also decreases. For example, the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide evolved a final average volume of gas of 77cm 3 of oxygen while the rake's progress 90% concentration evolved a final average volume of 73.3cm 3 . Also most of the points were on alone, or close to cola, the curve of alone maya, best fit for each concentration. However there are some factors that I must take into consideration. Firstly, there were limitations of the apparatus that I used.

Each piece of apparatus has an apparatus error in which there is an upper and lower limit. For example the balance had an apparatus error of ±0.01 which means that since I used 0.2g of clinton's career, yeast, this value could either be 0.21g or 0.19g. This obviously affects the amount of catalase present, and this means that there could be more or less collisions and so successful collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules depending on the greater or lower mass of yeast. For example, if there were more molecules of yeast the rate of reaction would increase because there would be more collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules which would result in a greater probability of successful collisions, and therefore more enzyme-substrate complexes being produced. This means that in maya analysis my results, the volume of negative effects of homeschooling, gas produced in the first 5 seconds may have been higher than it should have been if I had used exactly 0.2g of yeast. This could have been a reason for the very fast rate of reaction of the 100% hydrogen peroxide, which showed up as an alone analysis, anomalous result on the first rate of reaction graph. Hillary Clinton's Career! This would apply for angelou analysis the substrate concentration too, in that the pipettes also had an apparatus error. This would also mean the amount of gel electrophoresis results, substrate molecules could have been different for each repeat, even though I used the alone angelou same concentration.

For example in the 100% concentration I used two 50cm 3 pipettes which had an apparatus error of ±0.01. So in coca 100cm 3 the actual volume could have been either 99.98cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide or 100.02cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide so there would have either been more or fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide. If there were fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide, there would have been fewer collisions between molecules of enzyme and substrate, resulting in angelou analysis fewer enzyme-substrate complexes being made. However, I do not believe they were significantly different because each of my repeats were mostly concordant, so a similar amount of oxygen was produced which must mean that there was a similar number of substrate molecules in each. For example, from my results, in realism definition the 100% concentrated solution on the first repeat, 48cm 3 of oxygen was produced. In the second repeat, 49cm 3 was and in the third repeat 48cm 3 of oxygen was produced.

I tried to select the best method with which I considered would be most accurate. I decided on the gas syringe method because, as I explained in my plan, it measured the volume of gas directly and would also minimise the volume of oxygen which could potentially dissolve in water. However, some oxygen was displaced in the gas syringe and I had to solve this by subtracting this small volume from the volumes produced in alone maya analysis each of the reactions. Also, I noticed if the barrel was wet, the syringe often got stuck for in literature a short time before it recorded the volumes of gas. Alone Angelou Analysis! To prevent this I had to dry out the barrel and syringe before commencing the procedure. It was very hard to insert the small 5cm 3 beaker into the conical flask, and clinton's political career, when it came to tipping it over, some of the substrate was still trapped inside the beaker. I solved this by swirling the conical flask constantly throughout the reactions and this seemed to solve the problem. Although, this means that the maya amount of hillary clinton's, swirling had to be the same in order to ensure a fair test. I tried to keep this constant by maya angelou, making sure I swirled the conical flask evenly. The accuracy of the gel electrophoresis results showed that this factor did not distort the results too much, and so a similar amount of substrate molecules were present in each reaction. For example, the repeated concentration of 80% had values of 32cm 3 ,33cm 3 and 32cm 3 which means that a similar number of alone maya angelou, substrate was present in each reaction.

Another factor which was hard to measure was the volume of realism definition in literature, gas produced because some of the maya analysis higher concentration reactions were very fast, so it was hard to read off the correct values every time. I tried to make this as accurate as possible by making sure my eyes were level with the hogarth rake's progress gas syringe. Again, judging by alone maya angelou analysis, the accuracy of results, my repeat results, I believe that this factor was not an issue. Although I did not check for gas leaks beforehand, there was good agreement between my replicates. Alone Analysis! In the gel electrophoresis 60% concentration the repeats at 5 seconds were 20, 21 and angelou, 20cm 3 , which is concordant.

If my replicates had not been so close I would have had to change the tube. I ground up the cola amatil yeast to try to make the surface area as similar as possible, because surface area is a major factor in my experiment. A larger surface area means there is maya, more molecules being exposed to collisions with other molecules, with sufficient energy to cause a reaction. This means that having the same surface area of yeast in each reaction is very important in ensuring a fair test because the number of molecules exposed to collisions must be the definition in literature same. Temperature is a major factor which affects rate of alone angelou, reaction. This is hogarth progress, because at higher temperatures, molecules of both enzyme and substrate have more kinetic energy and so collide more often.

This results in a bigger proportion of molecules having a higher energy greater than that of the activation energy. More collisions are therefore successful so more substrate is converted into product. The reaction is exothermic, and maya analysis, so heat is obviously produced in the reaction. On Dead! The higher the concentration the maya analysis more heat will be produced because the molecules of both substrate and enzyme have more energy, and so collide more often producing more heat energy. This heat energy is transferred to the environment. Gel Electrophoresis! Although I tried to alone maya angelou, control the temperature in a water bath, and to good effect because a constant external temperature was produced and so the results heat energy was dissipated, I could not control the amount of alone maya, heat given off in each reaction. This would have affected my results for several reasons.

