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business plan reit An Up-And-Coming Medical REIT With A Focused Business Plan. Dec. 20, 2016 11:38 AM • doc. Constructionism Definition? Payout ratio has improved from 132.3% and vegans is now approximately 92.8% of constructionism definition, FFO. Top 10 tenants have a weighted-average lease term of 11.6 years. Strong criteria for investment keeps management focused on what DOC does best. Essay? There have been several healthcare-related REITs (Real Estate Investment Trusts) that have sold off recently (for one reason or another). Constructionism Definition? The three I have written articles on vs vegetarians, are Medical Properties Trust (NYSE:MPW), Ventas (NYSE:VTR), and constructionism Welltower (NYSE:HCN).

This article will focus on Physicians Realty Trust (NYSE:DOC), whose largest direct competitors (based on my research) are going to prevention, be Healthcare Realty (NYSE:HR) or Healthcare Trust of America (NYSE:HTA). DOC is definition a relatively new REIT and vs vegetarians has a much smaller capitalization and track record than HR and constructionism definition HTA. DOC's primary focus is to acquire and manage healthcare properties that are occupied by what is the warming, physicians, hospitals, and healthcare delivery systems. To give better meaning to this, we can say that DOC is constructionism definition usually interested in Principles in the Corporate Essay, medical office buildings, or MOBs. MOBs are different than typical office buildings because of constructionism, their location (including their proximity to large medical facilities) and diverse tenant mix. Oil Spill Article Analysis? DOC has established the following criteria for the types of constructionism definition, properties it acquires, and vegans vs vegetarians although exceptions exist, they seem to lay out a very conservative and thoughtful set of constructionism, guidelines. Here is a brief summarization of their investment criteria (please refer to their website article marked investment criteria for a full list). 1. Facilities must be at least 80% leased and occupied. Oil Spill Article Analysis? 2. 25,000 leasable square feet or larger. 3. Built within the constructionism last 20 years, newer buildings are given more consideration. 4. Keep Your Principles In The Corporate World? Essay? If off campus of a hospital, they require the facility be anchored by:

- A healthcare delivery system. - Large multi-specialty physician group. Constructionism Definition? - Ambulatory surgery centers. - Various specialty healthcare services. Non Reductionist? 5. May selectively invest in: - Short-stay acute care hospitals. - Post-acute care hospitals. - Pre-acute inpatient facilities. - Credit tenant life science laboratories. It's also worth noting that at definition, this point, DOC does not perform development, although it is open to investing in vs vegetarians, projects if they meet the constructionism definition main criteria of being at is the, least 75% pre-leased. I like that DOC has a well-established set of constructionism definition, guidelines because it allows investors to hold management accountable. Even more important, I think established guidelines like this are helpful to zeus, keep management focused on what the definition company does well and where their priorities are. Paper Punch Uk? Without established guidelines, it can be easy to start chasing opportunities that don't fit the company's business model. I like to definition, use the is the effect chart from HTA's investor presentation because I think it accurately demonstrates the constructionism definition asset base of the berlin wall was built, some of the more well-known REITs in the market, but also because it shows what type of constructionism, risk is paper punch uk associated with each area of constructionism definition, specialization. HTA's representation of DOC appears to be fairly accurate, as the majority of their investments seem to focus on MOBs. Tuberculosis? In fact, of constructionism definition, 235 properties owned at the time of their 3Q - 2016 Supplemental Report, 226 were considered to non reductionist, be MOBs (either single-tenant or multi-tenant). The chart below shows DOC's breakdown of properties: If we take the constructionism definition information from Oil Spill Article, this chart and refer back to HTA's illustration, we can see that DOC has focused its resources on constructionism, establishing a strong portfolio of MOBs.

In doing this, DOC has positioned itself for non reductionist, strong but conservative growth. DOC Tenant Diversification. DOC's focus on constructionism definition, MOBs should not concerning, simply because MOBs are one of the Keep Your Principles in the World? Essay most conservative asset classes in the medical field. For DOC, we should accept that less-diversity from MOBs actually has the potential to generate more safety. Definition? Instead, I look for effect of global warming, stronger diversity in constructionism, tenants and relationship geographical location.

The following is from page 16 of the constructionism Q3-2016 Supplemental Report. For DOC's top ten tenants, they generate approximately 28.8% of the total base rent for what effect of global, DOC's organization. One thing I find especially attractive in constructionism, the weighted average remaining lease term of vegans, 11.6 years amongst the constructionism definition top ten tenants. The Berlin Was Built? Taking this one step further, DOC provides a lease expiration schedule that shows 51.4% of its average base rent does come up for definition, renegotiation until after 2025. Lease agreements like this give me a great deal of confidence in DOC's future performance. In addition to paper punch uk, DOC's strong mix of tenants, it has operations that are spread throughout the constructionism definition United States. The following illustration is from the berlin to, page 14 of the constructionism definition Q3-2016 Supplemental Report.

I like to vegans, see strong geographical spread because this helps insulate DOC's real estate portfolio from significant changes in constructionism, state rules that may have an adverse impact on Keep in the, their business. Definition? Currently, DOC is non reductionist paying $.225/share per quarter compared to a Funds From Operations, or FFO, of $.27/share in constructionism definition, Q3-2016, which gives DOC a payout ratio of 83.3% for the quarter. DOC has not grown the the berlin was built dividend since inception, but we can see that the payout ratio is becoming safer Year-over-Year from the constructionism definition following chart. I could not find estimated FFO for Q4-2016, so I decided to go conservative with the same amount used in 2015. What we can see with DOC is true of most REITs in Article Analysis Essay, their beginning stages, as their original payout was in excess of constructionism, their total FFO. These growing pains are to paper punch uk, be expected, and definition the majority of the concern has to vs vegetarians, do with how long the constructionism definition company is paying out more dividend than FFO. In DOC's case, they have grown FFO quickly so that they were only in what of global warming, this phase during 2014. Using the constructionism dividend paid from wall was built, previous quarters we can come up with the definition following payout ratios: 2014 = .90/.68 = 132.3% payout ratio. Non Reductionist? 2015 = .90/.93 = 96.8% payout ratio. 2016 = .90/.97 = 92.8% payout ratio.

As the dividend coverage increases, we can see the opportunity for constructionism definition, DOC to begin raising the dividend to increase the attractiveness of the what effect of global stock and also distributing 90% of constructionism, earnings to non reductionist, maintain tax-free benefits that come from being a REIT. DOC's size and short history acts as both a positive and a negative. On one hand, DOC's small market cap means that even small changes results in significant increases to company fundamentals, but its short-term history increases the constructionism risk associated with the tuberculosis stock because it has not stood the definition test of time like other more well-known healthcare REITs. Was Built To? For these reasons, DOC has a long way to go before the conservative income investor should consider a meaningful position in this stock. Like other medical REITs, we can see that DOC has recently dropped from a 52 week high of definition, $22.03, down to what is the effect, a current price of constructionism, $18.89. Zeus Relationship? During this time, DOC has generated Year-over-Year increases in constructionism, FFO and improved its payout ratio. The Berlin Wall Was Built? Like many other medical REITs, DOC's pullback does not seem warranted or justified. Assuming $22.03 is a reasonable price for constructionism, DOC, we can see that the current price is off its high by 16.6%, and Keep Corporate when combined with a current 4.88% yield, we can see that DOC does present a compelling investment opportunity.

The following chart is definition a six month history from Capital One Investing. I like DOC's business model, and paper punch uk I like the definition guidelines put in place by what is the effect of global, the company that keeps their quickly growing business focused on what DOC does best. There are a number of characteristics that make this stock a glaring buy, including the constructionism definition weighted-average lease term, improving payout ratio, and wall geographic diversity of constructionism, DOC's assets. While these positives are significant, I would like to vs vegetarians, point out definition, that the to limited history of DOC's operations is enough to warrant saying that this stock has not yet proven that it is constructionism definition worthy of the berlin wall was built to, a position in definition, an income investor's portfolio. As an investor, if you are willing to paper punch uk, take on constructionism definition, more risk, then DOC might be a great way to do that, but if you are a conservative investor who is focused on Oil Spill Essay, steady and constructionism uninterrupted income, then you should really put this one on vs vegetarians, the watch list and constructionism definition invest your money elsewhere for non reductionist, the time being. Constructionism? Final Note: If you enjoy my articles please take the time to follow me. While I enjoy performing analysis, following me is the was built to best method for constructionism, showing me that SA subscribers are finding my work useful. If you have any suggestions to improve my articles or if you would like me to non reductionist, perform analysis on constructionism definition, a stock please feel free to message me and I will do my best to vegans, make it happen. Disclosure: I/we have no positions in definition, any stocks mentioned, and paper punch uk no plans to constructionism definition, initiate any positions within the next 72 hours. I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions.

I am not receiving compensation for tuberculosis, it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is constructionism mentioned in this article. Additional disclosure: This article reflects my own personal views and is not meant to be taken as investment advice. It is vs vegetarians recommended that you do your own research. This article was written on my own and constructionism definition does not reflect the tuberculosis prevention views or opinion of definition, my employer. This article is for paper punch uk, PRO members ONLY! Get Access to this article and definition 15,000 exclusive PRO articles from vegans, $200/m. Interested in definition, upgrading to PRO?

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Understanding the Difference between Forbearance and Deferment. Thursday, June 18, 2015. The editorial content on this page is not provided by definition any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of paper punch uk, these entities. Will Lipovsky is a personal finance writer and webmaster. You can contact him at FirstQuarterFinance.com. There are many differences between forbearance and constructionism, deferment.

I’m going to cut to the chase right now and say that deferment will always be the better option. It’s because interest doesn’t accrue during deferment as it does with forbearance. This article will cover all facets of the question, “What’s the paper punch uk, difference between forbearance and definition, deferment of Can You Keep Your in the Essay, my student loans?” Your question is justified. It’s a confusing topic. The basic definitions are: Forbearance – a refraining from the enforcement of something (as a debt, right, or obligation) that is due Deferment – the act of delaying or postponing. Confusing, right? This post will cover which loans qualify, key differences between forbearance and deferment, when to constructionism definition, take action, the application process, and how to restart regular repayment.

You’re probably reading this article because you’re in an unfortunate situation. The Berlin. You may feel helpless. But it’s important to give yourself credit. Instead of constructionism, hiding from your loans, you’re facing them by reading this article. You’re attempting to better your situation. What Is The. Things will get better. Constructionism. By the end of this article, you’ll know exactly what to do with your loans. Forbearance and deferment are available for all federal loans (Stafford, Perkins – you name it). They rarely apply to private loans.

Since private loan forbearance and deferment is uncommon, contact the warming, lender that originated your private loan(s). If you’re unsure who that may be, you may need to pull a credit report to find who originated your loans. Key Differences between Forbearance and Deferment. Check out this free chart provided by constructionism the U.S. Principles In The World? Essay. Department of Education Federal Student Aid Office: Forbearance Will Be Granted if Any of the Following Pertain to You (Mandatory Forbearance): You are enrolled in a medical or dental internship or residency.

You are serving in a national service position such as AmeriCorps, are part of the Department of definition, Defense repayment program, are in the National Guard, or are eligible for teacher loan forgiveness programs. Your monthly loan payment is 20% or more of effect, your gross monthly income. You are teaching in constructionism definition a program that qualifies for loan forgiveness. You qualify for the berlin to partial repayment under the U.S. Department of constructionism definition, Defense Student Loan Repayment Program. You are called into active military duty. Forbearance May Be Granted If (Discretionary Forbearance): You are enrolled less than half time (each school has their own definition of ‘half time’). Poor health.

Unemployment (beyond the maximum deferment time limit). A reduction in is the of global work hours. A life-changing circumstance. You May Qualify for Deferment If You Are: Enrolled at constructionism definition least half time at tuberculosis prevention an eligible postsecondary school. In a full-time course of study in a graduate fellowship program. In an approved full-time rehabilitation program for individuals with disabilities.

Unemployed or unable to constructionism, find full-time employment (for a maximum of three years). Experiencing an wall was built, economic hardship (including Peace Corps service) as defined by federal regulations (for a maximum of three years). Serving on active duty during a war or other military operation or national emergency and, if you were serving on or after Oct. 1, 2007, for an additional 180-day period following the demobilization date for your qualifying service. Definition. Performing qualifying National Guard duty during a war or other military operation or national emergency and, if you were serving on or after Oct. 1, 2007, for an additional 180-day period following the demobilization date for your qualifying service. Warming. A member of the National Guard or other reserve component of the definition, U.S. armed forces (current or retired) and you are called or ordered to the berlin wall was built to, active duty while you are enrolled (or within six months of constructionism definition, having been enrolled) at least half time at an eligible school. Right now!

Do not let your loans go into default. Is The Effect Of Global. Default occurs when you are more than 270 days behind on your payments. If you are in constructionism definition default, you are not eligible for either forbearance or deferment. Wall. If it’s too late, get out of default as soon as you can. You can get out of default in a few different ways: The Application Process for definition Deferment or Forbearance.

The rule to always follow when struggling to pay any debt is to paper punch uk, keep in contact with the servicer. Be sure to keep the lines of communication open. You’ll need to work with your loan servicer(s) to apply for deferment or forbearance. Again, visit http://www.nslds.ed.gov/ to see who services your federal loans. For deferments, payments are deferred in constructionism definition six-month intervals for up to three years. Forbearance can be granted for non reductionist up to 12-months.

Please, reassess your financial situation prior to the end of each period. Note: Get ready to cheer! Putting loans into deferment or forbearance does not hurt your credit score! It is noted on your credit reports but has no impact on your credit. Constructionism. However, if you are late or miss a payment, expect repercussions. Before your deferment or forbearance term expires, contact the servicer of the loan. You will need to explain your current situation. Both you and the lender will create a repayment plan which will work for your new situation.

Note that if your situation changes before your deferment or forbearance period expires, you can resume payments at any time. Here’s your game plan: If you’re having trouble paying your student loans, contact your loan servicer(s). Keep paying towards the the berlin wall to, current agreement. Do not let your loans go into default. If they do go into default, you must get current before applying for constructionism definition either deferment or forbearance. If your loans are current, begin the paper punch uk, application process for deferment. Within 10-14 days, you will be notified as to whether or not you have been approved. If denied, go the forbearance route. You should be all set.

The United States now holds $1.2 trillion in definition student loan debt. Lenders want their money. They are willing to work with you in order to make that happen – even if payments are delayed. What Is The Effect Of Global Warming. Talk with them. They will listen. Whether you go with deferment or forbearance, what’s important is constructionism definition, you’re improving your situation. Will Lipovsky is a writer at non reductionist MagnifyMoney. You can email Will at will@magnifymoney.com. 2 Credit Cards Charging 0% Interest until 2019. Getting Approved For 1 Of These Credit Cards Means You Have Excellent Credit.

Best Travel Credit Cards With No Annual Fee. This Cash Back Number May Surprise You. Advertiser Disclosure: MagnifyMoney is an advertising-supported comparison service which receives compensation from some of the financial providers whose offers appear on our site. This compensation from our advertising partners may impact how and where products appear on the site (including for example, the order in definition which they appear). To provide more complete comparisons, the site features products from our partners as well as institutions which are not advertising partners. While we make an of global, effort to constructionism, include the what is the effect, best deals available to the general public, we make no warranty that such information represents all available products. College Students and Recent Grads, News. 3 Reasons to File Your FAFSA Right Now. Tuesday, October 3, 2017. The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities. Brittney Laryea is a personal finance reporter for MagnifyMoney.

She graduated from the definition, University of Georgia's Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication and lives in Brooklyn, N.Y. It’s October, and that means college-bound families can start applying for financial aid for the 2018-19 school year. the paper punch uk, Free Application for Federal Student Aid, or FAFSA, opened Oct. 1. Technically, families have until next summer — June 30, 2018 — to submit their FAFSA for 2018-19. Constructionism Definition. But experts recommend filing as soon as possible in order to maximize the amount of aid students can receive. That’s because state, federal and school funding for prevention various types of financial aid is definition, often limited, and can run out.

Don’t leave money on the table. A recent study by social sciences researcher, Michael S. Kofoed at the United States West Point Military Academy found that each year, students who do not file miss out on tuberculosis prevention as much as $9,741.05 in federal grant and constructionism, student loan money, aggregating to some $24 billion annually. “To get the the berlin wall was built, most aid, you’re going to want to make sure you are doing it early,” says Jasmine Hicks, national field director with Young Invincibles, a nonprofit advocacy group for young adults. Hicks has trained college-bound families on what they need to successfully fill out and submit the FAFSA. Here are a few tips to definition, help you file your FAFSA for tuberculosis the maximum amount of aid available to you. 1) Your state and college FAFSA deadlines might be even earlier than the federal cutoff. Adding to constructionism, your list of dates to remember, states and schools have their own FAFSA filing deadlines for the berlin wall was built grants and scholarships.

For example, for constructionism definition Delaware students to be eligible for state scholarships and grants for 2018-19, they must file their FAFSA by April 15, 2018. But the of global warming, submission deadline for students who wish to be considered for definition Delaware State University scholarships and grants is even earlier, on March 15, 2018. You can check here to see your state’s filing deadline. Be sure to enter your state of legal residence and was built, the school year for which you’re applying for aid to view the cutoff date for your state. Be sure to double-check the deadline, as it could be earlier than the federal filing deadline and some states have different deadlines for different programs. For example, Alaska’s Education Grant asks applicants to file the constructionism definition, financial aid application as early as possible after the Oct 1 open date, since awards are made until the fund is depleted. But the “official” FAFSA submission deadline for the scholarship is the Your Principles in the Corporate, same as the definition, federal one. Hicks says families should check a school’s website to check and see if there is a different filing deadline date than June 30, 2018. Oil Spill Analysis Essay. Some schools may require students to file earlier than June 30 to be considered for institutional scholarships and grants. 2) The FAFSA is the key to definition, unlocking more than just need-based aid. If you don’t file the FAFSA, you might also remove yourself from the pool of tuberculosis, eligible recipients for state and institutional aid, as well — even if they aren’t income-based.

Many aid offerings require a FAFSA. Here’s a list of all the federal aid for which you need to complete a FAFSA to definition, be eligible: Federal direct student loan Federal work-study program Federal PLUS loan (for parents) Federal PELL grant Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG) Teacher Education Assistance for College and Higher Education (TEACH) Grant Iraq and Afghanistan Service Grant. And that’s just federal aid. As we mentioned before, states and schools may use information from paper punch uk, your FAFSA to determine if they will award you merit-based grants and scholarships. Definition. And they may have their own submission deadlines. 3) Financial aid money may run out. Students may think they have tons of time to submit their application, but, if you wait to file, you may miss out on wall “free money” due to limited resources.

Let’s put it another way: If the funds run out before you submit your FAFSA form, you could receive less money compared with what you would have gotten had you filed earlier — or you might get nothing at all. If you know you will need scholarship or grant money to fund your education, you should make filing the FAFSA early your first priority. “There’s really no reason to definition, wait,” says Hicks. Fortunately, it’s become easier for families to tackle the FAFSA. The Department of Education moved the application’s from January to October, beginning with the 2017 graduating high school class. Prior to the rule change, families could not submit their FAFSA until January for students attending college in the fall.

The rule change allows families to submit the FAFSA form earlier, and Corporate, use older tax information to definition, fill out the effect, form so they are able to meet early deadlines for financial aid. Students can now use family tax information dating back as far as two years, so applicants no longer have to constructionism definition, wait to file until their parents or guardians file their taxes for the current tax year. On top of that, FAFSA forms now include a new IRS data retrieval tool, which will automatically pull in tuberculosis prevention your parent’s tax information from two years ago, so you don’t have to shuffle through a stack of constructionism definition, papers looking for letters and Article, numbers corresponding to constructionism, the information you need to input. Where to wall, get help to finish up your FAFSA. The tax information may be easy to pull in electronically, but the FAFSA has more than 100 questions and isn’t the easiest form to decipher overall. “Students often think of the FAFSA as a huge and daunting task,” says Hicks. Definition. “They don’t feel like they are able to do it or equipped to is the effect, do it.” Get help if you aren’t confident in filling out all the constructionism, information on your own, so you don’t put off filing the FAFSA any longer. There may also be follow-up requests, like income verification, that, if overlooked or left incomplete, could delay your receiving all or part of your financial aid award. Up to 40 percent of college-bound students who apply and paper punch uk, are accepted to constructionism definition, college fall prey to a phenomenon called ‘summer melt.’ They never make to campus their freshman year because of mistakes that trip them up in the process. Many of the mistakes have to do with the financial aid process and can be avoided if you get help early on. Your high school guidance or college counselor may be able to assist you with your application.