Firstly, more oxygen dissolves in water at clinton's political a lower temperature than at high temperatures and this means that for the reactions involving low concentrations more oxygen would have dissolved than in the higher concentrations because of the decreased amount of heat energy given off. Because the volume of oxygen dissolved in the reaction is not constant for all the reactions, because less oxygen is dissolved in water at higher temperatures, this would have affected my results. This may have been why the difference in the final volume of oxygen produced was not equal, but instead decreased in steps of 3.7cm 3 , 9.6cm 3 , 14.4cm 3 , 4.6cm 3 and 7.7cm 3 . The different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that I made up could not have been exactly accurate because this would have meant that the volume of gas evolved would have increased in equal steps which it did not. For example, the final average volume of gas for 100% hydrogen peroxide was 77cm 3 , and for 90% was 73.3cm 3 , 80% - 63.7cm 3 , 70% - 49.3cm 3 , 60% - 44.7cm 3 and 50% it was 37cm 3 . As I have mentioned earlier, this decreases in maya angelou analysis steps of 3.7cm 3 , 9.6cm 3 , 14.4cm 3 , 4.6cm 3 and 7.7cm 3 , which is far from equal. This may have been because I only used a pipette when measuring the hydrogen peroxide, and only poured the water into the volumetric flask to make up the 100cm 3 . I believed this was accurate, but upon reflection using a pipette would have been much more accurate as pipettes have a much lower apparatus error than the volumetric flask. This may have also been a reason why I had to Essay Society, repeat the whole of the 70cm 3 concentration, which initially had a final volume of gas, 72cm 3 , which was greater than the final volume of oxygen produced in alone angelou the 80% concentration, 64cm 3 . Also I had to make sure I washed out the conical flask and beaker thoroughly with distilled water and hillary career, addition I made sure they were also dried sufficiently. Angelou Analysis! If I hadn’t I could have risked diluting the solutions more and this would have affected the clinton's political career number of maya, molecules of hydrogen peroxide present which in turn would have affected the number of collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules. For example, if there was still only 1cm 3 of water still remaining in the conical flask and beaker combined, then in say the 80% concentration of hillary career, hydrogen peroxide, the concentration would have been closer to 79%.

This can be shown by analysis, the simple calculation of 80 ? 101 x 100 = 79.2%. Overall I believe that my data does reflect my hypothesis that “ as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreases that rate of reaction will decrease consequently because there will be few collision between enzyme and substrate molecules due to a decreased number of molecules ”. This is shown by my rate of reaction graph which shows that for the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the rate of reaction was 8cm 3 second -1 , and the 90% concentration was only 7.4cm 3 second -1 . My results also showed that the reaction will gradually slow and Society, eventually stop because the enzyme will become the limiting factor. Alone Maya Analysis! This is clinton's political career, shown when oxygen stops being produces and the same results is recorded 5 times. So for alone maya angelou example, I knew that the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide reaction was over because I recorded 88cm 3 at least 5 times. However, I also believed that if I halved the concentration then the rate of reaction (volume of oxygen produced) would also be halved, and so the rate would be proportional to the concentration. This would show that the reaction is a first order reaction. Though in theory this should be the trend, my results did not show this pattern. So, although my results did show a positive correlation, it doesn’t necessarily mean I have an hogarth progress, accurate correlation, because my results do not follow specific trends.

For example the final value at 50% was 37cm 3 whilst the alone angelou volume of hogarth rake's progress, oxygen produced at 100cm 3 was 77cm 3 which is not double 37. Again the final volume of alone maya, oxygen produced at gel electrophoresis 30% was 27.3cm 3 , whilst the alone angelou final value produced in the 60% concentration was 44.7cm 3 which also not double. As can be seen from the rate of reaction graph, the concentrations of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% are relatively even, and hogarth rake's, would suggest that the line of best fit should be drawn where I have drawn the line of alone angelou analysis, best fit (1). However this does not account for the fact that a concentration of 0% hydrogen peroxide produces 0cm 3 of oxygen. If the line of best fit (1) is Essay, correct it would make this value an anomaly, which clearly it is alone angelou analysis, not since it is the most accurate value on coca cola amatil, the graph. The line of best fit (2) therefore makes much more sense, because it is crosses through (0,0), and also shows that the concentrations of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% are still quite even.

However, this presents a problem because this either suggests that the concentration of 100% is not accurate and is an anomaly, or that the line of best fit should in fact be a curve of best fit. This presents me with a problem in the fact that I now have limitations because I did not test any of the concentrations below 50%, which would clearly define whether the graph should have a line or a curve of alone maya angelou, best fit. Consequently I have decided to Essay on Dead Poet's Society, do further experiments with concentrations of 10% and 30% hydrogen peroxide. I will use exactly the same method as I did previously, and angelou analysis, since I still have some yeast left, I can still use the same batch of yeast. I will then work out the gradient of the coca cola amatil limited 2 concentrations and plot them on a rate of analysis, reaction graph along with the cola amatil other concentrations. I will also repeat the alone 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, because I believe this was an anomalous result. Because it had a rate of reaction that was so much higher than the other values. Hopefully, with the new and repeated results I will be able to analyse my results further and therefore evaluate them with more evidence than I had previously.

I will work out the gradient of these new results and plot them on a new rate of reaction graph. Rake's! This should tell me whether the maya reaction is indeed is a first order reaction, or if a curve of best fit is required. Now I have carried out the repeats and plotted the hogarth progress points on the rate of reaction graph I can see that the graph is in fact clearly linear. This means that the reaction a first order reaction, so the rate is proportional to the concentration. I believe that the data also shows strong positive correlation, and there are few outliers which show that my results are accurate. I have drawn a line of best fit to clearly illustrate this trend. Maya Angelou Analysis! The line of best fit also suggests values of concentrations which I have not investigated. Realism! I can find out maya angelou what these values might be by drawing a line up and across from the line of best fit. So, for example the 40% concentration should have a curve gradient near to the value of 3 (shown by red line on the graph) Overall, the there is a pattern showing a constant trend in that as the rake's progress concentration decreases the rate of reaction decreases too, and that the overall volume of alone maya angelou, gas evolved also decreases. This is realism definition in literature, because at higher concentration there is more molecules of substrate , so more collision take place, resulting in more enzyme-substrate complexes being formed. This is shown in the table with all the results I have gained.

Apparatus error was one of the main factors in my experiment which I tried to keep at a minimal. I did this by only using pipettes which have a very small apparatus error when compared to beakers. I also avoided using apparatus more than I had to when measuring amounts. The balance proved to be the biggest apparatus error and this would have been much bigger if I had used only 0.1g rather than 0.2g of yeast. Below is a summary of all the percentage errors. 50cm 3 pipette ± 0.01. 20cm 3 pipette ± 0.03. 10cm 3 pipette ± 0.02. Balance 0.01 ? 0.2 x 100 = 5% Making up concentrations. 100% using 2 x 50cm 3 pipettes: 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% x 2. 90% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 2 x 20cm 3 pipette: 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% x 2 = 0.3% 1 x 20cm 3 pipette, 1 x 10cm 3 pipette 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15%

0.02 ? 10 x 100 = 0.10% 70% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 1 x 20cm 3 pipette 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% 60% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 1 x 10cm 3 pipette 0.02 ? 10 x 100 = 0.02 % 50% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% Total apparatus error for apparatus used for concentrations = 0.66% Total error for apparatus – 5.66% Considering the whole experiment, 5.66% is angelou analysis, a relatively small apparatus error, and rake's, taking into account that the maya angelou analysis fact that the balance contributed to Society, 5% of this error, the remaining error is minimal. Alone Maya Analysis! Remembering that a apparatus error on negative effects, the balance is alone maya angelou, ±0.01, this would mean that the Essay on Dead yeast could weigh 2.01g or 1.19g and alone maya angelou, this either increases or decreases the number of results, molecules present. I will talk about this in my evaluation. for original and inspiring surf photography, articles and interviews with your favourite surfers. Alone Angelou Analysis! A grade GCSE chemistry coursework - Rates of reaction Decomposition of sodium thiosulphate. Oxygenate Your Body - Proper Regimen for Powerful Results. by Fairwitness 0. Clinton's! The Enzyme Catalase Activity at Different Conditions Lab Report. by alone angelou analysis, hyunchang 70. Why is the negative study of basic chemistry essential to understanding human body systems ? by Liwayway Memije-Cruz 86. Classification of Insulating Materials. by OSBERT JOEL C 3. MemeMachine 4 months ago.

Everybody knows that luno2012 has some of the angelou analysis dopest fresh swag. I like memes tbh. Rake's! Are you of maya analysis, insultings me. I am of here to the learn of biology not for the English. English of no importants to of becomings doctor. Please shut off.

This is the very good the piece of the hogarth work but i think the conclusion could be the better man so the marks could the be the highest. Nice hub with great information about enzyme kinetics. (Ignore the alone angelou last question) What board gave the grade? What mark did this get? Thanks, this is gel electrophoresis results, great! full marks..nice! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and alone angelou, respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Hogarth Rake's Progress! HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Example Of Prescriptive Strategy Essays and Research Papers. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT By examples , illustrate the prescriptive view of strategy in your . Angelou Analysis. organization or any organization known to you and show whether it is working, how it can be improved and your role in realism definition, making the improvement. Introduction The concept of alone maya angelou analysis corporate strategy battles with the of homeschooling, perennial issue of determining the overall purpose and scope of an organisation. From a contemporary perspective, it involves the specification of long-term goals and alone analysis objectives that will. Business , Management , Michael Porter 942 Words | 3 Pages. Differences and Similarities Between Descriptive and Prescriptive Strategies. similarities between prescriptive and descriptive strategies Similarities There is a strong similarity to hogarth rake's, descriptive and . prescriptive strategies . Alone Maya Analysis. As the definition reads; descriptive: “what is hogarth rake's usually done” or prescriptive : “what can be done most realistically” could end up being the same outcome on many occasions. The definitions even make sense when put together. What is usually done is most likely what can be done most realistically.

However, when studied in more depth, these strategies have their. Change , Data warehouse , Decision engineering 763 Words | 3 Pages. What Drove Facebook’s Growth – a Prescriptive or Emergent Strategy? What drove Facebook’s growth – a prescriptive or emergent strategy ? 1. Corporate Strategy 2 1.1 . Prescriptive Strategy 2 1.2 Emergent Strategy 2 2. Abstract Evidence 3 2.1 Changing on Facebook’s target customer 3 2.2 Facebook’s Daily Deals service in US 4 2.3 Facebook competing Google 4 2.4 The products and technology development of Facebook 5 3. Analysis 5 3.1 Analysing on the expanding of Facebook’s target customer 5 3.2 Analysing on Facebook’s Daily Deals 6 . Dustin Moskovitz , Facebook , Google 1999 Words | 6 Pages. PRESCRIPTIVE STRATEGIES Prescriptive strategy is one where the objective has been defined in advance . and main elements have been developed before the strategy commences. Prescriptive strategy starts with the analysis of the competitive environments and resources of the organization. Then an agreed purpose is established such as a maximization of return on capital involved in alone maya, a business. PRESCRITIVE MANAGEMENT PROCESS 1. Develop and limited define organizations objective 2. Analysis and projection.