If you feel you need more assistance than your counselor can provide, look to organizations or access programs that focus on helping students complete the what effect, forms required to give financial aid, like the College Goal Sunday Program hosted by constructionism the National College Action Network, or Reach4Success. Brittney Laryea is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Brittney at brittney@magnifymoney.com. 2 Credit Cards Charging 0% Interest until 2019. Getting Approved For 1 Of These Credit Cards Means You Have Excellent Credit. Best Travel Credit Cards With No Annual Fee.

This Cash Back Number May Surprise You. Advertiser Disclosure: MagnifyMoney is an advertising-supported comparison service which receives compensation from some of the the berlin wall was built to, financial providers whose offers appear on our site. This compensation from our advertising partners may impact how and where products appear on the site (including for example, the order in constructionism definition which they appear). To provide more complete comparisons, the site features products from paper punch uk, our partners as well as institutions which are not advertising partners. Constructionism Definition. While we make an effort to include the non reductionist, best deals available to the general public, we make no warranty that such information represents all available products. Building Credit, College Students and Recent Grads, Credit Cards, Earning Cashback. I Got My First Credit Card One Year Ago – Here’s How I Already Have a Good FICO Score. Monday, October 2, 2017. The editorial content on constructionism definition this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of prevention, these entities.

Shen Lu is a reporter with MagnifyMoney. When I moved to definition, the U.S. from prevention, my hometown, Hangzhou, an definition, eastern Chinese city, in 2012 to pursue my undergraduate degree, the thought of establishing a credit history wasn’t even on my radar. Tuberculosis. I was, after all, an international student from China, where day-to-day credit card use has only recently caught on. It wasn’t until I returned to the U.S. a few years later to pursue my master’s in definition Chicago that I realized I’d need to establish credit if I planned to launch my career in the States. It’s been only a year since I opened my first card last September, and I already have a solid FICO score – 720, the Essay, last time I checked. That’s not a perfect score by any means, but it lands me safely in the “good” credit range, meaning I probably won’t have trouble getting approved for definition new credit in non reductionist the future. Definition. I still have work to tuberculosis prevention, do if I want to constructionism, get into the “very good” credit category, which starts at 740, according to MyFICO, but for a credit card newbie I’m not disappointed in my progress so far. Here’s how I did it: I selected the right card for my needs.

I wish I could say I diligently researched credit cards to choose the Oil Spill Essay, best offer and best terms, but honestly, I just got lucky: Shortly before graduate school started, I visited friends in Iowa. When we were about to split the bill after dinner at a Japanese restaurant, I noticed that all my friends had a Discover card with a shimmering pink or blue cover. Constructionism Definition. The Discover it for Students card was known for its high approval rate for student applicants, and had been popular among international students. I thought, “Oh, maybe I should get this one, too.” One of the friends sent me a referral link that very night. Non Reductionist. I applied and got approved quickly. We both received a $50 cash-back bonus after I made my first purchase — an iPhone — using the card through Discover’s special rewards program. I even received 5 percent cash back from the purchase. Besides imposing no annual fee, the card has other perks, like rewarding me with a $20 cash-back bonus when I reported a good GPA, letting me earn 5 percent cash back on purchases in rotating categories, and matching the constructionism definition, cash-back bonus I earned over the first 12 months with my account.

For me, it was a great starter card, but there are plenty of other options out there. I also could have explored other options of Oil Spill, establishing credit, like opening a secured card, for example, which would have been a smart option if I hadn’t been able to constructionism, qualify for the Discover it student card. Despite my very limited financial literacy at the time, I attribute my current stellar credit score to non reductionist, the old, deeply ingrained Chinese mentality about constructionism saving and not owing. I never missed payments, and I always paid off my balance in prevention full each month, instead of definition, just making the $35 minimum payment. What Is The Of Global Warming. I didn’t want to pay a penny of interest. Credit cards carry high interest rates across the constructionism definition, board, but student credit cards generally have some of the highest APRs. This is Oil Spill Article Analysis, because lenders see students like me — consumers without much credit history — to constructionism, be risky borrowers, and they charge a higher interest rate to the berlin wall was built to, offset that risk. It wasn’t until much later when I learned that payment history is critical to credit establishment. In fact, it is the biggest factor there is. It accounts for as much as 35 percent of constructionism definition, my FICO score. Naturally, I felt like I dodged a bullet!

I was careful not to Article, use too much of my available credit. My friends with more experience advised me to constructionism definition, use as little of in the Corporate World? Essay, my available credit as possible. They warned me that overuse had hurt their credit scores in the past. This didn’t much sense to me, but I followed their advice, for the most part diligently.. I later learned this is almost as important as paying bills on time each month. Your utilization rate is constructionism, another 30 percent of the FICO score. Credit experts urge cardholders to keep their credit utilization ratio below 30 percent. That means if you have three credit cards with a total available limit of was built to, $10,000, you should try never to carry a total balance exceeding about $3,000. I beefed up my score with on-time rent payment s. Keeping in mind the importance of not maxing out my credit card, I never considered paying my rent with the card.

In fact, some landlords charge credit card fees for tenants who try to constructionism definition, pay with plastic. But I did find a way to establish credit by Oil Spill Article Essay paying rent using my checking account. I paid rent to my Chicago landlord through RentPayment, an online service. RentPayment gave me the constructionism, option of having my payments reported to TransUnion, one of the three major credit-reporting agencies. Because I knew I’d always pay bills on what is the of global warming time, I signed up for constructionism the program. This likely helped me improve my credit mix, another key factor influencing one’s credit score. Tuberculosis Prevention. The more types of accounts you show on definition your report, the better your score can be — providing you make all your payments on time. Yes, I made mistakes. This was my biggest one. My first foray into the world of credit wasn’t completely blip-free. The only is the, thing that hurt my credit, besides my short credit history, was that I had tried signing up for a Chase credit card and definition, other ways to what of global, finance my iPhone just a few days before I applied for my Discover card.

None of the other banks approved my applications, and my score went down from the very beginning due to the number of “hard inquiries” against my report. Hard inquiries occur when lenders check your credit report before they make lending decisions, and constructionism, having too many inquiries in a short period of time can result in several dings to non reductionist, your credit score. I’ve learned my lesson, though. And I haven’t applied for a new credit card since. Today, as I said, my FICO score is a healthy 720, and I am on definition the lookout for a second credit card now that I’ve graduated and gotten a job. Shen Lu is tuberculosis, a writer at MagnifyMoney.

You can email Shen at shenlu@magnifymoney.com. 2 Credit Cards Charging 0% Interest until 2019. Getting Approved For 1 Of These Credit Cards Means You Have Excellent Credit. Best Travel Credit Cards With No Annual Fee. This Cash Back Number May Surprise You. Advertiser Disclosure: MagnifyMoney is an advertising-supported comparison service which receives compensation from constructionism, some of the non reductionist, financial providers whose offers appear on our site. This compensation from our advertising partners may impact how and where products appear on the site (including for constructionism definition example, the is the effect of global warming, order in which they appear). To provide more complete comparisons, the site features products from our partners as well as institutions which are not advertising partners. While we make an effort to include the best deals available to definition, the general public, we make no warranty that such information represents all available products.

Best of, College Students and Recent Grads, Credit Cards. Best Student Credit Cards October 2017. Sunday, October 1, 2017. The editorial content on this page is was built, not provided by constructionism definition any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities. Getting a credit card while you’re in college might seem dangerous or confusing. Tuberculosis Prevention. But if you are able to use a student credit card responsibly, you do not need to be afraid, and constructionism, you can set yourself up for financial success after you leave school. Fortunately, learning how to choose and Oil Spill Article, use the constructionism, right student credit card is Essay, relatively simple. Make sure you avoid annual fees and go with a bank or credit union you can trust.

When you get the card, make sure you use it responsibly and pay the balance in full and on constructionism time every month. If you do these things consistently over time, you can leave school with an what is the effect, excellent credit score. And if you want to rent an apartment or buy a car, having a good credit score is very important. on Discover’s secure website. Good Grades Reward program: Did you study extra hard this year? If you’ve gotten a 3.0 GPA or higher for an entire school year, Discover will reward you with an constructionism, extra $20 cash back. Prevention. You can get this reward for up to five years in a row as long as you’re still a current student when you apply.

Free FICO score: Just like how you have grades for your classes, your FICO score is your “grade” for your credit. Credit cards have a huge effect on constructionism definition your FICO score. You can watch how your new credit card affects your score over time with a free FICO score update on tuberculosis your monthly statement. Constructionism. 5% cash back categories: You can earn up to 5% cash back on specific categories that change each quarter, on up to Principles in the Corporate Essay, $1,500 in purchases every quarter that you activate. Definition. Past categories have included things like Amazon purchases, restaurants, and ground transportation. The Berlin Wall To. Even if you don’t buy something in the bonus category, you’ll still earn 1% cash back on all other purchases. Cash back match at end of your first year: In addition to rotating 5% cash back categories, new cardmembers will also get an intro bonus.

When your first card anniversary comes around, Discover will automatically match your cash back rewards you earned during your first year. Remember to sign up for bonus categories: Even though this card comes with a great cash back rewards program, it comes with a catch: you’ll need to constructionism definition, manually activate the bonus categories each quarter. You can do this by calling Discover or logging in to your account online. If you forget, you’ll still earn 1% cash back if you make any purchases in the qualifying categories. Gift certificates only available at certain levels: You can redeem your rewards for tuberculosis many things such as Amazon purchases, a statement credit, or a donation to constructionism, a charity, to name a few. But, if you’d like to get a gift card instead, you’ll need a cash back balance of at least $20 saved up in your account.

The Discover it for Students card offers great perks for college students, such as a rewards program for good grades and a free FICO score so you can learn about your credit firsthand. Its cash back rewards program is our favorite. No other card for students (that we could find) offers the opportunity to earn up to 5% cash back. And with no annual fee, this is our top pick. on Discover’s secure website. Good Grades Reward program: We salute Discover for rewarding good behavior.

Rather than creating a bonus offer that encourages college students to tuberculosis, spend more money, Discover is constructionism, rewarding good grades. For every school year (September-August) that you maintain at least a 3.0 GPA, Discover will credit an extra $20 to prevention, your account to use how you like. Free FICO score: The whole reason to constructionism definition, get a credit card as a student is to Oil Spill Article Analysis, boost your credit score. So, actually being able to see your credit score is a huge help, especially as you can watch it climb over time with good credit management. Earn 2% cash back on gas and restaurants: Discover provides an added benefit to students who frequently drive and definition, dine out. You’ll earn 2% cash back on tuberculosis all gas and restaurant purchases up to $1,000 per quarter. Everything else earns 1% cash back. Definition. Plus, there’s no rewards categories to sign up for like with the tuberculosis, regular Discover it card for constructionism definition students — it all happens automatically.

Cash back match at end of your first year: Discover will actually match the Can You Keep Your Principles Essay, amount of cash back you earn at the end of your first year as a new cardmember. That will be a great bonus at the end of the year. Gift cards only constructionism definition, available at certain levels: You can redeem your rewards in the form of what, a gift card; however, you’ll need a cash balance of at least $20 in your account to do so. If you don’t have that much, don’t worry. You can redeem any amount in the form of a statement credit, a bank transfer, as Amazon credit, etc. Limited overseas acceptance: Discover is a great card for your spending in the U.S. If you travel overseas, acceptance is a lot more difficult. Definition. In Europe, you would be relying on the Diner’s Club network, which has limited coverage. If you're a commuter and frequently dine out, the paper punch uk, Discover it Chrome for students card is a good option with 2% cash back on gas and restaurant purchases. Constructionism Definition. A $20 bonus for Oil Spill Article Essay getting good grades and definition, cash back match at the end of non reductionist, your first year make this card good for constructionism earning rewards and non reductionist, building credit at the same time. on Capital One’s secure website.

Journey® Student Rewards from Capital One® 1.25% cash back if you pay on time: Each purchase you make earns a flat-rate 1% cash back. There’s no bonuses or categories to track: a simple 1% on everything. And then you get 0.25% on top if you make the payment on time. This makes it handy for constructionism people who want as simple a card as possible. And it rewards great behavior. Higher credit lines after on-time payments: If you’re approved for this card, you’ll receive a credit line of at paper punch uk least $300.

If you make five on-time payments in a row, you can call Capital One and constructionism definition, ask them to increase your credit line. No foreign transaction fee: This is Your in the Corporate Essay, a great card to take overseas, because you won’t have to pay any foreign transaction fees. Most cards charge an average 3% foreign transaction fee, but Journey allows you to use your card abroad without being charged extra fees. High 24.99% variable APR: This card carries an interest rate that’s almost twice as high as some other student credit cards, such as the constructionism definition, Wells Fargo Cash Back College Card with a rate as low as 11.90% APR. It’s just one more incentive to pay off your bill in full each month. We really like this card because it actively rewards you for developing good credit-management behavior by offering a small cash back bonus for on-time payments. In addition, the cash back program is straightforward with no confusing categories to remember or opt into, making this card a good option for non reductionist students who want a simple, flat-rate card. Wells Fargo Cash Back College? Card. Interest rates as low as 11.90% APR: Depending on your credit, your interest rate could be between 11.90% and 21.90% APR, but their is no gurantee you'll receive the lower rate.

This is a lower APR range than most student cards, and constructionism, can help if you aren't able to non reductionist, pay your balance in full one month. Constructionism. 3% cash back rewards for the first six months: Normally you’ll earn 1% cash back on non reductionist all purchases. For the first six months, though, you’ll earn 3% cash back on constructionism any purchases you make for gas, groceries, or drugstores. Access to credit education: Wells Fargo provides you with all sorts of tools and information to learn about things like credit, budgeting, and expense tracking. While this is a nice feature, it’s not exclusive to Wells Fargo. You can get this information from what is the, free tools such as Mint, or even reading books and blogs. Constructionism Definition. But it is Oil Spill, pretty handy having it right at constructionism definition your fingertips when logged in to your account.

Need to Can You Keep, be a Wells Fargo member to apply online: You can go into any one of the 6,000+ branches and apply for the card. You can also apply online, but you’ll need to be an existing Wells Fargo customer. However, anyone can open a checking account online with a minimum deposit of $25. Definition. High bars for some cash back redemption options: There are a lot of redemption options available through Wells Fargo’s own online cash back rewards mall. However, if you’d just like straight cash, you have a few options.

You can request a direct deposit into your Wells Fargo checking account, savings account, or Wells Fargo credit card (if applicable) in $25 increments, or request a paper check in Can You Your Essay $20 increments. That can take a long time to accumulate if you’re not spending much with your card. The Wells Fargo Cash Back College Card is a relatively simple card with a great intro bonus of 3% cash back for constructionism definition the first six months. In addition, the low APR is handy for those who think they’ll be carrying a balance on their credit card from non reductionist, month to month at some point in the future. This is generally something we recommend against, but if you can’t avoid it, the Wells Fargo Cash Back College Card is your best bet. on Altra’s secure website. Altra Federal Credit Union Student Visa.

$20 reward for constructionism definition good credit card usage: If you can maintain your account in an “exceptional way” for your first year, you’ll get a bonus $20 reward on your card’s anniversary. Principles Corporate World?. All you have to do is not have any late payments, don’t charge over your card’s limit, and definition, use your card for at least six out of twelve months. Up to $500 random winner each quarter: It’s like playing the Oil Spill Analysis, lottery, except you don’t have to constructionism definition, buy a lottery ticket. Each quarter Altra will choose one student cardholder at random and pay back all of effect of global warming, their purchases from the previous month, anywhere between $50 to $500. Earn rewards: For the first 60 days after you open your account, you’ll earn 2 points per definition dollar spent. After that you’ll earn 1 point per Oil Spill Analysis dollar spent. Definition. You can redeem these points for cash back, merchandise through their online rewards mall, or travel. Redeem points for a lower interest rate: If you’ll need a car in the future, this might be a good credit card to get. You can trade in 5,000 points for a 0.25% reduction, or 10,000 points for a 0.50% reduction on an auto loan through Altra Federal Credit Union.

That could end up saving you a ton of cash in the long run. 1% foreign transaction fee: This is definitely one card to what effect of global, leave at home if you’ll be traveling or studying abroad. Most credit cards charge a 3% foreign transaction fee, so this is on the low side. Still, it’s not too hard to find a student credit card with no foreign transaction fee, such as the Discover it for Students or the Capital One Journey Student Rewards card. Definition. Must join Altra Federal Credit Union: Luckily, anyone can join, but it might take a bit of legwork on your part compared to a bank. If you don’t meet certain membership eligibility criteria, you can join the what is the effect, Altra Foundation for $5. Then you’ll need to constructionism, open a savings account with a minimum $5 deposit that must remain in Can You Keep Principles in the Corporate World? the account while you have your card open. If you're a student who doesn't mind working with a credit union, Altra provides a card that has several rewards benefits. This card is definition, a good option if you may be taking out an what is the warming, auto loan in the next few years, since you'll benefit from a reduced interest rate by trading in your rewards points. In addition to earning rewards, using this card responsibly can help you build credit. Golden 1 Credit Union Platinum Rewards for Students:

This credit card offers a snazzy rewards program: rather than accumulate points, you’ll get a cash rebate instead. All you have to do is make a purchase. At the end of the month, you’ll get a rebate of constructionism definition, 3% of paper punch uk, gas, grocery, and restaurant purchases, and 1% of all other purchases deposited back into constructionism, your Golden 1 savings account at the end of the month. Non Reductionist. You can join Golden 1 by joining the Financial Fitness Association for $8 per constructionism definition year and keeping at least $5 in a savings account. What should I look for in a student credit card? The most important thing to the berlin, consider when looking for a student credit card is that it charges no annual fee.

You should never have to constructionism, pay to of global warming, build your credit score. Fortunately, most student cards don’t charge you an annual fee, but it’s still something to watch out for. The second most important thing you should keep an eye out for are tools that help you learn about credit or even promote good credit-building habits. Constructionism Definition. For example, some student credit cards will give you a free monthly FICO score update. Paper Punch Uk. You can use this freebie to see in real time how your credit score changes as you build credit history by keeping the card open, or paying down your credit card balance, for example. The last thing you should be considering when picking out a student credit card is the rewards program. I know, I know, it seems counterintuitive. But stick with me — I’ll show you why in the next question.

Why shouldn’t I be concerned about maximizing my rewards while in college? Rewards cards are nice to have. But if you’re a college student, here’s the truth: you probably won’t spend enough to earn meaningful rewards. Why? With a good rewards program, you can earn points or cash back. A small percentage of your monthly spending can add up quickly. Constructionism Definition. However, given the Article, tight budget that most college students live on, it will probably take a while to earn meaningful rewards. Constructionism Definition. For example, if you earn 1.25% cash back and spend $300 a month on your card, you would earn $45 of cash back during the year. College students are very good at making good use of is the warming, $45. And our favorite card offers a great cash back rewards program. Just don’t expect to earn a lot of cash back, given the tight budget of a college student.

Why should I get a credit card as a college student? There are a lot of great reasons why you should get a credit card, as long as you can commit to definition, using it responsibly. The single biggest reason why you should get a credit card as a college student is because you can start establishing a credit history now . When you graduate from college, you will need a good credit score to get an apartment. Was Built To. And your future employer will likely check your credit report. Building a good credit history while still in college will help prepare you for life after graduation. Getting a credit card while in college can also train you to constructionism definition, develop good credit habits now.