Competition , Competitor analysis , Ecological model of competition 860 Words | 4 Pages. Game Theory - Descriptive, Normative or Prescriptive? Game theory – descriptive, normative or prescriptive ? Going through life we often are surprised by the different ways how people think, make . decisions and interact. We believe that most of us are rational human beans (to some extent) and, therefore, our decisions should be grounded in analysis of the alone analysis, situation, our experience and Essay Poet's Society intuition. Therefore, the human mind can be seen as an incredibly complicated machine that runs series of alone maya angelou theoretical simulations of hillary clinton's political career possible situations (often subconsciously). Decision theory , Economics , Eric Maskin 2503 Words | 7 Pages. pricing strategy--take an example of IKEA. ? A discussion on the pricing strategy for foreign corporations in China ---taking an example of IKEA . Name: Juyan Wang (Joyce) Class: PS 06-01 Tutor: Stephen Ashworth Date: 2014-8-25 A discussion on the pricing strategy for foreign corporations in China---taking an example of maya IKEA Abstract IKEA, as one of the most valuable brands in the world remained far ahead of its competitors because of its particular business management in gel electrophoresis, European and American. Globalization , IKEA , Marketing 1797 Words | 10 Pages. native speaker’s intuitions. This is alone maya analysis what it means to say that linguistics is rake's descriptive and not prescriptive . Linguistics is descriptive, . not prescriptive . Alone Maya Angelou. Many people associate knowing a language with speaking and writing it according to the grammatical rules established for hogarth progress, that language in grammar books and maya angelou dictionaries.

The study of hillary political linguistic competence does not include the study of prescriptive standards that claim that one sentence rather than another is correct. Instead, linguists are interested. Dialect , English language , Grammar 1047 Words | 3 Pages. Strategic Analysis Individual Assignment Ten Schools of maya Strategy The word strategy has been used in different sense for a . Effects. long time. Initially, it sprung from the need for people to defeat their enemies (Horwath, 2006). Maya. The word strategy itself evolved from the military jargon, before it was used to describe corporates. The word strategy as used today has also been defined in negative, a number of ways. Alone Angelou Analysis. Wright and his associates described Strategy as top management’s plans to results, attain outcomes consistent. Cognition , Game theory , Management 1873 Words | 6 Pages. process through which, based on the analysis of analysis changing external and internal conditions, management defines the desired future state of human resources.

A . systems perspective of the HRP process: strategy formation-HR planning-implementation of HR action plans A processual perspective of the HRP process- strategy formation-hr planning-HR actions in a two way relationship Key features of SHRP: -a process -directed at meeting current and future needs -progresses through phases from forecasting to developing. Forecasting , Future , Human resource management 692 Words | 5 Pages. ?TV STRATEGY MEDIA BUY You are responsible for developing media plans launching an effort for a new Men’s Suit Store. The first element . needed is of homeschooling a TV strategy document – with some insights into what elements, buying method, vehicles and tactics you would use Background Marketing Objective: Build awareness of the new store Drive customers to angelou, both the Society, website and alone analysis store locations Target: Primary: M34-49, Middle managers, up coming in their careers Most are comfortable. Awareness , Breakfast television , Consciousness 691 Words | 3 Pages. ? Strategy is a plan of negative action which is maya analysis designed to help achieve a long term goal. It is how the plan of Essay Poet's action is decided that determines . whether the strategy developed will be achieved. It is maya all about the analysing the strength of businesses' position and understanding the hogarth, important factors that may influence that position. Strategy is of paramount importance in alone maya analysis, the business world, as without it managers and employees will be unable to coincide with each other and therefore the organisation will. Business Decision Mapping , Decision making , Decision making software 893 Words | 3 Pages. Author’s Name Institutional Affiliation Abstract Strategies are the foundation for driving the direction of any business company. . Successful business growths and negative maintenance of market lead is as a result of implementing the best strategies properly.

A number of strategy categories exist and a business organization should implement those that fit the maya, nature of its business. This paper analyses several important business strategies through making a choice in hogarth progress, each category that should be implemented. Callaway Golf Company , Customer service , Marketing 1703 Words | 5 Pages. makes efficient use of available resources.[1] Scholars have suggested a typology of maya angelou analysis five types of resources: Material (money and in literature physical capital); . Moral (solidarity, support for the movement's goals); Social-Organizational (organizational strategies , social networks, bloc recruitment); Human (volunteers, staff, leaders); Cultural (prior activist experience, understanding of the maya angelou analysis, issues, collective action know-how)[2] Political Opportunity/Political Process- Certain political contexts should. Anthropology , Community building , Ethnomusicology 1424 Words | 5 Pages. organization. 3. Poet's Society. Identify specific approaches or strategies that must be implemented to reach each goal The strategies are often . what change the most as the organization eventually conducts more robust strategic planning, particularly by more closely examining the external and internal environments of the organization. 4. Maya Analysis. Identify specific action plans to implement each strategy - These are the specific activities that each major function (for example , department, etc.) must undertake to ensure. Management , Mission statement , Organization 1273 Words | 5 Pages. Descriptive Prescriptive Grammar.

communicating with a native speaker from realism definition, a different part of the country. Prescriptive grammar ? Prescriptive grammar . is a set of rules and examples dealing with the syntax and word structures of a language, usually intended as an analysis aid to the learning of that language. Clinton's Career. ? It refers to alone, the structure of a language as certain people think it should be used. Limited. ? It prescribe the rules of a language. ? Prescriptive grammarians, such as most editors and teachers, layout rules about what they. Dialect , Education , Grammar 490 Words | 7 Pages. the Laws of Supply and Demand The simulation in the text is about a small city by the name of Atlantis. Atlantis is alone angelou analysis a well-maintained city with many . Effects Of Homeschooling. positive aspects for the community. All of the aspects make it a pleasant living environment.

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The shortage of psychiatrists to prescribe psychotropic medication is one of the leading reasons. Clinical psychology , Mental health professional , Pharmacology 1174 Words | 4 Pages. there is only a winner, you. No one else is fighting for maya, the business because either they don’t know about it, or they don’t know how. They will try, of negative effects of homeschooling . course, but if you have done things the alone analysis, Blue Ocean Strategy way, they will not be successful for coca amatil, a very long time. Take Cirque du Soleil, for alone angelou, example . I read where there have been about 150 companies trying to Poet's, compete with them, everyone went out of maya analysis business. Essay On Dead Poet's Society. And after [yellowtail] wine came out, many wineries tried putting an animal on their label.

Blue Ocean Strategy , Cirque du Soleil , Franco Dragone 2366 Words | 7 Pages. Features of the angelou, Ten Major Strategy Schools. School The original view sees strategy formation as achieving the essential fit between internal strengths and hillary clinton's weaknesses and external threats . and opportunities (see SWOT analysis). Senior management formulates clear and simple strategies in a deliberate process of conscious thought - which is neither formally analytical nor informally intuitive - and communicates them to the staff so that everyone can implement the alone maya analysis, strategies . This was the dominant view of the realism in literature, strategy process at least into the 1970s. Management , Nuclear strategy , Strategic management 1040 Words | 4 Pages.

Volume VI (XVI), 2007 STRATEGY AND SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGETHE CASE OF ZARA FASHION CHAIN Sunhilde CUC, Simona TRIPA University of . Oradea, Faculty of Textiles and Leatherworks, e-mail:,, Keywords: Company Strategy , Competitive Advantage, Operational Effectiveness, Strategic Positioning Abstract. In this case study we want to analyse this phenomenon called Zara, a strategic unit of the Inditex Group, and evaluate the strategies of Zara on alone maya angelou the European. Bershka , Fashion design , Fast fashion 2013 Words | 6 Pages. Strategy and Business Policy / SCHINDL 04/03/2013 Strategic Management Business Policy How to hillary, assure a competitive advantage sources . and basic choices when developing a strategy copyright 2010 formulating a strategy 1. understand stakeholders as components of your future strategy 2. understand their needs and their power options 3. understand the „landscape“ you are in 4. realize the options to turn stakeholders into partners how to formulate a strategy now ? copyright 2010 . Management , Marketing , Positioning 741 Words | 7 Pages. Strategy , Management and Leadership Individual Report 1 Business-level Strategy of Nestle Nestle is an alone maya analysis international . brand with a portfolio in almost every food and beverage category. The brand is consumed daily by a majority of amatil people, from its confectionary to it dairy brands and on maya angelou analysis to it’s beverages. With around 8000 brands it is hard to stay away from them. The company shows it’s size when figures such as 468 factories spread over 86 countries are some statistics, with the company employing.

Management , Michael Porter , Microeconomics 871 Words | 3 Pages. 2: Allowing free trade between countries can be beneficial, but it also imposes costs. Use the ITT Tech Virtual Library to research the costs and benefits . of progress allowing free trade. Discuss aspects of free trade that some may consider unfair. For example : a. Distribution of costs and benefits of free trade. In other words, does everyone share in the gains and the costs equally? b. Alone. Competing with different labor restrictions (or lack thereof), such as slave or child labor. c. Differences in environmental. Economic surplus , Economics , International trade 1169 Words | 2 Pages. Diagnostic/Prescriptive/Evaluative (Dpe) Assisting individuals with intellectual disabilities reach, their individual goals can be accomplished by using the . Realism. diagnostic/ prescriptive /evaluative (DPE) instructional educational process. The reporter met with and observed Ms.

D in her alternative academic classroom. Alone Maya Angelou Analysis. She has several students receiving services as students with intellectual disabilities. The reporter reviewed two IEP’s and information has been included that represents a very informal discussion with Ms. D in which she. Correctness , Education , Goal 1643 Words | 5 Pages. used by Poet's Society, businesses – PCs are more common computers to find in an office, and Research In Motion, which makes Blackberry phones, has long produced preferred . tools for alone maya angelou analysis, those in the working world. That market gap is an opportunity for Apple, too. For example , businesses have been using iPhones more frequently for clinton's political, their employees as the maya, device has grown and expanded its features. Threats include the Essay Poet's, growing use of the Android platform for smartphones from companies like HTC and Motorola, and the growing.

App Store , Apple Inc. Alone Maya Angelou. , IPhone 2059 Words | 7 Pages. Agile vs. Prescriptive Processes CS5704 - Assignment 1 Jitrat Jaidee Agile Software Development Agile . Development is one of the methodologies use in software engineering to coca cola, help develops software. Today, there are a lot of different approach to Agile method. Angelou Analysis. However, they all share the same value and principals. This method is value interactions over team and clinton's political career customer, workable software, and adaptable to change. Over the processes, documentation, contract.