But you need to be honest with yourself. If you find that you can’t avoid the temptation of is the, maxing out your credit card, you might want to switch to a debit card or cash. Finally, getting a credit card now can be the motivation you need to constructionism definition, start learning about credit. These skills aren’t hard to learn, and they could save you thousands or even hundreds of thousands of is the warming, dollars later in life (when you want a mortgage, for example). What is the CARD Act and why should I care about it? Many years ago, credit card companies would market on college campuses. Constructionism Definition. You could get a free beer mug or t-shirt in exchange for a credit card application. Essay. And you would be able to constructionism definition, qualify for tuberculosis a credit card without having any income.

The Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure (CARD) Act was signed into law in definition May 2009 to change a number of practices. How did the CARD Act change student credit cards? The CARD Act made a lot of changes in tuberculosis how credit card issuers do business with students. One of the definition, biggest changes was requiring students to be able to demonstrate an ability to pay. If you are under 21 and do not have sufficient income (a campus job, for example), you would need to get a co-signer. In addition, colleges must now limit the amount of Can You Your Essay, credit card marketing on constructionism campus.

The days of free t-shirts and is the effect, pizzas in constructionism definition exchange for credit card applications are gone. But that doesn’t mean it is impossible for a college student to get a credit card. Can You Principles World? Essay. Some highly reputable banks and credit unions still offer student cards. And building a good credit score while still in college is constructionism, still highly recommended. How can I protect myself from racking up debt? When used properly, credit cards are a very convenient method of repayment. However, when not used properly, you can end up deep in credit card debt. It is important to establish a healthy relationship to credit now, with your first credit card. You should try to Oil Spill Article Essay, ensure that you pay off your credit card bill in full and on time every month. Ideally, you should set up an automatic monthly payment.

And to keep yourself on constructionism track, take advantage of alerts offered by most credit card companies. You can even get daily text messages reminding you of your balance. How can I automate my credit card usage? If all of this sounds confusing, don’t worry. Can You Your Principles Corporate Essay. There’s actually a way you can automate your payments so you never even have to bother with the constructionism definition, hassle of using a credit card. All it takes is the berlin to, a few minutes of upfront work. First, you’ll need at least one recurring monthly bill of the same amount, such as Netflix or Spotify. Log in to your account and set up an automatic payment each month using your credit card. Constructionism Definition. Make a note of how much your monthly bill costs.

Next, log in to your bank account. Set up a second automatic payment to was built, go to your credit card each month for the same amount as the definition, bill. If your bank doesn’t offer the option to set up automatic payments, you may also be able to non reductionist, set up your credit card to automatically withdraw the constructionism, amount of the bill from Article Essay, your bank. Because you know this bill will be for constructionism the same amount each month (barring any price increases), you can literally just leave this running in the background each month on autopilot. You don’t even have to the berlin was built to, carry your credit card in your wallet if you don’t want to. Then, when you graduate, you’ll automatically have an improved credit score! What happens to my student credit card when I graduate?

Congratulations! You’ve made it to the finish line. But what about your student credit card? You will have a few options once you graduate. First, you can simply keep it. Constructionism. You will want to keep the credit card open, because it helps you build a long credit history. However, you might want to call your credit card company and ask if you can migrate to a standard (non-student) credit card. But if you have been using your credit card properly, you will have an Oil Spill Article Analysis, excellent credit score when you graduate – and constructionism definition, you will be able to get any credit card that you want.

Here is paper punch uk, a summary of our favorite cards: Lindsay VanSomeren is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Lindsay here. 2 Credit Cards Charging 0% Interest until 2019. Getting Approved For 1 Of These Credit Cards Means You Have Excellent Credit. Best Travel Credit Cards With No Annual Fee.

This Cash Back Number May Surprise You. Advertiser Disclosure: MagnifyMoney is an advertising-supported comparison service which receives compensation from some of the financial providers whose offers appear on our site. This compensation from constructionism, our advertising partners may impact how and paper punch uk, where products appear on the site (including for example, the order in which they appear). To provide more complete comparisons, the site features products from our partners as well as institutions which are not advertising partners. While we make an effort to include the constructionism, best deals available to non reductionist, the general public, we make no warranty that such information represents all available products.

College Students and Recent Grads. 7 Ways for College Students to Build Credit. Wednesday, September 27, 2017. The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities. Brittney Laryea is a personal finance reporter for MagnifyMoney. She graduated from the constructionism definition, University of Georgia's Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication and lives in Brooklyn, N.Y. College is a great (read: strategic) time to work on building a credit score from scratch.

If you work on building credit while in school, you could graduate with a healthy credit score in the high 600s to mid-700s. Coupled with a solid starting salary, graduating with a good or excellent credit score puts you in a great position to rent your first house or apartment and, eventually, make larger purchases like a new car or a first home. On top of tuberculosis, that, you’ll qualify for the best terms when it comes to borrowing personal loans or opening credit cards. How to build a positive credit history. Here are a few inexpensive things you can do to bulk up your credit report and build your credit score before graduating from college. #1: Learn how to use a credit card — the right way. You can start working on your credit score by opening a student credit card with a bank or credit union.

Having a credit card can be risky — there are plenty of stories of students overspending or seeing their credit limit as “free money” — but opening a student card also gives you an opportunity to learn good credit-building habits. Here’s a simple strategy for constructionism definition building credit with a student credit card: Charge only a recurring bill like a phone bill or monthly streaming subscription to the card. Set up automatic payments to pay off the credit card bill on time and in full each month. Rinse and repeat for four years. When selecting a credit card, you’d ideally choose a credit card that doesn’t charge an annual fee.

You shouldn’t use the card for anything other than the Keep Your Principles in the Corporate, recurring bill — and, if absolutely necessary, the occasional emergency. The recurring bill should ideally be less than 30 percent of a your total available credit. Definition. (Using as little as possible of your available credit helps you get a good credit score.) Eventually, your credit score should reflect a history of the berlin wall to, consistent, on-time payments and will likely be in the good or excellent range. These are some of the best student credit card offers available now. While credit cards generally carry high interest rates across the board, student credit cards tend to have some of the highest APRs. Definition. The rate is high because students don’t usually have much credit history, so lenders see them as risky borrowers and charge a higher interest rate to compensate for the risk. Using the is the effect of global, strategy described above — making a small purchase and paying it off each month — you can establish a healthy credit history without paying a cent of interest.

Assuming you pay the bill on time and you’re using the card to buy something you’d purchase anyway, there’s no cost to this approach of building credit. Limits on student credit cards are generally pretty low, as banks want to minimize risk of lending to an inexperienced borrower. Constructionism Definition. A low limit makes it pretty easy to Your Principles Corporate, use more than the suggested 30 percent of constructionism definition, one’s total credit limit. For example, 30 percent of a $500 limit is Oil Spill Analysis Essay, $150 — basically the constructionism definition, cost of a textbook. Pro: Access to an unsecured line of credit. Having a credit card gives you a line of credit to borrow from when you need to. This can be helpful if you can’t immediately cover all of the berlin wall, your personal costs like books, food or an constructionism definition, emergency.

The student credit card is also unsecured, meaning the student won’t have to make an initial deposit to open the line of credit. Con: Easy to make credit mistakes early on. A credit card comes with a lot of non reductionist, responsibility. Constructionism Definition. Having a credit card can make it really tempting to spend more than you can afford (which results in expensive debt) or use a lot of wall was built to, your credit limit (which can hurt your credit score). Be prepared to exercise a lot of constructionism definition, self-control if you get a student credit card, because it can take years to undo the damage caused by Your Principles Corporate World? Essay irresponsible credit card use. If your parent has good credit history, ask them about becoming an authorized user on their credit card. When you become an definition, authorized user, your parent’s behavior with the credit card will be reported like it was your own. Pro: A passive way to build credit history. If you use this tactic, you can build credit history while never having to actually apply for credit yourself.

Not all credit card issuers report authorized user accounts to the credit bureaus, according to Experian. On top of that, not all credit scores look at authorized users the same. Tuberculosis. There are dozens of credit scores, each with their own algorithms, and some may not give an authorized user much weight in constructionism determining a score, according to Experian. While authorized users are not liable for debts on the account, missed payments or high credit card balances on the account could hurt you. If that happens, you can either file a dispute to have the Oil Spill Article, negative information removed or contact the card issuer and constructionism, ask to be removed as an authorized user on paper punch uk the card. You can thank the 2009 Credit CARD Act for constructionism definition making it more difficult to get a credit card before you’re 21. Paper Punch Uk. The CARD Act stopped companies from marketing credit cards to students on constructionism definition college campuses and made it so people who are younger than 21 must either have a co-signer, such as a parent or a guardian, or have an wall, independent source of income to definition, qualify for paper punch uk a credit card. Pro: Allows a student who can’t qualify on their own to open a credit card.

Lenders generally consider it risky to definition, hand a line of credit to a college student with little or no credit history. By requiring a co-signer, lenders transfer part of this risk to someone else, giving you an opportunity to build your credit you may not have had on what is the of global your own. If you go with a co-signer, you need to definition, be very careful to only charge what you can afford to pay off in Oil Spill Article Analysis full each month. Both you and your co-signer’s credit scores will take a hit from any negative behavior like missed payments or high credit card balances. Asking someone to co-sign a credit application is constructionism definition, no small request and non reductionist, can affect your relationship with that person.

Be sure to set ground rules for the arrangement before agreeing to definition, it. If you’re unable to get approved for an unsecured credit card, you can try opening a secured credit card instead. A secured card can help prove your responsibility to lenders without a lender taking on much risk. You’ll have to put down an initial deposit in exchange for access to a line of credit on the card. Tuberculosis Prevention. Typically, the line of constructionism definition, credit will equal the amount of the deposit. Your Principles Corporate World? Essay. You can check out constructionism, our roundup of the non reductionist, top secured credit cards for people looking to improve their credit scores. Because the required deposit lowers a lender’s risk, you have a better shot at constructionism getting approved for a secured credit card over an unsecured student credit card. You will likely have to paper punch uk, come up with $100 or more to put down as a deposit before a credit card issuer will approve you for constructionism the account. If you miss a payment, the lender can take your deposit. And because the deposit will likely serve as your credit limit, you won’t have much room for spending if you want to wall was built to, reap the credit-score benefits of using little of your available credit.

You can get credit-builder loan through banks and constructionism definition, credit unions. Keep Your Principles Corporate World?. When approved for a credit-builder loan, your loan is constructionism, deposited into a savings account, but you can’t access the money until you’ve paid back the of global warming, loan. A credit-builder loan is good for students who want to build credit but don’t want to constructionism definition, risk overspending on a credit card or using a credit card irresponsibly. Credit-builder loans are secured loans, so they often have lower interest rates than credit cards, too. The loan also gives you the non reductionist, advantage of making equal, periodic payments so you aren’t caught off guard when a bill arrives. You can find a credit-builder loan account through a variety of lenders.

For example, online-only lender Self Lender specializes in credit-builder loans, but they’re common products at credit unions as well. Research a variety of options and compare borrower requirements, as they vary from lender to lender. You won’t have to come up with any money upfront to open this secured line of credit. You will, however, need to make periodic, on-time payments to effectively build your credit history. Con: No access to the line of credit.

You won’t have access to definition, the funds from a credit-builder loan right away. This could become an issue if you suddenly need money. If you want to access the money, you must first finish paying off the loan to the lender. Some credit-builder loans come with fees, making this a potentially costly option for tuberculosis building credit. #6: Stay on top of student loan payments. If you have student loans, repaying them will be a crucial part of your credit history.

After graduation, you can easily hurt your credit score by missing a student loan payment. Many student loans have a grace period of six months after graduation, meaning you won’t have to make payments during that time. If you’re not paying attention to when that grace period ends, you could easily miss your first payment and hurt your credit score. A missed payment can cause your credit score to drop significantly and constructionism, stay on your credit report for years, which can be seriously harmful to someone just starting to build a credit history. Keep an eye on your email inbox and physical mail for information from Can You Your Principles World? Essay, your loan servicer (the company to which you make loan payments) regarding your first student loan bill and be sure to make your payment. Continuing to make on-time payments on student loans will help you build a good credit history. If you can’t afford the student loan payments and have federal loans, you can learn all about how to constructionism definition, enroll in non reductionist an income-driven repayment plan here. Enrolling in an income-driven plan can reduce or eliminate your required student loan payment, making it easier to stay on top of payments and constructionism definition, avoid credit damage. #7: Build credit with a rent payment.

If you rent an paper punch uk, off-campus apartment, you can build your credit history by definition simply paying rent on time, if it’s reported to the major credit bureaus. Warming. Students should ask their landlord or property manager if their rent payments are reported to Equifax, Experian or TransUnion. If the rent-taker doesn’t report the payments, you can ask them to sign up for a rent payment service like PayLease or RentTrack that will let you pay rent online and definition, give the Analysis, landlord the option to report the payments to constructionism definition, the bureaus. The rent payment information will be included on a standard credit report and can help students build good credit history without ever opening a line of credit. Pro: Build credit with money already intended to effect warming, spend. You’re already spending money paying rent each month, so why not make that payment serve both your housing and credit-building needs? Con: Some landlords may not agree to report payments. Many landlords check credit scores when a tenant applies, but not many report regular, on-time payments to the big three credit bureaus. Constructionism Definition. Getting your landlord to switch to (and pay for) a payment service they aren’t familiar with might be a long shot, but it’s worth asking. Con: Not all credit scores factor in what is the effect warming rent payments. This isn’t a sure-fire way to build credit, as not all credit scoring models include rent-payment history.

The same goes for utility payments: They could help you build credit, but they may not. If you’re looking for constructionism definition a certain way to work on non reductionist your credit, the constructionism, other strategies in is the effect of global this article make more sense. Brittney Laryea is a writer at constructionism MagnifyMoney. You can email Brittney at brittney@magnifymoney.com. 2 Credit Cards Charging 0% Interest until 2019. Getting Approved For 1 Of These Credit Cards Means You Have Excellent Credit. Best Travel Credit Cards With No Annual Fee.

This Cash Back Number May Surprise You. Advertiser Disclosure: MagnifyMoney is an what is the, advertising-supported comparison service which receives compensation from some of the financial providers whose offers appear on our site. Constructionism. This compensation from our advertising partners may impact how and was built to, where products appear on the site (including for example, the order in definition which they appear). To provide more complete comparisons, the site features products from our partners as well as institutions which are not advertising partners. While we make an effort to include the best deals available to tuberculosis prevention, the general public, we make no warranty that such information represents all available products.

College Students and definition, Recent Grads, News. More Than 40% of U.S. What Is The Warming. Adults Struggle to constructionism definition, Make Ends Meet. Tuesday, September 26, 2017. The editorial content on what is the of global warming this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by definition any of these entities. Shen Lu is a reporter with MagnifyMoney. You may be struggling to Article Essay, pay bills every month, but so are plenty of other people.

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau on Tuesday reported that 43 percent of American adults struggle to make ends meet, based on the results of constructionism, a national survey conducted in 2016 on the financial well-being of U.S. consumers. About 34 percent of paper punch uk, all consumers surveyed reported experiencing material hardships — these include running out of food, not being able to afford a place to live or lacking the money to seek medical treatment — in the past year, the bureau said. In the survey, the definition, bureau asked more than 6,000 participants from non reductionist, all walks of life to definition, answer 10 questions about current and tuberculosis, future financial security and freedom of choice, and to constructionism, give a score from 0 to 100 on Can You in the Essay each question. Constructionism. The average consumer score was 54 in tuberculosis the survey. Definition. Not surprisingly, consumers surveyed said that their financial conditions were closely tied to their level of education, income and paper punch uk, employment status, according to the bureau. Young adults are especially susceptible to financial hardships, the agency found. Millennials — those age 34 and constructionism definition, below — reported an average score of Oil Spill Analysis, 51 for their financial well-being, 10 points lower than seniors ages 65 and definition, up and three points lower than the national average. The report, what the bureau calls “the first of its kind,” not only provides a view of the the overall state of financial conditions in the U.S., it also sheds light on how individuals from different demographics are faring financially.

Adults with scores of Keep Principles in the Corporate Essay, 50 or below have a high likelihood — more than 50 percent — of struggling to pay bills and of experiencing difficult financial situations, according to the report. In contrast, those who reported scores of 61 and above had a much lower probability — less than 10 percent — that they would have trouble paying for basic needs. Of all the factors examined, the bureau found that the amount of savings and definition, financial cushions is the most important when it comes to disparities in paper punch uk people’s financial situations. The average financial well-being for adults with savings of less than $250 — the lowest level — is constructionism definition, 41. That compares with 68 for non reductionist people with the highest level of constructionism definition, savings — $75,000 or more, according to the report. Similar differences in scores were seen with the ability to absorb unexpected expenses. “These findings highlight the importance of savings and other safety nets in helping people to feel financially secure, one of the basic elements of tuberculosis, financial well-being,” the report said. Having some sort of financial knowledge appears to benefit financial well-being.

The survey found that individuals with higher levels of financial confidence, knowledge and constructionism definition, day-to-day money management behaviors tend to report better financial conditions. Apart from the tuberculosis prevention, survey, the bureau initiated an interactive online tool allowing consumers to measure their own financial well-being. 7 tips to improve your financial health: Have “rainy day” cash available. Often, people who feel they are broke don’t have the means to absorb unexpected expenses. Constructionism. We’ve ranked the best options for when you need cash fast. A good rule of Can You Your in the Corporate World? Essay, thumb is to set aside at least three to six months’ worth of living expenses. Save. Save.

Save. Definition. It’s never too early to start saving for retirement. Financial planners often suggest you stash at Oil Spill Analysis Essay least 10 percent of your income every month. Focus on paying down high interest debts . Sometime it makes more sense to pay off debt than to save, especially if you have high-interest debt like credit cards. Here are four fast ways to achieve that goal. Consider changing your lifestyle . Lifestyle inflation is the ultimate budget-killer — a widespread phenomenon that occurs when people spend more as their incomes increase. Learn to constructionism, ignore the Oil Spill Article Analysis Essay, Joneses . Focusing on your needs and goals rather than aligning them with the people in your life or in your social media feed is constructionism definition, critical to being happy with the state of your finances and your life. Come up with strategies to help break your negative spending habits.

For example, we’ve written about a simple $20 rule that can help break your credit card addiction. Explore other ways to break bad money habits here. What Is The Effect Of Global Warming. Educate yourself . The more you know about your finances, the definition, better off you’ll be. It doesn’t have to be complicated. Simply using an Oil Spill Essay, app to constructionism definition, track your spending or asking your HR department for a review of your retirement savings options are good places to start.

The key is to engage in tuberculosis prevention day-to-day money management and establish a habit of saving and budgeting. Shen Lu is definition, a writer at MagnifyMoney. Can You Principles In The Corporate World?. You can email Shen at shenlu@magnifymoney.com. 2 Credit Cards Charging 0% Interest until 2019. Getting Approved For 1 Of These Credit Cards Means You Have Excellent Credit. Best Travel Credit Cards With No Annual Fee. This Cash Back Number May Surprise You. Advertiser Disclosure: MagnifyMoney is an advertising-supported comparison service which receives compensation from some of the definition, financial providers whose offers appear on our site. This compensation from our advertising partners may impact how and where products appear on the site (including for example, the order in which they appear).

To provide more complete comparisons, the Can You Keep Corporate Essay, site features products from our partners as well as institutions which are not advertising partners. Definition. While we make an effort to include the best deals available to the general public, we make no warranty that such information represents all available products. College Students and Article Analysis, Recent Grads. Is It OK to definition, Spend Your Financial Aid Refund? Tuesday, September 19, 2017. The editorial content on non reductionist this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of constructionism, these entities. Brittney Laryea is a personal finance reporter for MagnifyMoney. Non Reductionist. She graduated from the University of Georgia's Grady College of Journalism and constructionism definition, Mass Communication and lives in Brooklyn, N.Y. Just a few weeks into paper punch uk, their college education, many students receive funds totaling hundreds or possibly thousands of dollars — the “extra” money from the constructionism definition, student’s financial aid package.

Usually, the money comes with little to Oil Spill, no information on how students should spend it, or how to return any funds they may not immediately need.What many students may not realize immediately is, the majority of the time, taking any extra money not truly needed to pay for educational expenses results in them owing even more student loan money and making payments over a longer period of time after graduation. Simply learning about the constructionism definition, money and creating a budget could prevent many students from adding to Can You Your, the average $34,144 student loan balance they are already expected to pay back. Your refund is the constructionism definition, amount of prevention, money left over after all of your scholarships, grants, and federal and constructionism, private student loans are applied toward tuition, fees and other direct educational expenses for the semester. The Berlin To. The refund could come as a lump-sum direct deposit to your bank account, as cash or as a check. The school legally has to disburse any leftover Federal Student Aid money you are awarded. Constructionism. “[Schools] cannot hold onto that credit balance unless the student gives written consent,” says Karen McCarthy, Director of Policy Analysis at wall was built to National Association of constructionism, Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA). Tuberculosis Prevention. In the definition, case of a PLUS loan, the parent must give consent for the school to hold the credit balance. Most refunds most likely come from leftover federal student loans, but recipients of paper punch uk, some grants may receive a refund for unused funds as well. In fall 2009, Brooklyn, N.Y., resident Crystal Chery, was just beginning an constructionism definition, associate’s degree program at what is the effect Kingsborough Community College. She qualified for the Pell Grant, which covered $5,350 of her tuition and expenses for the school year.

After tuition and fees totaling $1,550 were paid, Chery received a credit for about $1,125 to constructionism, her bank account each semester. While there is the berlin wall to, no official record of exactly how many college students end up with a positive balance on their account after all of their financial aid package is applied, each semester possibly thousands of U.S. college students in constructionism definition the United States find themselves in a similar position as Chery did her freshman year. The total amount of what is the of global warming, financial aid that a student is able to constructionism definition, receive is up to the institution’s calculated cost of attendance, which is a big part of the math that goes into calculating a student’s financial aid award. Sometimes colleges pad their total cost of what is the effect of global warming, attendance estimates to include things that aren’t directly paid to the school, like books, housing, transportation or child care. The idea is that the constructionism, student will use any leftover funds for other things they need in order to go to school. “Kids going to a $4,000 community college can walk away with about prevention $5,000 of refunded money,” says college aid expert Joe Orsolini, especially if they find ways to save on constructionism definition expenses like housing. Can You Principles In The Corporate. In Chery’s case, she lived at home, which meant she didn’t need any funds for definition housing. If you received a refund from a mix of loans, scholarships and Your Principles, grants, carefully examine your refund to understand where it came from and if you’ll have to constructionism, pay back that money.

Grants and Analysis Essay, scholarships — truly “free money” — are usually applied to constructionism, your institutional bills first. There may be restrictions on how you can use money from these sources, as rules vary widely by the berlin state, institution and scholarship program regarding how students are allowed to spend the funds they receive. Usually the amount of “free money” a student gets is smaller compared to loans they receive and constructionism, is depleted by direct institutional bills, so most students don’t get that money refunded to is the effect of global, them. However, it’s possible for some students who received a large amount of scholarships to be refunded “free” money. Chery isn’t required to repay the definition, leftover Pell grant money she received for her education, as she doesn’t fall under any special circumstances like students who may have withdrawn early from their program, or dropped to part-time enrollment during the payment period. In addition, the school was legally required to issue her a refund credit for the excess federal funds. If you receive a refund from unused federal student loan money, you’re free to keep it, but remember you’re still borrowing that money. You will need to pay any federal loan money refunded to you, with interest, starting six to nine months after you graduate. Generally speaking, you should return any unused loan money that you don’t need right away to avoid taking out paper punch uk, more in loans than you really need. But if you need to keep it, make sure you spend the money wisely. Whatever you do, “don’t go buy a car or go on spring break with [your student loan refund],” says Orsolini.

If you’re spending federal loan money, a $10 pizza today at 6.5% APR will cost close to $20 to definition, pay off in 20 years. Do that math for thousands of dollars in student loans. Make your best effort to limit any flexible, frivolous or impulsive spending to money you don’t have to pay back with interest. How you handle your student loan refund may also depend on tuberculosis what kind of loan it is — unsubsidized or subsidized. Interest won’t begin to accrue on subsidized student loan money until six months after you have graduated.

So, if you keep your refund, you don’t have to worry about constructionism racking up interest charges on the debt you owe while you’re in school. For that reason Orsolini argues students shouldn’t give back any “extra” subsidized loan money until they are in their last semester of college. “Until you know for sure that you’ve made it to the finish line, hang on to that money because you never know what is the berlin, going to happen,” says Orsolini. He recommends placing excess financial aid funds into a 529 college savings account, where it can grow, and you can use the constructionism, money if you plan to non reductionist, attend graduate school. If students don’t want to open a 529 account, Orsolini recommends they stash unused subsidized loan money in an emergency savings fund, to help maintain as much flexibility as possible in paying for college. Orsolini says this method provides a financial safety net for constructionism definition students, as you never know what can happen to your income. If you choose to do this, you should pay back any unused subsidized loan money the month before your graduation to Oil Spill Article Essay, avoid paying interest. Warning: Orsolini’s method takes a lot of constructionism, self-restraint. Students shouldn’t pocket any unsubsidized student loan money, as interest will begin to accrue immediately, and keeping the money won’t be worth it. “Even if you put it in paper punch uk a savings account for a few months, it’s going to accrue more interest as a loan than it would in the savings account,” says Ashley Norwood, Consumer and Regulatory Adviser at American Student Assistance (ASA), a nonprofit student loan advocacy group that helps students finance and repay their student loans. Avoid keeping unneeded unsubsidized loan money at all costs if you can.

If you find yourself keeping the constructionism, loan because you need to live off of paper punch uk, it, Betsy Mayotte, Director of Consumer Outreach and constructionism, Compliance at ASA, suggests you do your best to Article Essay, reduce your cost of attendance. You could make up some or all of the maximum $2,000 a student can receive in unsubsidized loans by getting a part-time job or a work-study job, for constructionism example. If cost of living is too high at the school you’re attending, look at Article Essay a cheaper school or consider moving home if the school is close enough. Should You Spend Your Refund — or Return It? Unless you have restrictions on how you can use it, what you decide to do with your refund money as a college student is really up to definition, you. “The assumption is Keep Your Principles in the Corporate, that the student is using that credit balance to pay for those [indirectly billed] expenses,” says McCarthy. But students don’t always do that. “When I was in college, I remember all of my friends getting True Religions and all of this stuff [with their refund money] … I did not,” says Chery. “I was focused on constructionism other things.”

Chery used her fall semester “refund” to buy equipment to launch a DJ career, starting with a $1,350 MacBook, which she used to create her own mixes and to use at gigs she booked while in school. With the following semester’s refund, Chery purchased a Canon 60D DSLR camera for another $1,200 because she wanted to “dabble in photography and promote [her business].” Chery says the paper punch uk, investment paid off. After booking larger, professional gigs and gaining some experience, she was able to present work that helped her land an internship with Hollywood, Calif.-based media company, REVOLT TV, where she got to work with big-name music artists like Sean “Diddy” Combs and Damon Dash. “When I started making these investments, I didn’t know that they were going to constructionism definition, alter my career like that,” says Chery, who now hosts and books events with hundreds or thousands in attendance throughout the paper punch uk, northeast United States. After you’ve allocated funds to different areas of your budget, you need to figure out what to do with any extra funds. If the money is “free,” meaning you don’t have to pay it back later, you can keep it, but you may need to constructionism, look into what you are allowed to spend it on, says McCarthy, as there may be restrictions on how you can use scholarship or grant money.

If you think you have enough money for your needs, the the berlin wall was built to, experts at ASA and NASFAA agree students should immediately send back any money they don’t think they need, since students can always ask for that disbursement again later on. Giving money back or canceling a federal student loan won’t affect how much financial aid you are offered the following semester and constructionism definition, if you need the money later on in the current semester, Mayotte tells Magnify Money. “Let’s say you refused all of the loans. You can go back to the financial aid office and ask for effect of global part or all of that loan money up to definition, 180 days after the tuberculosis, last day of classes,” adds Mayotte. As long as you were eligible to receive the student loan funds during that pay period, you can receive a federal loan for a prior or the current payment period without penalty if you ask for constructionism it within the 180-day period. For example, you can technically still receive loan money you denied during the Oil Spill, fall semester if you request a late disbursement for that money during your spring semester as long as it’s within 180 days after the end of the constructionism, payment period. Ask Yourself These 3 Questions Before Spending (Or Returning) Your Refund. Have you paid for all of your non-negotiable expenses for the semester?

Certain non-negotiable expenses (read: tuition and to, fees) are usually billed at constructionism definition the beginning of the semester, but the school won’t send you a bill for everything you can’t succeed without, like technology for was built classes, a working laptop, or sheets for constructionism definition your dorm bed. Here are a few possible spending categories you may or may not include in your budget: Living expenses not billed by the institution Books and other educational supplies you’re going to need over the course of the paper punch uk, whole term Transportation (gas, on- and constructionism definition, off-campus parking) Child care, if you need this so that you can attend school Miscellaneous personal expenses. Do you need the money to cover other college-related expenses? There are a host of tuberculosis, hidden college costs college-bound families fail to consider for one reason or another, and constructionism definition, they can dry an unsuspecting student’s checking account. They are all the little things families don’t think about during move-in, like organization membership fees and paying for food outside of a prepaid student meal plan. Oil Spill Article Analysis Essay. If you can’t cover those things with part-time income during the school year, tally up an estimate and definition, keep what loan money you need. You should have every reason to have savings, especially if you’re paying for school on your own.

You won’t get many opportunities to stash away $1,000 in cash working for minimum wage as a barista in school. Wall. Pocketing some of the money now will help you steer clear of rainy days and expensive borrowing options in the future when those hidden costs creep up on you. Set one up ASAP. How to return your refund to the Department of constructionism, Education. The rule is simple: Return the non reductionist, loan within 120 days of constructionism definition, disbursement, and it will be like you never took it out in the first place.

The rule is found in the text of the Master Promissory Note, which all FSA borrowers are required to sign promising to pay the loans back before they can receive any federal aid funds. What Is The Of Global. The following information is found under “Canceling Your Loan”: You may return all or part of your loan to us. Constructionism Definition. Within 120 days of the date your school disbursed your loan money (by crediting the what of global, loan money to your account at the school, by constructionism paying it directly to Analysis, you, or both), you may cancel all or part of your loan by returning all or part of the loan money to us. Contact your servicer for guidance on constructionism how and where to return your loan money. You do not have to pay interest or the loan fee on the part of tuberculosis, your loan that is constructionism definition, cancelled or returned within the paper punch uk, timeframes described above. We will adjust your loan amount to constructionism, eliminate any interest and loan fee that applies to the amount of the loan that is cancelled or returned. If you make the 120-day deadline, you’re in the clear.

You won’t be required to was built, pay loan fees or any interest already accrued on definition unsubsidized loans in that time. Sometimes, your university can send it back on your behalf, so your first point of contact should be the financial aid office at your institution. Check with them to see if they can send the unused federal student loan funds back on is the of global your behalf, or if you will need to send the definition, money back to your loan servicer on your own. After the deadline, you’ll need to simply make a loan payment back to non reductionist, your loan servicer. You can begin to pay your loans back while still in college.

If you do, you won’t pay any interest on subsidized student loan money (it doesn’t begin to accrue until six months after you graduate), but you will pay any loan fees charged to your account. When will I get my financial aid refund? If you’re expecting a refund, you aren’t likely to see that money until after the add/drop period for classes — the definition, grace period during which you can change your choices without penalty — ends. That can be about three to four weeks into the semester, although some schools may disburse funds earlier. According to the Department of Education, schools must pay a credit balance directly to a student or parent no more than 14 days after the first day of class or when the balance occurred if it occurred after the first day of class. Until then, you’ll have to tuberculosis, cover your costs out of pocket. “Students who are expecting refunds are very anxious for them,” says Norwood. Norwood adds the anxiety may be because many students who see a refund check are lower income — they may see the money because they qualified for definition more aid. They may depend on the funds from the paper punch uk, refund to pay for important costs related to constructionism definition, their education such as rent for non reductionist off-campus housing or educational supplies for constructionism classes. If you missed something on non reductionist your financial checklist — like signing the Master Promissory Note or completing Loan Entrance Counseling — over the summer, you may see funds even later than four weeks.

Overall, if you’re hoping to use refund money to cover your rent or other school expenses, you may need to come up with the definition, cash by other means. “If [students] don’t budget well for the whole year, it’ll be the same thing in January,” says Mayotte. There is prevention, a silver lining for constructionism definition you if you received Federal Student Aid (FSA). As of July 1, 2016, Title IV schools are required to provide a way for FSA recipients to purchase books and supplies required for the semester by the seventh day of the semester if: The school was able to disburse FSA funds 10 days before the semester began, or The student would have a credit balance after all FSA funds are applied. The school doesn’t have to write you a check outright for books.

Institutions can award the funds in Can You in the Essay school credit or bookstore credit, too, but must grant you the amount you are expected to spend on educational supplies according to the institution’s calculated cost of attendance by the end of the first week of definition, classes. Brittney Laryea is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Brittney at brittney@magnifymoney.com. 2 Credit Cards Charging 0% Interest until 2019. Getting Approved For 1 Of These Credit Cards Means You Have Excellent Credit. Best Travel Credit Cards With No Annual Fee.

This Cash Back Number May Surprise You. Advertiser Disclosure: MagnifyMoney is an tuberculosis prevention, advertising-supported comparison service which receives compensation from some of the financial providers whose offers appear on our site. Constructionism. This compensation from our advertising partners may impact how and non reductionist, where products appear on the site (including for constructionism example, the order in which they appear). To provide more complete comparisons, the what is the effect of global, site features products from constructionism, our partners as well as institutions which are not advertising partners. While we make an effort to include the tuberculosis, best deals available to the general public, we make no warranty that such information represents all available products. College Students and Recent Grads, Pay Down My Debt, Reviews. CommonBond Student Loan Refinance Loan Review.

Thursday, September 7, 2017. The editorial content on constructionism definition this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities. Erin Millard is a personal finance freelance blogger and Oil Spill, founder of JourneyToSaving.com. CommonBond was founded by three Wharton MBAs who felt the sting of student loans after they graduated. The founders decided to provide a better solution for graduates, as they thought the student loan system was broken and in need of reform. As a result, they strive to make the refinance (and borrowing) process as simple and straightforward for graduates as possible. CommonBond* began by servicing students from just one school, and has rapidly expanded. Today, CommonBond loans are available to constructionism definition, graduates of over paper punch uk, 2,000 schools nationwide.

Although the company traditionally offered loan refinancing to undergraduate and graduate students, CommonBond recently started offering loans for constructionism definition current students as well (both undergraduates and graduates). CommonBond is one of the top four lenders identified by MagnifyMoney to tuberculosis prevention, refinance student loans. As you might be able to tell by the name, Common Bond thinks of its community as family. There is a network of constructionism definition, alumni and Oil Spill Article Analysis, professionals within the constructionism, community that want to help borrowers. What Effect Of Global. This alone sets it apart from other lenders, as members often meet for events. While these are all great things, we know you’re more interested in how CommonBond might be able to definition, help you make your student loans more affordable. Let’s take a look at what terms and rates they offer, eligibility requirements, and how they compare against other lenders. CommonBond offers low variable and fixed rate loans. Variable rates range from tuberculosis prevention, 2.81% – 6.74% APR, and fixed rates range from constructionism, 3.35% – 7.12% APR. Note that these rates take a 0.25% auto pay discount into tuberculosis, consideration. There is no maximum loan amount.

CommonBond will lend what you can afford to repay. CommonBond offers fixed and variable rates with terms of 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 years. The hybrid loan is definition, only offered on what effect a 10 year term – the first 5 years will have a fixed rate, and constructionism, the 5 years after that will have a variable rate. CommonBond has a great chart listing repayment examples based off of borrowing $10,000, which can be found on its rates and terms page. To pull an example from that, if you borrow $10,000 at a fixed 4.74% APR on a 10 year term, your monthly payment will be $104.80. Paper Punch Uk. The total amount you will pay over the 10 year period will be $12,575.90. CommonBond is available to graduates of definition, 2,000 universities. While that is a very long list, not all colleges and non reductionist, universities are included. One pro to consider is the hybrid loan option available.

It might seem a little confusing at first – why would someone want a variable rate down the road? If you’re confident you’ll be able to make extra payments on your loan and pay it off before the constructionism, 5 years are up, you might be better off going with the hybrid option (if you can get a better interest rate on it). This is because you’ll end up paying less over the life of the loan with a lower interest rate. If you were offered a 10 year loan with a fixed rate of 6.49% APR, and a hybrid loan with a beginning rate of the berlin wall, 5.64%, the constructionism definition, hybrid option would be the better deal if you’re intent on prevention paying it off quickly. CommonBond doesn’t list many eligibility requirements on its website, aside from the following: You must be a U.S. citizen or permanent resident You must have graduated. CommonBond doesn’t specify a minimum credit score needed, but based on the requirements of other lenders, we recommend having a score of 660+, though you should be aiming for constructionism 700+. The good news is Article Essay, CommonBond lets you apply with a cosigner in case your credit isn’t good enough. Documents and definition, Information Needed to Apply. CommonBond’s application process is very simple – it says it takes as little as 2 minutes to complete. Initially, you’ll be asked for Keep World? Essay basic information such as your name, address, and constructionism definition, school.

Once you complete this part, CommonBond will perform a soft credit pull to estimate your rates and terms. If you want to move forward with the rates and terms offered, you’ll be required to submit documentation and a hard credit inquiry will be conducted. CommonBond lists the following as required: Pay stubs or tax returns (proof of employment) Diploma or transcript (proof of the berlin wall, graduation) Student loan bank statement ID, utility bills, lease agreement (proof of residency) CommonBond also notes it can take up to 5 business days to verify documents submitted, so the loan doesn’t happen instantaneously. Once your documents are approved, you electronically sign for the loan, and constructionism, CommonBond will begin the process of paying off your previous lenders.

It notes this can take up to two weeks from the time the loan is Can You Keep World? Essay, accepted. Who Benefits the Most from Refinancing Student Loans with CommonBond? Borrowers who are looking to constructionism definition, refinance a large amount of prevention, student loan debt will benefit the most from refinancing with them. CommonBond does not have a prepayment penalty, and there are no origination fees nor application fees associated with refinancing. As with other lenders, there is definition, a late payment fee. This is 5% of the unpaid amount of the payment due, or $10, whichever is less. If a payment fails to non reductionist, go through, you’ll be charged a $15 fee. It’s also noted that failure to make payments may result in the loss of the 0.25% interest rate deduction from auto pay. Getting in touch with a representative is simple and there is definition, a chat and call option right on non reductionist the homepage.

Some lenders have this hidden at the bottom, or they don’t offer a chat option at all. CommonBond also lets borrowers know they can shop around within a 30 day period to lessen the constructionism definition, impact on the berlin wall to their credit. It does not list its late fees on its website, unlike other lenders. However, after making a chat inquiry, the constructionism definition, question was answered promptly. CommonBond does offer a cosigner release and is ranked with a A+ transparency score. Alternative Student Loan Refinancing Lenders. The student loan refinancing market continues to get more competitive, and it makes sense to Principles in the Essay, shop around for constructionism the best deal.

One of the paper punch uk, market leaders is SoFi. It’s always worth taking a look to see if SoFi* offers a better interest rate. The two lenders are very similar – CommonBond offers “CommonBridge,” a service that helps you find a new job in the event you lose yours. SoFi offers a similar service called Unemployment Protection. SoFi’s variable rates are currently 2.815% – 6.740% APR with autopay, and definition, its fixed rates are currently 3.35% – 7.125% APR, which is in wall was built line with what CommonBond is constructionism definition, offering. SoFi also doesn’t have a limit on how much you can refinance with them. on SoFi’s secure website. Another lender to consider is Earnest. There is no maximum loan amount, and Earnest has a very slick application process. Was Built. Interest rates start as low as 2.82% (variable) and 3.35% (fixed).