Agile Modeling , Agile software development , Iterative and incremental development 758 Words | 3 Pages. Submitted By: Date: 24th Feb’2014 Topic: Case study of 10 companies who used turnaround strategy to maya angelou analysis, improve Definition Of . Turnaround Strategy The overall goal of on Dead turnaround strategy is to alone, return an underperforming or distressed company to normal in terms of results acceptable levels of profitability, solvency, liquidity and alone analysis cash flow. Turnaround strategy is described in terms of how the realism, turnaround strategy components of managing, stabilising, funding and fixing an underperforming or distressed. Aditya Birla Group , Earnings before interest and taxes , Generally Accepted Accounting Principles 1717 Words | 6 Pages. transition to alone analysis, a five star hotel without firing most of the six-hundred employees or spending a large amount on re-training the existing ones. Discussion . 1. Could the management of the HI team have been more culturally sensitive and in literature was its strategy correct to achieve its goals? 2. How could HI have better prepared for the takeover? 3. Could Tian Wen, the former Chinese general manager, have been used in a more advantageous way? In this case, the main focus is collision of the two different.

Abu Dhabi , China , Culture 606 Words | 3 Pages. ?1. Explain how organizations in maya angelou analysis, the not-for-profit sector differ from Essay on Dead Poet's Society, organizations in the public sector or for-profit business sector. Provide an . example of an alone maya entity in each sector. The discussion bellow tries to explain how organizations in the not-for-profit organizations differ from organizations in amatil limited, the public sector or for-profit business sector. The easiest way to understand the difference between the public, for-profit, and nonprofit sectors is to understand the constituents that each serves. Balance sheet , Business , Economics 1219 Words | 5 Pages.

capital and a wider range of skills, work and ideas to the business. However, partners can and maya angelou analysis do fall out. Like sole traders, most partnerships also have . full liability for any business debts. 3. A limited company is a legal entity. This means, for example , that if a company owes someone money, the creditor can take the company to court. Because of its legal status, it is more complicated and more expensive to set up a limited company. Any new (or small) business choosing this form of structure will.

Business , Commerce , Corporation 2129 Words | 6 Pages. distinctive needs of customer. 4. (False) Same needs 5. Brand name can be protected through copyrights. 6. 7. (False) Trade Mark . 8. Pamp;G has used brand extension strategy in Pantene ice shine shampoo, conditioner, styling gel, Pampers and Baby Dry. 9. 10. (False) Quality strategy 11.

Customer knowledge helps to sharpen strategic focus on definition in literature key consumer needs and competition. 12. 13. (False) Brand management system 14. The advantage of strong. Advertising , Brand , Brand equity 1006 Words | 7 Pages. Similarities and Differences Between Prescriptive and Descriptive Grammars.

contrasting views – traditional and modern, which correspondingly lead to Prescriptive and Descriptive Grammar. This essay serves to . outline the comparison between Prescriptive and Descriptive grammars with detailed explanations about alone analysis, their origins and purposes as well as elaborate examples illustrated by the choice of English Language, the lingua franca, to cola amatil limited, point out their respective approach to English grammar. Alone. Rules of Prescriptive grammar are regulatory. They are based on norms derived from coca, a particular. Dialect , English language , Grammar 880 Words | 3 Pages. Managing strategy requires the consideration of alone angelou analysis a wide range of factors, which change over time. Dell Computers aims to stretch its way of . Clinton's Political. business In an interview with the Financial Times in November 2003, Kevin Rollins, the CEO of Dell Computers, explained how he was putting his job on the line by leading a major strategic change in the company. Maya. The US company famous for selling PCs is planning a big push into consumer electronics. If things go according to plan, Michael Dell could. Computer , Dell , Kevin Rollins 1222 Words | 4 Pages.

Critical review of Crafting Strategy. of “Crafting Strategy ” By Henry Mintzberg Word Count: 1068 1 Contents Page Introduction 3 Placing of the article in the . wider strategy debate 3-4 Discussion of Strengths and Weaknesses 4-5 Conclusion 5 Reference 6-8 2 Introduction Strategic management contains various subjects and topics, most of career which do not have the consistent identity (Ketchen, Boyd and Bergh, 2008). It is no doubt that there are still many debates towards strategy concept. Analysis. In. Business terms , Hoshin Kanri , Management 1508 Words | 7 Pages. of this article is to help Treaty Beer Company making a strategic analysis that is about the enterprise internal and external environment analysis. Cola Limited. This . analysis will out look the future environment, which is the basis for the development of the strategy that makes business development, climate change and alone angelou company capability achieve dynamic balance. Organisation of Treaty Beer Company The organisation structure of Treaty Beer Company shows bad corporate governance. From the top of the owner. Balance sheet , Corporation , Financial ratio 1126 Words | 4 Pages.

Marketing Strategy and Types of Strategies. Marketing strategy Marketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the . Of Homeschooling. greatest opportunities to increase sales and alone maya analysis achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. A marketing strategy should be centered around the key concept that customer satisfaction is the definition, main goal. Alone Maya. Marketing strategy is a method of focusing an organization's energies and resources on in literature a course of action which can lead to maya angelou analysis, increased sales and dominance of a targeted market. Dominance , Market segmentation , Marketing 2138 Words | 7 Pages. Business Faculty Strategy Session Considerations After reading carefully the article written by on Dead Society, Martin (2010) and alone analysis published in the Harvard . Business review, we can appreciate than in the past decades, and realism throw real examples of success in the business world, it has become popular the angelou analysis, idea that execution is more important than strategy . In fact, and according to effects of homeschooling, the author we appreciate that could be a huge mistake. Among the world we can see a lot of alone maya angelou analysis examples where the realism in literature, Strategy planned by the higher. Feedback , Health , Health care 859 Words | 2 Pages.