Lastly, you could check out constructionism, LendKey. It offers student loan refinancing through credit unions and community banks, but only offers variable rates in what is the effect of global most states and definition, fixed rates in effect of global warming a select few. Constructionism Definition. The maximum amount to refinance with an what is the of global, undergraduate degree is $125,000, and the maximum amount to refinance with a graduate degree is definition, $175,000. All three of these options provide forbearance in Oil Spill Article case of economic hardship and offer similar loan options (5, 10, 15 year terms). As CommonBond initially conducts a soft pull on your credit, you’re free to continue to shop around for constructionism the best rates if you’re not happy with the rates it can provide. As the lender states on its website, if you apply for loans within a 30 day period, your credit won’t be affected as much. Since CommonBond does have strict underwriting criteria, you should continue to shop around and don’t be discouraged if you are not approved. The market continues to get more competitive, and non reductionist, a number of good options are out constructionism definition, there. *We’ll receive a referral fee if you click on offers with this symbol. This does not impact our rankings or recommendations. You can learn more about is the effect warming how our site is financed here . Erin Millard is a writer at MagnifyMoney.

You can email Erin at constructionism erinm@magnifymoney.com. 2 Credit Cards Charging 0% Interest until 2019. Getting Approved For 1 Of These Credit Cards Means You Have Excellent Credit. Best Travel Credit Cards With No Annual Fee. This Cash Back Number May Surprise You. Advertiser Disclosure: MagnifyMoney is an advertising-supported comparison service which receives compensation from some of the financial providers whose offers appear on wall our site. Constructionism. This compensation from our advertising partners may impact how and what is the of global warming, where products appear on the site (including for example, the order in which they appear). To provide more complete comparisons, the constructionism, site features products from our partners as well as institutions which are not advertising partners.

While we make an the berlin, effort to constructionism, include the best deals available to the general public, we make no warranty that such information represents all available products. College Students and Recent Grads, Pay Down My Debt. 19 Options to Refinance Student Loans in 2017 – Get Your Lowest Rate. Thursday, August 31, 2017. The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities. Nick Clements has worked in consumer banking for nearly 15 years and the berlin wall was built to, is the constructionism definition, co-founder of MagnifyMoney. Are you tired of Keep Your, paying a high interest rate on your student loan debt?

You may be looking for ways to constructionism definition, refinance your student loans at a lower interest rate, but don’t know where to turn. What Of Global Warming. We have created the most complete list of lenders currently willing to refinance student loan debt. You should always shop around for the best rate. Don’t worry about the impact on your credit score of definition, applying to multiple lenders: so long as you complete all of non reductionist, your applications within 14 days, it will only count as one inquiry on constructionism definition your credit score. You can see the full list of lenders below, but we recommend you start here, and paper punch uk, check rates from the top 4 national lenders offering the lowest interest rates. These 4 lenders also allow you to constructionism, check your rate without impacting your score (using a soft credit pull), and offer the best rates of 2017: We have also created:

A student loan refinance calculator, which can help you find out how much money you can save if you refinance A comparison tool which lets you see student loan terms all at wall was built to once, with no need to constructionism, give up personal information. But before you refinance, read on to see if you are ready to refinance your student loans. Loan approval rules vary by lender. However, all of the lenders will want: Proof that you can afford your payments. That means you have a job with income that is sufficient to was built to, cover your student loans and definition, all of your other expenses. Proof that you are a responsible borrower, with a demonstrated record of on-time payments. For some lenders, that means that they use the traditional FICO, requiring a good score. For other lenders, they may just have some basic rules, like no missed payments, or a certain number of Can You Principles in the, on-time payments required to prove that you are responsible. If you are in financial difficulty and can’t afford your monthly payments, a refinance is not the solution.

Instead, you should look at options to avoid a default on student loan debt. This is particularly important if you have Federal loans. Don’t refinance Federal loans unless you are very comfortable with your ability to repay. Think hard about the chances you won’t be able to make payments for a few months. Once you refinance, you may lose flexible Federal payment options that can help you if you genuinely can’t afford the constructionism, payments you have today. Check the Federal loan repayment estimator to make sure you see all the Federal options you have right now. If you can afford your monthly payment, but you have been a sloppy payer, then you will likely need to demonstrate responsibility before applying for a refinance. But, if you can afford your current monthly payment and prevention, have been responsible with those payments, then a refinance could be possible and help you pay the debt off sooner. Like any form of debt, your goal with a student loan should be to pay as low an interest rate as possible. Other than a mortgage, you will likely never have a debt as large as your student loan. If you are able to constructionism definition, reduce the interest rate by re-financing, then you should consider the transaction.

However, make sure you include the following in any decision: Many lenders have no fee, which is great news. If there is an non reductionist, origination fee, you need to constructionism, make sure that it is worth paying. If you plan on paying off your loan very quickly, then you may not want to pay a fee. But, if you are going to be paying your loan for a long time, a fee may be worth paying. Is the tuberculosis, interest rate fixed or variable? Variable interest rates will almost always be lower than fixed interest rates.

But there is a reason: you end up taking all of the interest rate risk. Definition. We are currently at all-time low interest rates. Tuberculosis. So, we know that interest rates will go up, we just don’t know when. This is a judgment call. Just remember, when rates go up, so do your payments. And, in a higher rate environment, you will not be able to refinance to a better option (because all rates will be going up). We typically recommend fixing the constructionism definition, rate as much as possible, unless you know that you can pay off your debt during a short time period.

If you think it will take you 20 years to pay off your loan, you don’t want to bet on the next 20 years of interest rates. Paper Punch Uk. But, if you think you will pay it off in five years, you may want to take the bet. Some providers with variable rates will cap them, which can help temper some of the risk. If you go to other sites they may claim to compare several student loan offers in one step. Constructionism Definition. Just beware that they might only show you deals that pay them a referral fee, so you could miss out on lenders ready to give you better terms. Oil Spill Analysis Essay. Below is constructionism, what we believe is the most comprehensive list of current student loan refinancing lenders. You should take the time to shop around. What Of Global Warming. FICO says there is little to constructionism definition, no impact on your credit score for rate shopping as many providers as you’d like in a single shopping period (which can be between 14-30 days, depending upon the version of FICO). So set aside a day and apply to is the warming, as many as you feel comfortable with to get a sense of who is ready to give you the constructionism, best terms. Here are more details on the 5 lenders offering the lowest interest rates:

1. SoFi: Variable Rates from 2.815% and Fixed Rates from 3.35% (with AutoPay)* SoFi (read our full SoFi review) was one of the first lenders to start offering student loan refinancing products. More MagnifyMoney readers have chosen SoFi than any other lender. Although SoFi initially targeted a very select group of universities (it started with Stanford), now almost anyone can apply, including if you graduated from a trade school. The only Article Analysis Essay, requirement is that you graduated from a Title IV school. You need to have a degree, a good job and good income in order to qualify. SoFi wants to be more than just a lender.

If you lose your job, SoFi will help you find a new one. If you need a mortgage for a first home, they are there to help. And, surprisingly, they also want to get you a date. SoFi is famous for hosting parties for customers across the constructionism definition, country, and creating a dating app to Keep Your Principles in the World? Essay, match borrowers with each other. on SoFi’s secure website.

2. Earnest: Variable Rates from 2.82% and Fixed Rates from 3.35% (with AutoPay) Earnest (read our full Earnest review) offers fixed interest rates starting at 3.35% and constructionism definition, variable rates starting at 2.82%. Unlike any of the other lenders, you can switch between fixed and variable rates throughout the life of paper punch uk, your loan. You can do that one time every six months until the constructionism, loan is paid off. That means you can take advantage of the low variable interest rates now, and then lock in a higher fixed rate later. You can choose your own monthly payment, based upon what you can afford (to the penny).

Earnest also offers bi-weekly payments and “skip a payment” if you run into paper punch uk, difficulty. 3. CommonBond: Variable Rates from 2.81% and definition, Fixed Rates from 3.35% (with AutoPay) CommonBond (read our full review) started out lending exclusively to graduate students. They initially targeted doctors with more than $100,000 of debt. Over time, CommonBond has expanded and prevention, now offers student loan refinancing options to graduates of almost any university (graduate and undergraduate). In addition (and we think this is pretty cool), CommonBond will fund the definition, education of Oil Spill Article Analysis Essay, someone in need in constructionism definition an emerging market for every loan that closes. So not only will you save money, but someone in need will get access to an education. 4. Paper Punch Uk. LendKey: Variable Rates from constructionism, 2.57% and Fixed Rates from 3.15% (with AutoPay) LendKey (read our full LendKey review) works with community banks and credit unions across the country. Although you apply with LendKey, your loan will be with a community bank. If you like the idea of working with a credit union or community bank, LendKey could be a great option.

Over the past year, LendKey has become increasingly competitive on the berlin wall was built to pricing, and frequently has a better rate than some of the more famous marketplace lenders. In addition to definition, the Top 4 (ranked by interest rate), there are many more lenders offering to refinance student loans. Below is a listing of all providers we have found so far. This list includes credit unions that may have limited membership. We will continue to update this list as we find more lenders.

This list is ordered alphabetically: Alliant Credit Union: Anyone can join this credit union. Interest rates start as low as 4.25% APR. You can borrow up to $100,000 for up to tuberculosis, 25 years. Definition. Citizens Bank: Variable interest rates range from 2.77% APR – 8.62% APR and fixed rates range from 4.74% – 8.24%.

You can borrow for up to 20 years. Citizens also offers discounts up to 0.50% (0.25% if you have another account and 0.25% if you have automated monthly payments). Tuberculosis. College Avenue: If you have a medical degree, you can borrow up to $250,000. Otherwise, you can borrow up to $150,000. Fixed rates range from 6.22% – 11.58% APR. Variable rates range from 3.69% – 9.25% APR. Credit Union Student Choice: If you like credit unions and community banks, we recommend that you start with LendKey. However, if you can’t find a good loan from a LendKey partner, this tool could be helpful.

Just check to see if you or an immediate family member belong to one of constructionism, their featured credit union and you can apply to refinance your loan. Laurel Road (formerly known as DRB) Student Loan: Laurel Road offers variable rates ranging from paper punch uk, 2.99% – 6.42% APR and fixed rates from 3.95% – 6.99% APR. Rates vary by term, and you can borrow up to 20 years. Eastman Credit Union: Credit union membership is constructionism, restricted (see eligibility here). Fixed rates start at 6.50% and go up to 8% APR. Education Success Loans: This company has a unique pricing structure: your interest rate is fixed and then becomes variable thereafter. Can You Your Principles World?. You can fix the rate at 4.99% APR for the first year, and it is then becomes variable. The longest you can fix the rate is 10 years at constructionism definition 7.99%, and it is then variable thereafter.

Given this pricing, you would probably get a better deal elsewhere. EdVest: This company is the non-profit student loan program of the Oil Spill Analysis, state of New Hampshire which has become available more broadly. Rates are very competitive, ranging from 3.94% – 7.54% (fixed) and 3.16% – 6.76% APR (variable). First Republic Eagle Gold. The interest rates are great, but this option is not for everyone. Fixed rates range from 2.35% – 3.95% APR. Definition. You need to visit a branch and open a checking account (which has a $3,500 minimum balance to avoid fees). Branches are located in San Francisco, Palo Alto, Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, Newport Beach, San Diego, Portland (Oregon), Boston, Palm Beach (Florida), Greenwich or New York City. Loans must be $60,000 – $300,000. First Republic wants to recruit their future high net worth clients with this product. IHelp: This service will find a community bank.

Unfortunately, these community banks don’t have the best interest rates. Fixed rates range from 4.65% to the berlin wall to, 8.84% APR (for loans up to constructionism definition, 15 years). If you want to is the effect of global warming, get a loan from a community bank or credit union, we recommend trying LendKey instead. Definition. Navy Federal Credit Union: This credit union offers limited membership. For men and women who serve (or have served), the credit union can offer excellent rates and non reductionist, specialized underwriting. Definition. Variable interest rates start at non reductionist 3.42% and fixed rates start at constructionism definition 4.00%.

Purefy: Only fixed interest rates are available, with rates ranging from 3.95% – 6.75% APR. You can borrow up to $150,000 for up to 15 years. Keep Your Principles Essay. Just answer a few questions on definition their site, and you can get an tuberculosis, indication of the rate. RISLA: Just like New Hampshire, the state of Rhode Island wants to constructionism definition, help you save. You can get fixed rates starting as low as 3.49%. Is The Of Global Warming. And you do not need to have lived or studied in constructionism definition Rhode Island to benefit. UW Credit Union: This credit union has limited membership (you can find out who can join here, but you had better be in Wisconsin). The Berlin To. You can borrow from constructionism, $5,000 to $60,000 and rates start as low as 2.76% (variable) and 4.04% APR (fixed). Wells Fargo: As a traditional lender, Wells Fargo will look at non reductionist credit score and debt burden.

They offer both fixed and variable loans, with variable rates starting at 4.49% and fixed rates starting at 6.24%. You would likely get much lower interest rates from some of the constructionism definition, new Silicon Valley lenders or the credit unions. You can also compare all of these loan options in one chart with our comparison tool. It lists the what is the effect, rates, loan amounts, and kinds of loans each lender is willing to refinance. You can also email us with any questions at info@magnifymoney.com. Nick Clements is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Nick at nick@magnifymoney.com. 2 Credit Cards Charging 0% Interest until 2019. Getting Approved For 1 Of These Credit Cards Means You Have Excellent Credit.

Best Travel Credit Cards With No Annual Fee. This Cash Back Number May Surprise You. Advertiser Disclosure: MagnifyMoney is an advertising-supported comparison service which receives compensation from some of the financial providers whose offers appear on our site. This compensation from our advertising partners may impact how and where products appear on the site (including for constructionism definition example, the order in which they appear). Oil Spill Article Essay. To provide more complete comparisons, the site features products from our partners as well as institutions which are not advertising partners. While we make an effort to include the best deals available to definition, the general public, we make no warranty that such information represents all available products.

College Students and Keep Your Essay, Recent Grads. Guide to Paying for College in constructionism 2017. Friday, August 25, 2017. The editorial content on this page is not provided by any financial institution and has not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any of paper punch uk, these entities. Brynne is the blogger behind FemmeFrugality. According to definition, CollegeBoard, the what is the of global, cost of tuition, fees, and room and board has gone up about 162 percent at private nonprofit four-year colleges since 1971 when adjusted for inflation. Definition. Public schools have seen an increase of Can You Keep in the World?, 142 percent in in-state tuition, fees, and room and board over the same time period. College is an constructionism definition, expensive endeavor, yet we know that those who hold bachelor’s degrees make an paper punch uk, average of $1 million more over the course of their lives than those who do not.

Higher education is definition, still worth investing in, even if prices have increased astronomically. Today we’ll look at how to evaluate the costs of college and how to get your education funded. Part I: How Much Does College Cost? When you first look at the cost of tuition and fees, room and board, and meal plans, most colleges appear oppressively expensive. Appearances are sometimes deceiving. What Of Global. The first number most people find is the advertised sticker price, and it isn’t what you end up shelling out for your education. The number you actually end up paying — the net price — is usually lower for most students. Net price is how much the school charges minus the amount of constructionism, financial aid you are awarded. If you already know how much financial aid you will be receiving, you can subtract that number from your school’s sticker price. The difference will be your net price. If you want to get an estimate of the net price prior to applying, you can search for your school’s calculator via the U.S.

Department of Education. There are some things to what is the effect of global, keep in mind as you use these calculators: The numbers they produce will be estimates only, and are not guaranteed. Some calculators base all calculations on in-state tuition. If you’re an out-of-state student, be mindful that your costs may be higher unless explicitly stated otherwise.

Some calculators base their numbers on constructionism financial aid opportunities available to first-year students. There is usually more funding for Your Principles Essay freshmen, so you can expect the subsequent three years to be more expensive. Nonprofit schools tend to cost a good deal less than for-profit institutions. Constructionism Definition. And, when you look at tuberculosis prevention the net price of for-profit schools, they can cost even more than private nonprofit schools. This is because for-profit schools offer less institutional aid — or financial aid through the college itself. Instead, they rely heavily on federal financial aid for the funding of their students’ education. As a result, students who attend for-profit schools generally wind up with far more student loan debt after graduation. With 59 percent of students enrolled in a certificate or associate’s degree program, average student borrowing per year was at $6,179 for the 2011-12 school year compared to constructionism definition, an average of the berlin, just $953 at comparable public, nonprofit two-year institutions, according to constructionism, a recent analysis by the Brookings Institution. Because of this, the bulk of their advertising efforts are focused on low-income students who qualify for maximum federal financial aid.

These students should be careful to Can You in the Corporate World? Essay, weigh net prices at constructionism nonprofit institutions before agreeing to what effect of global, attend a for-profit school based on constructionism definition the sticker price. Nonprofit institutions will offer more scholarships and grants, reducing the number of loans — and paper punch uk, therefore debt — they have to take on. The sticker price on a public college is undoubtedly lower than that of private institutions. Constructionism Definition. However, many private schools have large endowments providing substantial student aid at the institutional level. This aid is often extended to middle-income families even if they don’t qualify for tuberculosis a large amount of aid through federal programs. For example, Cornell University offers significant grants to students from families with under $60,000 in annual income as long as their assets are under $100,000. In an example generated by constructionism definition the university, a traditional student from a household with $51,000 in annual income can qualify for over $64,000 in institutional grants — even when they hold personal assets of Can You Keep Principles World? Essay, $3,000. In this example, the student’s net price is a whopping $3,450 for one year at an Ivy League university.

What college expenses should I be prepared for? There are several different ways to find money for college expenses. If you stay on top of financial aid application deadlines and have a high GPA and high test scores, you can easily shave tens of thousands of dollars off your cost of attendance. In this section, we’ll cover the most common sources of college funding. Understanding the FAFSA: The key to financial aid. The Free Application for constructionism definition Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) is the single most important document you will likely fill out as a college student. Because without the what is the of global, FAFSA, you won’t be able to access the definition, majority of the best financial aid options we are going to cover in this guide. Those include: Grants Work-study opportunities Federal student loans Direct PLUS Loans for Can You Keep Corporate World? parents. Not only will the FAFSA tell you how much aid you are eligible for through the federal government, but it is also a required step to getting institutional financial aid from your college or university. It’s important to note that you do not have to pay to definition, file the FAFSA.

It is entirely free. Go to https://fafsa.gov/ to create a Federal Student Aid account and start your application. Important: You must fill out a FAFSA every year that you attend college. The Expected Family Contribution (EFC) is how much the federal government determines you or your parents should be able to contribute to your education costs. This number is then used to figure out how much aid the government is prevention, willing to extend to you. For example, to constructionism definition, qualify for a full Pell Grant in prevention the 2017-18 school year, your family’s expected family contribution can’t be higher than $5,328. It should be noted that students interested in FSEOG Grants and definition, Perkins Loans should apply as soon as possible, as these funds are doled out on what is the effect warming a first-come, first-served basis and actually do run out. The final form of aid distributed by constructionism the federal government is student loans. You will know which federal student loans you qualify for after you fill out your FAFSA. Because student loans will have to Analysis, be repaid with interest, they should only be pursued after you have exhausted all grant, scholarship and constructionism, work-study options. As an undergraduate student, there are a variety of federal student loans you may be offered.

Direct Loans, both subsidized and unsubsidized, come with the advantage of income-driven repayment options. There are also generous deferment, forgiveness and cancellation programs offered. Important: You should be absolutely sure that you have maxed out your federal student loan eligibility before turning to private loans. Federal student debt often has better rates than private loans and a range of flexible repayment options. If federal student loans aren’t enough, you can turn to tuberculosis, private student loans as a last resort for constructionism definition college financing. Keep World?. These loans from banks, credit unions and online marketplace lenders do not have the constructionism, same generous repayment programs, though some may have deferment options in paper punch uk some situations, such as unemployment.

Private loans come with variable or fixed interest rates. At this moment in time, interest rates are low. If you take out a variable interest rate loan, the rate is likely to constructionism definition, go up over the course of your loan. Fixed interest rates start higher, but remain stable throughout the Oil Spill Article Analysis Essay, course of your repayment. If you haven’t yet established credit, you will likely need a co-signer in definition order to qualify for private student loans. If you’re a nontraditional student and have a less-than-stellar credit history, you’ll likely also benefit from having a co-signer. If you have a good credit score, you can skip the co-signer. But if you do need some help, look for loan options with a co-signer release. Principles World? Essay. This lets the co-signer off the hook after a certain period of time — generally once your payment history has allowed you to establish a better credit history yourself. You don’t want to constructionism, borrow more than you can reasonably afford to tuberculosis, pay back. Constructionism. Certain professions that require extensive education, like doctors and paper punch uk, lawyers, will have considerably more student loan debt than other professions.

However, some professions, such as teaching, may require a master’s degree in some regions. Four years of undergrad plus grad school isn’t cheap, but a teacher’s entry salary typically doesn’t make up for constructionism all of your education expenses. In these situations, talk to professionals in the field you want to enter to find a reasonable expectation for entry salary and potential salary growth over the course of Oil Spill Article, a career. While using online sources to find this information is constructionism, great, it’s not going to replace the regional knowledge of a professional working in the field. You can then plug that number into CollegeBoard’s Student Loan Calculator, along with how much money you intend to borrow. It will analyze and Keep Your in the Essay, tell you if your monthly payments will exceed 10 to definition, 15 percent of your monthly income — which is generally considered to Principles Corporate World?, be the absolute maximum you should allot to student loan payments. If you take out federal student loans, you may be able to borrow more as most loan options allow you to constructionism, pay based on your income level. Just be careful not to bury yourself in debt — you don’t want to be paying student loans into tuberculosis prevention, your seventies. You won’t find scholarships on the FAFSA, but they’re a great alternative to student loans. When you are awarded a scholarship, you receive free money for school that you never have to pay back. Merit-based vs. need-based scholarships.

While the constructionism definition, majority of grants are need-based, the paper punch uk, majority of scholarships are merit-based. There may be maximum income levels or priority given to those in dire financial straits, but for most scholarships, you’re going to have to do a little bit of constructionism, work beyond filling out an paper punch uk, application. Most scholarships will require you to maintain a certain GPA, though standards vary wildly. Almost all scholarships will require some type of essay. Constructionism. Traditionally, this is done in written format, but in 2017 some scholarship essays can be done via multimedia such as video.

If your family’s income doesn’t help you establish a strong financial need, don’t lose hope. Tuberculosis Prevention. There are plenty of scholarships out there that have no financial requirements and are completely based on definition your essay — on rare occasion, they won’t even ask about grades. Recurring vs. one-time scholarships. Most scholarships only last one semester or one school year. What Is The Of Global. However, there are some you can apply for that will cover your entire tenure as an undergrad. Keep in constructionism mind that these options are likely to require you to maintain a certain GPA throughout your studies. The first place you can look is non reductionist, your financial aid office.

Many schools have endowments not just for grants but for scholarships as well. After you have exhausted scholarship options at constructionism definition your school, look in places such as: Professional organizations in the field you want to enter Professional organizations or unions your parents may belong to National student organizations related to your major Potential future employers — especially if they’re a larger company Within the community you grew up in Organizations based on your ethnicity or heritage Religious organizations Organizations related to any extracurricular activities or hobbies. You can look for scholarships on major search engines, like Fastweb, CollegeBoard and paper punch uk, Scholarships.com, but you’ll find a ton of competition. If you can look for constructionism definition scholarships focused on what makes you unique, you’re likely to find a dramatically smaller applicant pool, boosting your chances of winning an award. Start applying for scholarships as soon as possible. It is possible to fund your education this way in its entirety, though you will have to fill out a lot of applications and to, write a lot of essays. The sooner you get started, the constructionism definition, better. Each scholarship has a window, which is the berlin wall was built to, typically opened annually or once a semester, in which you can file an application. While high school sophomores will be able to apply for some scholarships, opportunities really start opening up in your junior year. Grants are money you never have to constructionism, pay back unless you drop out of school or in some other way violate the terms of wall to, agreement.

In undergraduate studies, they are typically need-based. In order to qualify for federal grant programs, you must fill out the FAFSA and meet eligibility requirements. There are four types of constructionism, federal grants: Federal Pell Grants are distributed based on income-eligibility only. Principles In The Corporate World?. They can be granted to full-time, three-quarter-time, half-time or less-than-half-time students. For the 2017-18 school year, the definition, maximum Pell Grant awards are: $5,920 for full-time students $4,440 for three-quarter-time students $2,960 for half-time students $1,480 for less-than-half-time students. These awards are distributed in Analysis two parts over two semesters. During the summer of 2017, Summer Pell Grants were awarded for the first time since 2011.

These grants gave you an additional 50 percent of the full award to spend on summer studies — particularly helpful to definition, community college students whose course of study typically runs through the summer. The 2017 expansion was part of a budget deal passed by Congress in Can You Your Principles May affecting only one school year. Whether Summer Pell Grants will be available for the 2018-19 school year or any other future years still remains up in the air. Legislation for the permanent reinstatement of Summer Pell Grants was introduced in the Senate in April, but received no vote. Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants. Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants (FSEOGs) are available to students with financial needs in excess of what the Pell Grant can address. These funds are distributed to schools up front, and then awarded on a first-come, first-served basis. The maximum award is between $100 and $4,000, depending on constructionism your personal financial situation.

Iraq and tuberculosis, Afghanistan Service Grants. If you lost a parent while they were serving in the military in Iraq or Afghanistan post-9/11, you may be able to get a full Pell Grant regardless of your family income through the Iraq and Afghanistan Service Grant. In order to constructionism definition, qualify, you must: Meet all Pell Grant requirements save EFC requirements. Keep Your Essay. Have lost your parent before the age of 24 — or while you were enrolled in college at constructionism least part time at the time of your parent or guardian’s death. Over the the berlin wall was built to, next couple of constructionism, years, the maximum award for this grant will be reduced thanks to budget sequestration. If your grant is Oil Spill Analysis Essay, distributed prior to Oct. 1, 2017, you will receive a maximum award of $5,511.52. If your grant is constructionism, distributed between Oct. 1, 2017, and tuberculosis, Oct.

1, 2018, you will receive a maximum award of $5,529.28. If you are planning on becoming a teacher, you may be interested in a Teacher Education Assistance for College and Higher Education (TEACH) Grant. In order to qualify, you must be enrolled in a TEACH-eligible program. Not all schools participate, and the ones that do determine which of their programs qualify for constructionism definition TEACH Grants, so be sure to sit down with your financial aid counselor to determine your potential eligibility. When you accept a TEACH Grant, you are agreeing to the berlin was built to, serve four out of definition, your first eight years in the workforce in a high-need specialization in Oil Spill Article Essay a low-income area.

You can also meet this obligation by teaching at a Bureau of Indian Education school. High-need specializations include: If you do not keep your promise to serve in constructionism definition this capacity, your grant will turn into a Direct Unsubsidized Loan, which will have to be repaid. The maximum grant amount is $3,724 if disbursed prior to warming, Oct. 1, 2017. Definition. If disbursed between Oct. 1, 2017, and Oct. Principles In The Essay. 1, 2018, the maximum award is $3,736. Your state may also issue need-based grants.

Generally you will be redirected to your state’s application page at the end of your FAFSA application, but if you want to check out constructionism definition, your options beforehand, you can find information from your state’s department of Keep Your Principles in the World?, higher education here. Your college or university may also issue need-based grants. Constructionism. While your EFC is not likely to be measured in the same way, a FAFSA application is still required in order to be considered. Some colleges, though typically not Ivy League schools, will offer merit-based grants, as well. Your grades will be a factor here. Work-study programs are another form of aid that will not be accessible unless you complete your FAFSA. Many schools participate in Article federally backed work-study programs for students with a financial need. Constructionism. You are assigned a set amount of hours dependent on your financial need. You may find yourself working for the school, in a community service role, or in prevention a field relevant to constructionism, your course of study.

Work-study programs pay at least minimum wage and pay at Oil Spill least once per month. You can choose to receive a monthly paycheck or have your pay directly counted against definition, any money you may owe the wall, school. Your eligibility for constructionism work-study will be determined by the berlin was built to your FAFSA application. 529 accounts are tax-advantaged accounts to definition, help you save for future college expenses. Contributions go in Principles in the Corporate World? after you’ve paid taxes on your income. That money is invested and grows tax-free — as long as you spend the money on qualified educational expenses. Not all 529 accounts are created equal. They are issued by state, and each state has specific rules on how their 529 accounts can be used.

However, many states will let you purchase their 529 accounts even if you are not a state resident. There are two basic kinds of constructionism definition, 529 accounts. The College Savings Plan structure allows your money to grow in traditional investments as made available by your state. You can use this money to pay for school at the berlin wall to almost any U.S. Definition. institution — and even some schools abroad. When you take money out, it will be based on the real dollar value your investments have grown to. Oil Spill Article Analysis. For example, if you have $20,000 in your account, you would be able to definition, take $20,000 out. If school cost $25,000, you would still have to find $5,000 to prevention, fund the constructionism, additional tuition and fees not covered by your 529.

Utah’s 529 plan is a College Savings Plan, and commonly cited as one of the best in the nation. Prepaid Tuition Plans allow you to save for tuberculosis prevention tomorrow’s college at today’s rates. There may be different tiers of saving for different types of constructionism, schools. For example, Pennsylvania’s Guaranteed Savings Plan 529 option currently allows you to buy credits at 2016-17 rates. These credits will be valid when your child goes to school in the future — even if tuition rates have skyrocketed. One thing to be careful of with Prepaid Tuition Plans is that if you save at the state school level, and your child ends up not wanting to attend a state school when they graduate from Oil Spill Article Analysis Essay, high school, you could run into constructionism, some funding problems. Keep Your Principles. Pennsylvania allows you to change your investment tier at any time, but this is a potential point of friction you should consider at the outset of definition, your 529 decision. You will also notice that price per credit is quite high for Ivy League schools. As discussed earlier with the example of Cornell, Ivy League schools tend to have extensive grants. If you’re making a median income, saving in this manner may reduce your child’s future institutional aid, costing you more money than you would have had to pay without the dramatic savings.

What can I use my 529 account for? You can only use the tuberculosis, money in constructionism your 529 account for qualified educational expenses. If you use the money for anything else, you will have to pay taxes on the withdrawal. Qualified educational expenses include: Tuition and fees* Room and board — though you must be enrolled at least half-time to claim this expense Books Technology required for school — including internet access Required equipment and materials as dictated by your professor. *Some Prepaid Tuition Plans cover tuition and fees only. Most programs allow you to the berlin to, make a withdrawal online or via postal mail. Your 529 account issuer will not keep records of how that money was spent. Constructionism Definition. Producing documentation to show that the money was spent on educational expenses falls squarely on your shoulders.

Studies show that regardless of Your World? Essay, how much you save, the constructionism, fact that you are saving for non reductionist college makes your child more likely to definition, attend college. If you have a high enough income level, your child may not qualify for need-based financial aid. The Berlin Wall Was Built. Saving in constructionism definition a 529 plan is a generous investment in their future given that they won’t have as many funding opportunities available to them. Because you are investing, your money is Your Principles Corporate, likely to grow — and grow federally tax-free at definition that. This means you won’t have to save as much in a College Savings Plan in order to what effect of global, meet your goals. The amount you have saved could reduce institutional aid — especially if you open the account in your child’s name. Constructionism Definition. Open the account in is the of global warming your name and list your child as a beneficiary instead. Constructionism. When saving in a Prepaid Tuition Plan, do your best to ensure you’re saving at a level your child will actually be able to use.

If they don’t end up going to school in state, you could hit a bump in the road if you’ve been saving at state school tuition levels. Because you are investing, there’s no guarantee of growth. You could conceivably lose money in tuberculosis prevention a 529 account. How much can I borrow for college? Through a combination of federal and definition, private loans, there’s really no set limit on what is the warming how much you can borrow. You should figure out how much you want to borrow, though, after realistically examining your potential future earnings. Is my college degree worth the money? To figure out if your college degree is worth the cost, you need to figure out the net price of your education and your expected salary. A good tool to figure this out is constructionism definition, College Reality Check. Funded by the Bill Melinda Gates Foundation, College Reality Check helps you estimate the net price of your school based on a number of different factors.

Then it shows you how much you can expect to make upon graduation. Be wary when using these income estimates, though. They are pulled from a source that relies on self-reporting from younger professionals. A better way to tuberculosis, figure out potential future earnings is by talking with someone at the local level who is already working in your field. What can I use my student loans for? Technically, you’re only allowed to spend federal student loans on educational expenses. These can include: Tuition and fees. Room and board Books, supplies and equipment Transportation while at constructionism school Dependent child care expenses. No one will be monitoring your bank account. However, if you end up having the money to go on shopping sprees after you’ve paid for all of the above expenses, you’re probably borrowing too much.

Consider returning the non reductionist, money rather than paying interest on it after you graduate. Check your loan agreement with non-federal lenders for specific restrictions on private student loans. Do I have to live in constructionism on-campus housing? Should I make student loan payments while I’m in non reductionist school? If at all possible, yes.

Make an effort to definition, make at least interest-only payments. Article Essay. This will keep interest from accruing while you’re in school and definition, deferment, which costs you more money in the long run. The only time it doesn’t matter as much is when you have Direct Subsidized Loans — which will not accrue interest while you’re in Your in the Corporate school. Even then, making principal payments early isn’t a bad thing if you can swing it. If you take out constructionism definition, a Direct Loan, you will be assigned one of nine loan servicers. You will make payments through your assigned loan servicer. Those who take out Perkins Loans will repay directly through their school or a loan servicer designated by their school.

You can repay private loans through your lender. What happens if I miss a student loan payment? If you miss one payment on is the effect your federal student loans, you will have to make it up before 90 days — otherwise you get reported to the credit bureaus. If you miss several payments on constructionism definition your Direct Loans and don’t make payments for 270 days, you will be in default, which puts you at risk of paper punch uk, not only being reported to the credit bureaus but also losing all benefits of federal student loans like income-driven repayment options. Definition. You could also end up in court.

Consequences for Perkins Loans and private student loans depend on the agreement you sign prior to tuberculosis, disbursement, but they can report you to the credit bureaus as soon as you are 30 days late with a payment. What happens if I can’t afford my student loan payments? If you have Direct Loans, get on constructionism definition an income-driven repayment plan. These plans tie your maximum payment to a percentage of your disposable income. If you have a private loan, you may want to look into refinancing for lower monthly payments. If you have a Perkins Loan, set up an appointment with your financial aid office or loan servicer to discuss your options. Brynne Conroy is a writer at MagnifyMoney. You can email Brynne at brynne@magnifymoney.com. 2 Credit Cards Charging 0% Interest until 2019.

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920 Words Essay on the Choice of a Career. The selection of a career or profession is definition, one of the the berlin, most important things of life. But it is equally difficult. The lack of definition, guiding services, proper counseling and ever increasing unemployment has further complicated the matter. There is cut-throat competition. Therefore, most of the young men and women in search of suitable jobs are a confused, indecisive and frustrated lot. It has generated a deep sense of frustration and indiscipline among the young people. A right choice of a career is fundamental importance. On it does depend one#8217;s success or failure in life. A correct choice may lead to happy, prosperous and satisfying career and life.

On the other hand, a wrong selection may result in failure, disappointment and sadness in prevention life. Constructionism Definition? The result of prolonged indecision rimy still proves worse. Image Source : cdn.publishyourarticles.net. Therefore, the non reductionist, problem should be faced and resolved as early as possible. It is better if one decides at the school stage itself what career one is going to adopt in future. But the school-going students are quite young, inexperienced and raw to take a right decision. They cannot be the best judge in the matter. What are needed are proper guidance, counseling, advice, vocational training, encouragement and orientation. And parents, teachers, professional guides and counselors should help them. They can help the students choose right professions and careers, keeping in mind the aptitude, talent, skills, resources etc., of each and every student, a prospective professional.

This will also go a long way in solving the problem of unemployment and proper development of our human resources. Constructionism? Life has become all the more complex and competitive. Can You Your Principles In The World? Essay? There is a keen struggle and competition in the world of careers and professions. And only the fittest will survive. After finishing their school and college education or training, the young students are baffled as to which profession to choose. They find themselves groping in the dark. The tough competition and corruption further increase their difficulties. A young man or woman may possess sufficient training, education, orientation and aptitude for a particular job or position and yet he or she may not get it because of constructionism, various problems. Gone are the days when life was easy, simple, smooth and harmonious, and in the majority of the cases the son followed his ancestral profession or trade, and was trained in the same at Oil Spill Article Analysis, home.

With the constructionism, rapid change in attitudes, situations and paper punch uk, progress in science and technology, things have radically changed. The entry of women in professions and services has further increased the complications. Constructionism? And so, the selection of a right career at a right time has become a very tough job. Article? It needs proper, full and comprehensive consideration. There are professions, careers, trades and jobs in plenty. There are a number of professional and training institutions like It#8217;s., polytechnics, engineering colleges etc., which give training in various trades, skills, professions and jobs, such as medicine, engineering, teaching, business, commerce, banking, computer science, advertising, journalism, government services, positions in armed forces, and scores others. Then one can begin his own workshop, factory or shop, or choose a career in police, films, commercial art etc. The whole world of careers is yours, but each and every profession requires a special aptitude, training, guidance, education and preparation.

One may wish to become a doctor or an engineer, but mere wish is not enough. Wishes, without proper and definition, matching qualifications and deeds, result in frustration and failure. There are many factors that go in making a successful and happy career. Besides mental make-up, education, training and skills, the financial resources have also to be taken into non reductionist, consideration. For example a young man may possess all the definition, training, skills and aptitude for running an industry.

But he cannot venture to be an paper punch uk entrepreneur unless he has sufficient financial backing and muscle. In these circumstances, he will have to constructionism settle for a less ambitious career. But if he has a strong will power, nothing can prevent him from of global, achieving the constructionism definition, goal in the long run. Non Reductionist? One may start from scratch and end up as a business tycoon. A career should be chosen at the earliest possible stage but with proper and full deliberation. The help and guidance of constructionism definition, teachers, parents, experienced people and professionals should be sought in the matter. I am a XII class student and I am- not required to enter into non reductionist, any profession just now. And yet I have decided about my career and profession. I have thought long and well over the matter with the help and guidance of definition, my parents, teachers, physical training instructor and others well qualified to advise me. I have decided to become a soldier in our army. I have robust health, strong determination and sense of strict discipline.

I like adventures, bold and daring acts. I have an aptitude for a military career. I have almost made it the mission of my life to serve the country in the military uniform. Soon I hope to what is the effect of global warming find myself in Defense Academy, Khadakvasla after completion of definition, my education in what effect warming the Sank school at Belgium and in Quad. My career in armed forces will provide me with a proper opportunity to constructionism definition serve my motherland in the best possible way I can. For me the profession of Keep Your Principles in the Essay, a soldier is the noblest because it is devoted to the defense of the country#8217;s honour and unity.

The call to the duty is super most in my mind and I personally feel that this feeling of mine can find best possible expression in defense service only. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and definition, other allied information submitted by non reductionist visitors like YOU. Before publishing your Essay on this site, please read the following pages:

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Essay on Rural Development in India. Read this essay to learn about Rural Development in India. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Constructionism. Introduction to Rural Development 2. Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development 3. The Rural Development Programmes 4. Institutions 5. Observations and Problems 6. Suggestions. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for what is the of global Rural Development Essay on the Rural Development Programmes Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development in India Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development Essay on the Suggestions for definition Rural Development in India. 1. Essay on the Introduction to Your Principles World? Rural Development: The definition of definition, Rural is residuary become all over the world that is defined as an urban area and whatever is not urban known as rural. In India a settlement is defined as urban if it fulfils either of the following conditions, were adopted in the 1991 census: (i) All statutory towns, i.e.; all places with a municipality corporation, municipality board, cantonment board or notified town area etc.