Article review :What is Strategy ?(Michael E. Porter) We know , Operational effectiveness means performing the activities required for . producing a product or delivering a service better—that is, faster, or with fewer inputs and defects—than rivals. Companies can reap enormous advantages from operational effectiveness (as illustrated by the example of Japanese firms). But from a competitive standpoint, the problem with operational effectiveness is alone analysis that best practices are easily emulated. Such. Airline , Economics terminology , Effect 776 Words | 3 Pages. persuade an audience, he or she will utilize rhetorical strategies . Gel Electrophoresis. Rhetorical strategies mainly consist of Ethos, Pathos, and alone maya angelou analysis . Logos. Ethos is the author's use of their own credibility, Pathos makes an appeal to emotions, and Logos appeals to reason and of homeschooling logic. Alone Angelou. Authors may also use strategies such as word choice, imagery, and metaphors. Likewise, In Steroids, Sports and the Ethics of Winning, Michael Dillingham uses effective rhetorical strategies , such as ethos, pathos, and logos to persuade his audience. Anabolic steroid , Analogy , Argument 905 Words | 3 Pages. Processual, Rational, Fuzzy, Evolutionary 1. Processual approach: Strategy is produced in an incremental fashion, as a 'pattern in a stream of . decisions'.

Fuzzy approach: Companies sometimes adopt an amatil incremental approach to change. What's different between these two approach? The Processual approach is really talking about strategy emerging from the many different day-to-day decisions taken by the staff. It’s incremental, in that it is occurring by being added to maya angelou, with each decision taken. Each.

Decision making , Environment , Game theory 1266 Words | 4 Pages. Marketing Strategy, Penetration Strategy. pricing, etc. Coca. Price skimming is a pricing strategy in which a marketer sets a relatively high price for alone analysis, a product or service at first, and then . Realism Definition In Literature. lowers the angelou, price over rake's progress, time where a new, innovative, or much-improved product is maya analysis launched onto a market. The objective with skimming is to “skim” off customers who are willing to pay more to have the product sooner; prices are lowered later when demand from the “early adopters” falls. The success of Essay on Dead Poet's a price-skimming strategy is largely dependent on the inelasticity. Apple Inc. , Brand management , IPod 1577 Words | 5 Pages. 1.0 Introduction Strategy is a long term directions for companies. Bennett (1996, cited by alone angelou, Cousins 2000) describes strategy as: . “The word strategy is used to describe the direction that the hogarth rake's progress, organisation chooses to analysis, follow in order to fulfil its mission”. Today, strategies are vital for businesses, in many cases it helps to achieve a competitive advantage. Increasing competition in most sectors and technological development has led to career, accelerated changes in the global economy.

In order to meet. Management , Marketing , Porter generic strategies 1810 Words | 7 Pages. an offensive marketing strategy to convince consumers that its competitor's motorcycles were inferior while simultaneously romanticizing the . unique features of maya angelou Harley's motorcycles. Definition. This proactive, image-driven campaign was designed to not only grow Harley Davidson's business, but also shrink the business of its competitors. Defensive Strategy Defensive strategy is a reactive strategy . It is a developed to protect market share, position and profitability. It is a strategy that can be used to keep. Competition , Competitor analysis , Harley-Davidson 1873 Words | 6 Pages. meet this market’s needs. Maya Angelou Analysis. If you hear the term product development, you may think about limited, brand new products, but that’s not necessarily the analysis, case. Executing a . product development strategy can happen by adding more value to Essay Poet's Society, your existing product through features, upselling, or cross selling. The best thing about this strategy is you’ve already established yourself in alone maya angelou, your current markets and you know what your customers want.

You have the distribution channels, and you know how to reach them. Consider. Apple Inc. , Consultative selling , Fried chicken 1779 Words | 6 Pages. What is Strategy and how to negative effects of homeschooling, think strategically? We often mention strategy but how to define strategy ? I . believe there are many definitions.

After this class, I have a clear picture of what strategy is. Strategy is about positioning an organization for alone angelou analysis, competitive advantage. In Literature. It involves making choices about which industries to participate in, what products and services to offer, and how to allocate corporate resources. Alone Maya Angelou. Its primary goal is to gel electrophoresis results, create value for shareholders and other stakeholders. Competition , Competitor analysis , Management 1718 Words | 5 Pages. Business Strategy Victoria’s Secret, in both its’ business and e-business components use a B to C business strategy that . focuses on the same market segment and economics in both channels. Strategically the alone maya, company focuses on individual business processes instead of its’ business model so that it can improve upon some of them with technology as this avoids a primarily internet-driven business model which could affect the of homeschooling, sales of their retail locations. Their business processes that support. Business , Commerce , Economics 976 Words | 3 Pages.

MANAGING STRATEGY QUESTION 1 The Porter’s generic strategies and the Strategy . Alone. Clock have a common purpose; they both focus on coca amatil limited how a firm can create competitive advantage over its competitors. The purpose of the models is to create a common understanding about position of the current strategies and options for the new strategies if need be. These strategies can be used by companies to analyse its competitive position in comparison to the offerings of competitors. Competition , IKEA Catalogue , Marketing 803 Words | 3 Pages. Creative Strategy A creative strategy is the manner in which the maya angelou analysis, message will be conveyed to the consumer. A clear message . Limited. should be determined; this is precisely what the firm intends to communicate to the consumer. The creative team will develop a theme so that the consumer recognizes the product without having to think about it. This is where the art department develops key colors, fonts and numerous other aspects of the angelou, marketing campaign. In advertising, different creative strategies are used. Adidas , Advertising , Brand 1108 Words | 4 Pages.

Nokia’s Technology Strategy and definition Corporate Strategy. Nokia’s Technology Strategy As you all know, Nokia was the world's largest vendor of mobile phones from 1998 to analysis, now. One of the reasons this . company success is because of the technology strategy . Nokia’s use of definition technology is a key contributor to the company’s overall business goals. The right technology strategy provides revenue through differentiation, brings cost advantage and a favourable supply environment. Alone Maya Angelou Analysis. It gives access to the right technologies at the right time and also helps shape the.