(ii) A minimum population of 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per cent of the Male working population engaged in to non-agricultural and allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at constructionism, least 400 persons per square kilometres. Thus, the term ‘Rural’ essentially means an area, which is characterised as non-urban style of life, occupational structure and settlement pattern. ‘Development’ in general refers to the process of a general improvement in tuberculosis prevention levels of living together, decreasing inequality in incomes and definition, the capacity to sustain continuous improvements overtime. Thus the term Rural Development is viewed as an activity of a series of activities or a process, which either improves the immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the what of global warming, potential for constructionism future living or both of the paper punch uk, rural people. The Royal commission on Agriculture defined Rural Development as: “We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the constructionism, directorship of agriculture is one of the key posts in Rural Development and that agricultural advance must in a very great degree depend upon the stability of the officer.” The taskforce appointed by the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in 1972 defined Rural Development as: “After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to non reductionist take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the expression. Definition. ‘Rural Development’ we have chose to equate it with agricultural development in the widest sense so as to warming embrace besides crop husbandry, all the allied activities.” According to constructionism the view of World Bank “Rural Development as a strategy design to improve the paper punch uk, economic and constructionism definition, social life of a specific group of people – The rural (people) poor. It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in rural areas. The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and the landless.” Rural Development means a strategy to improve the economic and social life of the rural poor and the rural weak in the overall spectrum of Article Analysis Essay, development and growth.

It is not only important to constructionism definition raise the agricultural productivity and Article Analysis Essay, the rate of overall economic growth in the rural areas, but also it is to ensure that the poor and definition, weaker sections share the benefit. “Rural Development as a process in complex and involves the interaction of paper punch uk, economic, social, political, technological and other situational factors. These have to be integrated with Government policies and plans with the objective of improving the quality of life of the people in the villages”. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in levels of constructionism, living, including employment, education, health and nutrition housing and a variety of social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in distribution of what of global warming, rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in incomes and economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the rural sector to sustain and accelerate the pace of these improvements. The critical element in the Rural Development is improvement living standards of the poor through opportunities for better utilisation of their physical and human resources in the absence of this utilisation of rural resources has no functional significance.

Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and use of technology for constructionism the benefit of the poor but their active involvement in the building up of institutions as well as functioning of these. There are a number of Oil Spill Article Essay, definitions of rural development. But that varies according to time, priority and nature of rural activities. Despite of differences, the academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of experiments in alternative methods of organising production, welfare and exchange in rural activities has a long history and is not the monopoly of any single system or country. Its recent popularity however is mainly symptomatic of the failure of technocratic and growth strategies pursued by most developing countries in the 1950s and 1960s. Academics, nationals and international policy makers are carrying out the search for solution to the twin problems of rural poverty and unemployment. The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and Mccloskey provide useful insights into the history of definition, economic development of the present day developed countries. The growth of output and productivity in these countries during last 10 to 15 decades has been qualitatively different from tuberculosis that observed in earlier periods.

Modern Economic growth since the constructionism, late 18th century is different from periods of growth in earlier times in three specific respects. Firstly, the ownership and use of economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in India separated for the first time. Those who used this surplus as capital in Oil Spill Article the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in the land-based feudal pre-industrial system. Secondly, extensive use of an acceptable unit of exchange called money helped in expansion of market, which made specialization and mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of both capital and labour in pursuit of higher gains to urban areas and distant lands occurred on constructionism definition, an unprecedented scale. The consequent increase in output and productivity were substantial and Oil Spill Essay, sustained over a long period of constructionism definition, time. These impressive increases were also accompanied by growth of population and large-scale migration from paper punch uk not only rural to urban areas but from nation to nation and from continent to continent. Historically experience suggests that, when seen in constructionism definition long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by of global the growth of labour increased productivity in the agricultural sector and migration of labour to urban non-agricultural activities. The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the incentive of higher wages and better employment opportunities. The role of the State has been changing significantly since the constructionism definition, Eighteenth Century.

Traditionally the Government’s activities could be divided into three departments namely, defense, Public works and what is the of global warming, internal administration. A healthy balance among the three ensured stable regimes with the advent of modern economic development; the “Public works” component has been an expanding area of constructionism, State activity. Modern development policy makers while, recognising the importance of what is the effect warming, infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the contents of infrastructure is one of the very few illuminating contributions on the subject. Infrastructure includes all things provided by the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and urban services are considered important elements of infrastructure.

In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of infrastructure has to be carefully planned and provided by the State. The State playing an important role in development. Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to definition “rural development’ in their declarations and is the, documents on constructionism definition, national planning policies. In various ways and for various motives they have attempted to relate to the problems of their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and impressive increase in growth of agricultural and Can You Keep Your in the, food outputs in some regions of a number of developing countries the plight of small and marginal farmers, agricultural and landless labourers, artisans and small retailers has not been improved significantly.

In India the term ‘Rural Development’ is not a very old phenomenon. Early in the century their exist the British rule. In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in the governmental orchestra. The functions of the Government were limited and even the spread of each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of definition, minor meaning and significance in the structure of the priorities of colonialism, which was also reflected in the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the view of early pioneering efforts at rural development in India. The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in our country; in early 20s. 2. In The Corporate World? Essay. Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development: Programmes and Projects in Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and experiments undertaken for rural development in Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments: This programme was pioneered by noted scholar of the country Rabindranath Tagore.

The important objective of the constructionism definition, experiment was Economic and Moral rehabilitation of the non reductionist, rural community. (ii) Martandum Project: One Rural Reconstruction Programme was initiated by Spancer Hatch at Martandum (South Travancore) in constructionism 1921. Martandum rural reconstruction Centre was opened with a five- sided programme popularly called as “The Five Sided Triangle” Comprising Spirit, Mind, Body, Economic and Social side. The philosophy of rural reconstruction embraced principles known as “Pillars of Policy”. The principle of ‘Self Help’ was maintained. The project became the paper punch uk, centre of comprehensive programmes of rural development. (iii) The Gurugaon Experiment: The important village uplift movement was initiated by I.L.Brayne the constructionism, Deputy Commissioner of non reductionist, Gurugaon district in 1920.

This village development programme called as the “Gurugaon Scheme”. The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to deal with the whole life and the activity of the constructionism definition, peasant and his family and to prevention present a complete remedy from the terrible conditions in with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in definition Baroda: The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in 1932 and the work commenced in a group of non reductionist, villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The movement aimed at improvement in all aspect of rural life, changing the outlook of the agriculturists, the attainment of higher standard of living.

(v) Sarvodaya Scheme of Bombay: This scheme was based on the Gandhiji’s idea of definition, Sarvodaya. The important aim of the project is to stop migration of youths to nearest towns and cities. The supply of food for all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme: The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the Gandhian ideal of “Village Swaraj” by brining about not only the education, economic, sanitary and Article Essay, other improvements of village along with the constructionism, revitalisation of the spirit if people and to make them self-confident and non reductionist, self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and communication departments. The scheme was later merged with the National Extension Services in 1953-54. Programmes and Projects in Post-Independence Period:

Programmes and projects were also launched in post-independence and pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of Etawah: The Project began under the sponsorships of the provincial Governments of Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the project were to increase the degree of productivity, social improvements, promotion of self-confidence and constructionism, cooperation. The pilot project at Etawah treated as one of the most successful rural development project of the World. The project also exhibited the Keep Your World? Essay, exemplary Cooperation and Coordination of Government, volunteers and others. (2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in 1947.

The Rehabilitation of displaced persons coming from Pakistan gathered importance. In order to definition provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at Nilokheri in 1948 with the efforts of Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to activate and support a triple charter of rights such as: (i) Right to live, (ii) Right to work for living and. (iii) Right to receive what is earned. To give a practical shape to this charter or rights a new scheme known as the “Mazdoor Manzil” was drawn up. The basic concept of the wall was built, Mazdoor Manzil was to stop the one-way traffic of labour, material, skill and culture from villages to town. The township was intended to include institutions for medical relief and sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and definition, Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and other forms of animal husbandry. Tuberculosis. The project was highly appreciated by definition the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.

The Planning for Rural Development have been received utmost attention by Can You Principles Corporate Essay the planners and definition, policy makers along with the National Plan for tuberculosis Economic Development. The rural development strategies were also adopted by planners as per constructionism definition the methods and strategies adopted for the economic development of the country. India adopted both the centralised and decentralised planning models in is the effect the process of its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of capital accumulation and saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Under this approach, the process of economic development must start from the villages. In this context, the mobilization of peoples participation was required. Definition. In order to implement this ideology the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Block administration was created as a centre of Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and left the weaker section untouched. The programme was also implemented in Orissa.

The State planning machinery followed the objectives and non reductionist, guidelines fixed by Central Government. The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to 1960-61) based on Feldman-Mahalnobis model of sectoral growth. This strategy emphasised investment in heavy industry to constructionism definition achieve industrialization, which was assumed to paper punch uk be the constructionism definition, basic condition for rapid economic development. A good deal of reliance was placed on cottage and small industries with the Oil Spill Analysis, aim of reducing rural under employment, unemployment. As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the second plan period. However, steps were taken to strengthen the ongoing community development programme.

In this respect the, need for viable institutional base was felt and the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in rural areas of the country. Constructionism. As a part of the Union, the specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in paper punch uk Orissa. In the Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Increased agricultural production in the farm sector and definition, activities allied to agriculture received topmost priority during the plan period.

The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in the country. It is observed that, the benefits accrued only to rich and progressive peasants. Once again, landless and what effect of global, agricultural labourers were left untouched. Besides, rural industries project for the promotion of constructionism definition, village industries was also launched during the Analysis Essay, said plan period. Health and Nutrition is constructionism regarded as important inputs required for is the effect warming improvement in the quality of life. To ensure appropriate and adequate nutrition to the children, for their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of constructionism definition, “Growth with social justice” initiated efforts towards uplifting the non reductionist, vulnerable sections of rural society.

In this connection a number of constructionism, ‘area development oriented’ and ‘Target Oriented’ programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the important rural development programmes. These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in limited areas and numbers. This plan paved the path for a number of rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in the country. These programmes were implemented through the existing administrative apparatus at block and village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for Rural Employment and prevention, Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the constructionism, plan period.

The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on the Inter-sectoral transactions model of Leontief which emphasised on strengthening the inter-sectoral linkages for balanced growth in sectors. The most important objectives of the Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of poverty and. (ii) Achievement of self-reliance. In order to attain these objectives. The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the plan period. Besides, in order to promote small-scale, village and cottage industries the what effect of global warming, District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in all districts of the country. The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at the removal of poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and social justice. In order to attain all-round development in rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived.

IRDP is regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and definition, multi-section concept of rural development. As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at various levels such as viable cluster of village communities, districts and the berlin was built to, blocks. Constructionism Definition. As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in various sectors and Analysis Essay, sub-sectors of the definition, rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. were also introduced during the was built, said plan period. The important objectives of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an definition, independent self-reliant economy, establishment of was built to, social system based on constructionism, equity and justice, reduction of regional imbalance and adoption of advanced technologies. The plan intended; to continue the rural development programmes launched/implemented during the Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. Paper Punch Uk. were implemented as the definition, special rural development programmes during the plan period.

The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at to, generation of adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and strengthening the infrastructure. The special rural development and poverty alleviation programmes implemented in earlier plans were also intended to continue during the Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to boost earlier infrastructure and employment generation programmes the definition, new and culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at generating employment opportunities in Keep Your World? Essay the secondary sector, all-round development of agricultural sector, strengthening the rural economy through development of agro-based industries, small- scale village and cottage industries and elimination of constructionism, poverty. As against these objectives, the programmes for self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and other programmes intended to continue during the Ninth Plan with some modifications.

These important antipoverty programmes include the IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and EAS etc. The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in operation till the end of 1998-99. It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of schemes was not able to focus on the needs of the wall was built, rural poor in a coherent manner. Hence these schemes were amalgamated by Government of India and merged into a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from 1.4.1999. Constructionism Definition. In order to create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on the same date. All the plan strategies for rural development based on various approaches like, growth-based approach in first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on Target group approach. The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the target group approach with equal importance to Minimum Needs approach to rural development.

The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Five Year Plan in our country adopt the tuberculosis prevention, target group approach for rural development. The important elements of rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour – Intensive agriculture and Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of development centres to bridge the wide gap between rural and urban areas and self- reliance. (4) An active policy for social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on various approaches and strategies. Constructionism. These are varies according to wall to plan and the Nature of the programme. However, all the Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and constructionism definition, monitoring as well as success and failure. The discussion on some of the important rural development programme will throw light in this respect. 3. Analysis. Essay on the Rural Development Programmes in India:

India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in the year 1950-51. The economy of the Country has been dominated by the rural and traditional economic sectors. The productivity of these sectors has not changed significantly over the period of definition, 50 years. The existence of massive unemployment and poverty is the common feature of Indian economy in general and non reductionist, rural economy in particular. The infrastructure of the country has not developed up to the world standard. It is proper to mention here that, we have achieved little over the period of constructionism definition, 50 years of planned economic development. The planners and policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for the development of the economy and rural development.

Due to a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to discuss some of the important rural development programmes implemented in our country as well as the wall was built, states and Union Territories from time to time. The aims and objectives of definition, these programmes are national in Oil Spill Article Analysis Essay nature and the progress and achievements are based on the secondary data available. As one of the under developed state, the constructionism definition, progress and achievements of rural development programmes of Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the R.D. Programmes implemented in the country and the State Orissa is paper punch uk also made. Since 1951 a number of rural development programmes have been implemented in our Country. Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for analysis. These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) to Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an constructionism definition, independent Country started its planned economic development process in the year 1950-51.

The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to 1955-56 based on methodical approach. The noted Harrod-Domar Model of development was adopted in the said plan. Keep World? Essay. The model emphasised on capital accumulation and saving. The process of economic development must start from the village was also emphasised in the first plan. In this context, the definition, mobilisation of people’s participation is essential and to implement this ideology, the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Community Development Programme was launched on 2nd October 1952. A general village community in India can be divided into six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of land and those who have hereditary rights of tenancy.

(ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in the professions or in personal services, e.g. doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into Oil Spill Analysis Essay, consideration the constructionism, objectives of Community Development Programme was framed. The important objective of Community Development Programme is to create an urge among the is the of global, rural people for a better life and to show the way to satisfying this urge predominantly by means of self-help. This objective is to constructionism definition be attained by revitalising the non reductionist, existing village institutions and definition, creating new ones where ever necessary.

The programme emphasized to give effects to paper punch uk an intensive and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and services etc. and aimed at utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in rural areas for development purpose. It also aims at the largest possible extension of the principle of definition, cooperation and every effort to made to make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a people’s programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and paper punch uk, the rural people. The Local Self Government get further boost after the constructionism, recommendation of Balwantrai Mehta’s formulation of Democratic decentralisation in the forms of village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and Zilla Parishads. The Finance for the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the people and what, the Government. Definition. Being a people’s programme prescribes a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from the people in the form of tuberculosis, labour as well as money. The State Government and the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the balance expenditure in a block.

The Community Development Programme was launched in constructionism selected blocks of the State Orissa, as pilot programme. The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. The total expenditure of Rs. 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the Second Plan period for the said programme. By the end of the paper punch uk, Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the constructionism definition, total number of blocks to 314. Thus, all the blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974).

During the said period all the Stage I block converted to Stage II and large number of stage II block to post-stage II blocks. It is observed that there were 43 CD blocks in stage II and the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in stage III. Total Fund of Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for the programme. Besides, special development schemes on Keep Your Principles World? Essay, irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and communication were also implemented in seven backward districts of the State. In this respect a total sum of definition, Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of Community Development Programme to the rural development are: (1) The setting up of a network of community development blocks covering the in the, length and breadth of the constructionism, country, thus enabling the government to is the of global warming reach the rural population in almost any aspect of their life, (2) The transfer of powers and constructionism, functions for implementing the what warming, programme to the elected representatives at the village, block and district levels, thereby paving the way for democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of Community Development conducted a survey to constructionism assess the impact of CDP They concluded that “the process of modernisation has reached all strata, and going to do so at a faster pace in future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on the part of the effect warming, lower classes”. The ideology of people’s participation through Panchayati Raj System, in absence of proper education and discipline resulted in conspicuous alienation of the weaker sections of the rural communities by the privileged classes. The latter could secure the benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration.

It is observed that the definition, whole programme suffered from lack of vitality, and was tending to prevention generate only into a number of material benefits for a limited few. The official agencies responsibility for implementation of development activities lacked in understanding the new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to definition be a hindrance in initiating the programmes. The critics complained that the Community Development Programme has given a ‘new look’ but not the paper punch uk, ‘food’ to the rural poor. It is constructionism no denying a fact that the expenditure on building the institutions for social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of paper punch uk, economic transformation.

(ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by Agricultural Production Team of the Ford Foundation (USA) on 1959. This programme was put into action during 1960-61. The important objective of the programme was to improve the agricultural production in a integrated and intensified manner. This programme was introduced in selected districts of the definition, country. The selection of Article, these districts was made on the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply. (b) It should have a minimum of natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and Panchayats.

(d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Constructionism Definition. Taking the criteria into consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Can You Keep Your Principles World? Orissa. It was decided to implement for the development of Rabi Crops in 1962-63. This programme was introduced in all the 29 blocks of the district. In the second phase of the constructionism, programme main thrust was given on the increase of higher yielding paddy in the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and horticulture crops and on Can You in the Corporate World?, promoting efficient soil and water management practices. Required inputs, know how and financial provisions are made for the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only self-reliant in Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the State. The IADP has been a ‘Path finder’ for successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to achieve self- sufficiency in food grains and increase agricultural production to meet the constructionism, requirements of industry and exports. Besides, the mid-term appraisal of the Third Five Year Plan observed that “Much greater emphasis should be given to the development of scientific and progressive agriculture in is the of global warming an intensive manner in areas where a high agricultural production potentialities”.

The Government of India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to constructionism cover at tuberculosis, least 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the cultivated area of the country and constructionism definition, this area should be selected for the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. The programme was launched in 1964-65. The aim of IAAP was to bring about Can You Keep Principles in the Essay, a progressive increase in the production of main crops in selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the use of inter-related factors – physical, social and institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to exert an impact on agricultural production. It was decided to implement such programme in constructionism the selected blocks of the country as well as the state. The selection criteria were the blocks having a minimum irrigated area of 5 thousand acres. In Orissa a total of 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the period of Fourth Five Year Plan an additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to 132.

The required funds for the programme were met from the plan and non-plan expenditure of the Agriculture and allied activities. The programme paved the way for the introduction of Green Revolution in India. The Introduction of High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the importance of IAA Programme in the State as well in the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP): The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in the country from the kharif seasons of 1966-67 as a major plank of new agricultural strategy under the economic planning system. The important objective of the programme was to attain self-sufficiency in food by the end of 1970-71.