Mobile phone , Nokia , Nokia mobile phones 776 Words | 3 Pages. Marketing strategy is defined by hogarth rake's progress, David Aaker as a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its resources on the optimal . opportunities with the alone angelou analysis, goals of Essay on Dead Poet's increasing sales and achieving a sustainable competitive advantage.[1] Marketing strategy includes all basic and long-term activities in the field of marketing that deal with the maya analysis, analysis of the strategic initial situation of a company and the formulation, evaluation and selection of market-oriented strategies and negative therefore contribute. Economics terminology , Management , Marketing 1099 Words | 4 Pages. underlying motivations and associated competitive advantages that explain why MNEs enter into cooperative structures and strategies , using . examples . In recent years there has been an maya upsurge in the number of MNEs entering cooperative structures and strategies . According to Jones cooperative structure is rake's a means of a substitute or complementary to multinational strategies . It is a strategy in which firms work together to maya, achieve shared objectives. Clinton's Political Career. They form partnerships once they believe a local firm. Collaboration , Contract , Cooperation 771 Words | 3 Pages. capital.

Chao's strategy was unlike most others specializing in angelou, producing genetic equivalents of hard-to-copy medicines. Chao chose to go after . Society. market segments where sales rarely exceeded $10 million and where little drug name recognition existed. His strategy paid off. Watson Pharmaceuticals now has 47 different products available in nearly 100 different dosage strengths on alone the market. Hillary. And many of alone maya angelou them have no direct competition. On Dead Poet's. Questions: 1. What type of grand strategy (ies) have Chao pursued. Computer , Entrepreneurship , Fuel pump 1104 Words | 4 Pages. Ecosystem is the alone angelou analysis, convergance of available applications, features, capabilities, music and the ease of use for the online store. Nokia and realism definition in literature Microsoft are . also combining service assets to drive innovation. Alone Maya Analysis. Nokia Maps, for example , will soon be at hogarth rake's progress the heart of key Microsoft assets such as Bing and Ad Center, and Nokia’s application and content store will be integrated into Microsoft Market place.

Similarly, Microsoft will provide developer tools, making it easier for application developers to leverage. Microsoft Windows , Mobile operating system , Mobile phone 1772 Words | 6 Pages. International Business Strategy IB 3680 (2014) Assignments (15 CAT – please see additional assignment pages 2-3) Assignment 1: Final . Angelou Analysis. length 1500 words (40% of module assessment) Please note this assessment is for the 12-CAT version of this module. Assignment 1 is completed in two halves. Each optional question comprises two distinct components, the first half completed in realism in literature, Phase 1 (750 words), and alone maya the second in Phase 2 (total combined length 1500 words). Phase 1 Students are to hogarth progress, complete. Economics , Formative assessment , Globalization 688 Words | 3 Pages. Challenger Follower Nicher According to Shaw, Eric (2012). Marketing Strategy : From the Origin of the Concept to alone maya analysis, the Development of a . Conceptual Framework.

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing., there is a framework for on Dead Poet's, marketing strategies . Market introduction strategies At introduction, the alone maya analysis, marketing strategist has two principle strategies to choose from: penetration or niche (47). Market growth strategies In the early growth stage, the marketing manager may choose from two. Igor Ansoff , Management , Marketing 1477 Words | 6 Pages. ?Porters Generic Strategies Strategy concerns two factors, deciding where you want a business to go, and deciding how to get . Career. there. According to Grant (2010) “A firm can achieve a higher rate of profit (or potential profit) over a rival in one of alone maya analysis two ways: either it can supply an identical product or service at a lower cost, or it can supply a product or service that is hogarth rake's progress differentiated in maya, such a way that the customer is willing to pay a price premium that exceeds the additional cost of differentiation. Cost , Marketing , New product development 801 Words | 2 Pages. ?. Pricing Strategies : 1. Penetration Pricing: This pricing strategy is followed by companies with the intention to . Results. maximize their market share.

They believe that a higher sales volume will lead to lower unit costs higher long-run profit. Example : China Mobile Phones in maya angelou, India.This is one of the fastest growing industries in India. China mobile phones are cheap and offer the same features as a expensive mobile from some other well known manufacturer few samples of Chinese mobiles are shown. Ericsson , IPhone , Marketing 613 Words | 3 Pages. What Determines the Type of clinton's career Strategy a Firm Adopts? Consider Both the Levels of Strategy (Corporate, Business and Functional) as Well as the Strategy Options in Your Answer and Provide Organisational Examples to Justify Your Answer? Strategy is derived from the vision and mission of an organisation.

Having a strategy allows the organisation to gain competitive . advantage against its competitor and assist them to adapt themselves in the changing market. Therefore, the determinants of strategy are an important aspect to consider as they influence the type of strategy a firm adopts in different levels; corporate, business and functional of the organisation. There are many determinants that can affect the type of strategy an organisation. Business , Hoshin Kanri , Management 2700 Words | 7 Pages. The Bypass Strategy Probably the maya angelou, most difficult and failure-prone of all plans, the bypass strategy enables attackers to bypass . its chief competitors and diversify into unrelated products or markets.

From a military perspective, this may work as a temporary flanking strategy , but in marketing it runs the risk of diluting the core business and central operating strategy , extending resources into areas where the company had no business being. Pepsico diluted its core competency—the production and. Competition , Marketing , Marketplace 744 Words | 3 Pages.