The programme envisages the introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the the berlin to, newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and bajra. The HYVP proposes to make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the constructionism, introduction of tuberculosis prevention, new and constructionism, high-yielding varieties of non reductionist, improved seeds, increased application of the right amount of fertilizers and extension of the use of pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by insects. To enable the constructionism definition, farmers to undertake this agricultural practice, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) agreed to relax the usual terms and conditions in the berlin wall to respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for the purpose of financing such cultivators. During the Fourth Five Year Plan about 742.6 thousand hectares of land was brought under the HYV programme in Orissa. This has increased to about 1860 thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an investment of about Rs. 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to good land and to those farmers who have the resources and the adaptability to embrace the progress of technology. This programme became successful in the states like Punjab, Haryana and a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in general and definition, Punjab, and Haryana in tuberculosis particular, where wheat is the main food crop. The rice and other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA):

The Reserve Bank of India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on 1969, under the Chairmanship of Sri B.Venkatappiah. The committee in its-interim report recommended for the establishment of Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in following words: “The special efforts proposed are to be restricted to those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on the basis of support in terms of supplies, irrigation, services of machinery etc. Appropriate schemes have to be drawn up by technical experts with reference to local resources and constructionism definition, requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of investment (e.g. sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and so on. Prevention. It is to constructionism definition deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in certain selected districts.” The important functions of the Agency was to: (i) Investigate and Keep Principles in the Corporate World? Essay, identify the problems of small farmers and definition, endeavour to see that the provision of various services and supplies to small farmers is ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to secure loans from tuberculosis prevention co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and other inputs, (iii) The agency is to provide various services such as spraying of insecticides, hiring out of tractors and land leveling to small farmers through the agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and constructionism definition, institutions including cooperatives and local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and is the effect, extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for investment and production activities to be undertaken by the cultivators participating in the programme, (v) To explore the possibility of constructionism, adding to the income of the non reductionist, small farmers by assisting them in taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and constructionism definition, poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to promote the flow of short-term, medium- term and long-term co-operative credit to small cultivators for appropriate purposes from the Agricultural Credit Societies and Central Cooperative banks on the one hand and the land development banks on the other. The scheme was included in the Fourth Five Year Plan.

However, the scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in selected districts by a separate agency constituted under the Societies Registration Act. Keep Your Principles In The Corporate World?. The scheme was financed by the State and Central Government on matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by the agency at the rate of 25 per cent to constructionism definition non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per cent to non-tribal marginal farmers and 50 per Oil Spill Essay cent to Tribal farmers in capital investments and inputs subject to maximum of Rs 3000 and Rs 5000 respectively for any farmers. In Orissa, the Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in constructionism definition three districts. They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of a number of initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes. Orissa stand second in is the of global warming utilisation of loans in all-India basis after Kerala.

The State utilised about 83.6 per definition cent of the loans sanctioned under the scheme. During the period between 1971-72 and tuberculosis prevention, 1980, about 272 lakh families in constructionism 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. The total loans mobilised stood at Rs. 38.4 crores. A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and agency staff was Rs. 14.8 crores. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in the country where the Central Government, State Government and non reductionist, Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for the success of the programme. However, the constructionism definition, programme had been merged with the Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA):

The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on the recommendation made by Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the programme is to assist the is the warming, marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of their small holding and skills by undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and their problems. (ii) To formulate economic programmes for providing gainful employment to the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for production, processing, storage and marketing of products. (iv) To promote rural industries.

The necessary credit for productive investment was provided by definition Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and Commercial banks. Besides provision of matching subsidies were also provided to Oil Spill Analysis Essay the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and Agricultural labourers were eligible to receive subsidies worth 33.3 per cent on constructionism definition, the capital investments and inputs, whereas this was 50 per cent for wall was built tribal beneficiaries, subject to maximum of Rs 3000/- and Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the year 1971-72 in the districts of Cuttack and Keonjhar. During first two years both short and medium-term loans amounted to definition Rs 61.32 lakhs and non reductionist, Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to about 9 thousands and 8 thousand Farmers respectively. Constructionism. A total sum of Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to Rs 4.2 crores in the year 1975-76.

Under the project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and benefitted under the programme. Among them about prevention, 70 per cent of the beneficiaries were enrolled as members of cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP): A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the objective of providing development investment in drought prone areas. During the definition, Fourth Five Year Plan the main emphasis of the programme was on Can You Keep Your Principles Corporate World? Essay, labour intensive works such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and provision of definition, drinking water. What Effect Warming. In the Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an definition, area development programme.

The strategy of this programme was to improve the economy of the areas covered, through a package of infrastructural and on-farm development activities with the objective of optimum utilisation of land, water, human and livestock resources. This programme was also targeted the weaker sections of the Oil Spill, society like, Small and Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and constructionism definition, other rural poor, who have no assured source of income. Co-operative societies were organised to act accordingly. This programme implemented in the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the first in Oil Spill Analysis its category, which included both the constructionism definition, area approach and non reductionist, target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Considering the concentration of constructionism definition, weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of Kalahandi and 14 blocks of Phulbani district in Orissa. During the Article Analysis, Fourth Plan the scheme was fully financed by the Government of India.

The Government of India revised the programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. As per constructionism definition the revision the programme was financed by Central State Governments on 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Central Government sanctioned an amount of Rs 3.4 Crores to Orissa for the programme. Essay. During the years 1974-80 expenditure on the programme was stood at Rs 14.2 Crores on different schemes. The programme has been extended to 14 more blocks of Bolangir and constructionism, Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in Bolangir and 6 blocks in Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to 39 in paper punch uk 4 districts of the State. The State Plan allocation for the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against constructionism, the anticipated expenditure of Can You Keep Corporate Essay, Rs 7.1 Crores. The total plan expenditure for DPA Programme during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores. The launching of Eighth Plan was delayed by two years due to definition political instability in the country. However the programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in 1990-91 and 1991-92. The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is being operated in 47 blocks (2 blocks each in Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in Phulbani, 10 blocks in tuberculosis Kalahandi, 8 blocks in Bolangir, 6 blocks in Bargarh and 5 blocks in Nuapada districts) Spread over to 8 districts of the State during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the plan was Rs 36.9 Crores.

The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the definition, all-India level was about Rs 913 lakhs. The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs 436 lakhs. The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the total funds available under the programme. The percentage share of total expenditure to tuberculosis total funds available was about 48.6 per cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to Africa, India has the largest concentration of the tribal population in definition the World.

Though all the states have tribal population in various degrees of what is the effect of global, concentration, majority of them is found in constructionism Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. The Berlin. Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and health, housing and other schemes. Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for achieving these basic objectives. Definition. During the Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in the Third Five Year Plan. Expenditure on tribal development too, increased several fold over Oil Spill Analysis Essay, the plan periods. Constructionism Definition. However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the majority of the tribal population. It is non reductionist noticed that, in the first three plans emphasis was placed on sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and education etc. Most of these were conceived at the National or at the State level.

The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to planning at the district level and to experimental studies on growth centres for definition evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. In this context, the prevention, Government of constructionism, India has sanctioned pilot projects for tribal development in the central agricultural sector. Among the Six projects sanctioned in All-India level, Ganjam and Koraput districts were selected in Orissa. The outlay on each of paper punch uk, these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Under the Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at Chandragiri of Ganjam district and a Saura Development Scheme in Koraput district were brought out. A new strategy has been evolved for planning the development of the definition, tribal communities during the Fifth Plan period. The new strategy envisages the preparation of a sub- plan for the tribal areas. The first exercise in this regard is to demarcate the Can You World?, tribal areas based on the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the constructionism, tribal concentration of 50 per cent or above. (ii) Areas of dispersed tribal population below 50 per cent.

(iii) Extremely backward and isolated little communities. In order to implement the sub-plan programmes 21 ITDA’s were constituted covering 118 out of 314 blocks in the state. Each ITDA has a project level committee under the Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and Tribal women as members. They have to draw up the plan and programmes at ITDA level and review and monitor the developmental activities of different Department. Each ITDA is headed by a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and Essay, other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for exercising powers under different regulatory laws. There were about 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages.

They were spread over to about 98 blocks of the State up to 1977-78. A total financial outlay of Rs 189 crore was earmarked for constructionism the programme in 1979-80 with a view to Oil Spill Article Analysis Essay cover about 2 thousand families. The total estimated flow of resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is constructionism definition observed that 36 per paper punch uk cent of the total outlay of the State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for investment as against 23 per cent during fifth plan period. Constructionism Definition. About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. During the Seventh Plan period, about was built, 7.6 lakh families were covered under the plan with the plan expenditure of definition, Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the year 1990-91 and 91-92 was estimated at Rs 391 crores and Rs 590 crores respectively. The proposed flow of funds for the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at Rs 3885 Crores. The Flow of funds during 1992-93 was of the order of Rs 459 Crores. This covered about 34 families.

The total funds for the year 1993-94 have increased to Rs 466 crores. Further more the plan expenditure under the programme was Rs 568 Crores. Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in the year 1993-94. Where as this stood at 41 thousand during 1994-95. During 1995-96 about 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of non reductionist, Rs 626 Crores. The total plan out lay for the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the constitution enjoins up on the State to promote with special care the educational and constructionism, economic interest of the weaker sections and in particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The approach for what is the effect of global development of definition, Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by the first Prime Minister of India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in his “Tribal Panchseel” more particularly emphasised on the berlin was built to, the preservation of tribal culture. The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in mid seventies.

The objectives of the Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of S.Ts. and. (ii) Protection of tribals against exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in the areas where the concentration of tribal population is definition more than 50 per cent, and they live in extremely backward areas. For the all-round development of the Tribals outside the Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in 1978- 79. The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of ten thousand or more with at least 50 per Article Analysis Essay cent tribal concentration. The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to be implemented. There is a MADA level Advisory Committee for each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and constructionism, non- officials like peoples representatives as members.

This Advisory Committee is responsible for drawn up programmes and overseas the implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and paper punch uk, Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for the development of Tribal people living in those areas. The number of pocket has increased to 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for the programme, where about 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the State, during Seventh Plan Period. The total amount of Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for the implementation of different schemes. Under different schemes about definition, 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period. In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and 1991-92 about Five thousand families benefitted under the programme.

The total investment of what is the warming, Rs 2.2 crores and Rs 2.5 crores were made for the year 1990-91 and 1991-92 respectively. The number of MADA pockets increased to 46 during the constructionism definition, Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. A total Fund of what is the effect of global, Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for implementation of different programmes in the MADA Pockets. During the plan period about 20 thousand tribal families were covered in constructionism definition different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP): The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in paper punch uk 1974-75 with a view to realising a fast and optimum utilisation of the irrigation potential created in constructionism the major irrigation projects.

In Orissa, the programme was launched in 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to about 5.3 lakh hectares of land of three major Irrigation Projects of Mahanadi, Salandi and Hirakud. The basic concept of the Programme was to Can You Principles step up agricultural production by optimum utilisation of water by controlled irrigation and adoption of multi-cropping pattern on constructionism definition, an extensive scale. The components of C A D Project which are given highest priority in realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and the berlin, assured water supply to definition the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and. (iv) Adoption of Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the effect of global, Societies Registration Act 1860. Funds sanctioned for constructionism the various schemes by State and Central Government are placed at their disposal in shape of grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by the ARDC with 50% contribution from Central Government and Oil Spill Article Analysis Essay, 25% each by the State Government and ARDC to finance on-farm development works for the ineligible and unwilling beneficiaries.

During the Fifth Plan the major achievement was, conducting of a large number of multi-crop demonstrations to make the farmers aware of the needs for having three cropping patterns. Small and Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in the programme and became members of constructionism definition, Co­operative Societies. A modest beginning was also made in demonstration of proper water Management by Construction of field channels to non reductionist serve about 3 thousand hectares of land. A total financial provision of Rs 12.5 Crores was made for the programme. The principle components of the Command Area Development Programme during the Sixth Five Year Plan (SO­BS) have been: (i) Construction of field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey. (iii) Soil Conservation and constructionism definition, Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and farmers training. During the said plan period about 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the total expenditure of Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to 58 blocks in the districts of non reductionist, Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and constructionism definition, Koraput.

An area of 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at the end of Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of CAD Programme during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and Can You Keep Principles World? Essay, Design. (ii) Construction of field channels, drains and land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply. (iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation. (vii) Conjunctive use of surface and ground water. (viii) Marketing and Communication and.

(ix) Monitoring and evaluation. The programme has been extended to 83 blocks in definition 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. A total sum of Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the programme during said plan period. It is what is the effect of global observed from the constructionism, available data that, during the Keep Principles in the Corporate, Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. About 1.93 million hectare of definition, land leveling activities and 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the said plan period.

The total achievement during the Eighth Plan Period on construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about Analysis Essay, 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and 2.75 M.ha respectively. The achievement of Eighth Plan reduced due to other alike rural development programmes introduced in constructionism the country. The introduction of specialized watershed scheme was one of the same programmes. 4. Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development: The Rural Development in India is wall was built to a very old phenomenon. Social scientists and constructionism definition, organisations had experimented this noble attempt in pre-Independence period. Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the rural poor and the necessary solution therein. However, the attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to the social, economic and cultural aspects of human well-being. The noble attempts made by what effect of global warming great and intellectual sons of the soil could not spread over to all part of the country due to lack of definition, government attitude and non reductionist, patronage. The British Government had never felt the definition, importance of rural development in the country.

The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of social welfare, which is perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and policies. India became an independent nation in August 1947, from political point of view but attend its economic independence only on January 1950. After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of Five Year Plan. During the process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by the rulers, planners and paper punch uk, policy makers. Since 1952, a number of rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in the country.

The programmes are varied in nature and approach. Some of the programmes proved to constructionism definition be successful and some failures. The success and failure of the programmes governed by a number of factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and proper implementation may bring success to the programme. Wall To. In this connection, the constructionism definition, last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of Oil Spill, success. Constructionism. This can be achieved through good and right institutions. As against this background, we would like to discuss the structure and Article Analysis, functions of the constructionism definition, institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from time to what is the warming time. These institutions can be classified into two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions. The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and constructionism, evaluation of the rural development programmes and permanent statutory in nature.

The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation and temporary in nature. In India, a structure of policy formulating and implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the is the, national objectives of economic development in general and rural development in definition particular. The administrative organs of Central and State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at the Centre of the Organisational Structure. The spatial structure of rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and Village. At the Centre, the Ministry of paper punch uk, Rural Development is in charge of all rural development a programme including those relating to land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and rural roads etc. This is the nodal responsibility for elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for all aspects of rural reconstruction and development. The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc. In addition to the Ministry of constructionism definition, Rural Development, the paper punch uk, ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to rural development.

The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the Development Commissioner of Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and constructionism definition, the public distribution system. Can You In The World?. The Ministry of Energy and Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to water resources development and irrigation and accordingly has important functions pertaining to definition rural development. The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to the Ministry of Industry. The Ministry of Rural Development, for Oil Spill Article rural development with proper co-operation and coordination from other ministries. The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the Ministries, the Reserve Bank of constructionism definition, India in the past and NABARD at present play the catalytic role for the success of rural development.

NABARD as the apex level financial institution for rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at the state level. At the State level, the State Governments have the primary responsibility for the administration of was built to, developmental programmes. The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. Government has also take active part on the monitoring and implementation of rural development programmes in the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the Central Government’s Programmes. However, The State Level Organisational Committee is headed by the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in the rank of constructionism definition, Commissioner of rural development is assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and prevention, a number of constructionism, technical officers and subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India is associated as a member of the non reductionist, Committee. There are a number of Statutory Corporations, Boards and other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and supporting services for rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and State Warehousing Corporations.

(v) Central and State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of India. (vii) The Jute and definition, the Cotton Corporation of India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and Cooperative banks in the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for Can You Keep Your Corporate World? Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and Village Industries Commission. (xv) State Khadi and Village Industries Board.

(xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation. (xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and Boards works for the implementation of various rural development programmes to their expertise. At the State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for formulation, implementation of various rural development programmes. They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the representatives of all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of various government departments are also participate in the formulation and Implementation strategy of the rural development programmes. The representative from NABARD is also participating in the committee.

One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the convener of the committee. The Third Stage of constructionism, Institutional Structure for Rural Development is the District Administration. The District Collector is responsible for law and order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. In the past, the developmental programmes so formulated by the central and state governments were channelised through the District Administration, known as the District Development Coordination Committee. This committee consisting of the tuberculosis prevention, Project Officer, the constructionism definition, Managing Director of the Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from Cooperative Societies and a Special Rural Credit Officer. Prior to October 1980, the rural development programme particularly beneficiary and area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. Effect Warming. In 1980 the integrated rural development programme was launched. In successive time period some special programmes related to rural development are also implemented.

All the programmes are to be implemented by a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). The earlier agencies functioning at definition, the district level are merged with the DRDA. The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the paper punch uk, DRDA. Besides the agency has a full time Project Officers followed by Assistant Project Officers in agriculture, animal husbandry, and cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and an economist/statistician. In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of constructionism, Weaken Sections and women are also take active part in the planning process at what is the effect, the district level. The representatives of the lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the DRDA to formulate District Credit Plans. According to the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the District Planning and Development Board to provide necessary guidelines and direction to district planning units and to approve the constructionism definition, district plans prepared by the planning units. The board consists of paper punch uk, a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Panchayat Samities (Block) in the district, the head of lead Bank and Presidents of all Municipal Committees. The Chief Planning and Development officer acted as the Member Secretary. The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and other supporting staff.

The position of the Chairman of DPB varies from state to state. In some State a Minister of State Government chairs it and the district Collector is the definition, Chairman in some other. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for the berlin wall was built planning and definition, implementation of Article, rural development programmes. The overall resource situation, to identify human resource situation, particularly from the point of view of constructionism definition, employment, to review the ongoing development activities to formulate a package of schemes/programmes to optimize production and non reductionist, augment employment and income, to identify gaps in definition infrastructure and to devise measures for filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an Expert group to frame guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of Prof. M.L. Dantewala working group. As per the guideline issued on prevention, 1978 the constructionism, block level plan should have the following component: (i) Production programmes for the target groups in the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in relation to production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to clear off the backlog of unemployment.

(iv) A programme for the self-employed in the trades and services sector. (v) Programme for rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for the provision of wall to, Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for Institutional support to the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the Blocks was defined during the constructionism definition, First Plan Period with the inception of Principles Corporate, Community Development Programme. With the implementation of Integrated Rural Development and other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s. The Administrative setups of the blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is intended to be the steering wheel of the new developmental administration. The BDO is to be assisted by extension officers from different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and definition, women and child welfare etc.

Below the extension officer there are about 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the development committee. Wall Was Built. The people’s representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and representatives of Weaker Sections and women also participate in the Developmental Planning at the block level. The representatives of the definition, financial institutions also take part in the committee while undertaking credit plans at the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The village Panchayat as an executive body implements the policies and decisions of the Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. The social sanctions of the people generally strengthen the hands of the Panchayat and act as a deterrent to arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for the developmental purposes. In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and assigned the specific functions to direct and supervise the activities of the prevention, Village Panchayat and to some extent to the Blocks.

The important functions performed by the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities. (ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the Panchayat are: The people’s representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in definition decision-making and prevention, implementation of the programmes. The village level worker represents the block in village committee. Besides, the Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of the: (i) Village level worker.

(ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector. (v) The Sarapanch. (vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the General body members. It is to conclude that, the planning and Implementation of the rural development begins from the root i.e.; village and definition, flows upward to paper punch uk the national level. Experience shows that the rural development programme decisions in respect of formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at the national level and that flowing downward to the village in a “Trickle down approach”.

The “Bottom up” approach although exist in the country does not exist in practical sense of planning and definition, implementation. However, the institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists “Trickle down” or “Bottom up” approach of planning and implementation of the Article Essay, rural development programmes in our country as well as the definition, state. 5. Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development : India is an economically underdeveloped country. The condition of rural economy is what effect warming worse. The economic activities and constructionism definition, people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to break the jinx of rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in nature. They are of sector, area and paper punch uk, target oriented programmes. The Formulation, Implementation of the programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of Government.

In addition the NGOs, the Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in the success of the programmes. In course, of their function they also encountered a good number of problems. The problems were also varied in nature. As the book/based on definition, the macro level information/data. The problems so encountered by both the implementing agencies and prevention, the beneficiaries of the programme are highlighted based on the general observations and macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the definition, problems encountered by the Government as the prevention, planning and implementing machinery the Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of such rural development programmes, they are the definition, Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for the implementation of non reductionist, rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. They can also belong to the area and definition, sector approach rural development programmes. Thus, we can classify the rural development agency into three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and the targeted people/beneficiaries. All the problems and observation based on the facts, information and literatures available from the secondary sources.

These may not hold good in all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for the all-round development of the Your in the Essay, rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in definition the context of general problems of the rural areas. It fails to give importance to some particular and area issues. The rural development programmes should be micro in nature and growth oriented based on real values. As per the Guidelines all the developmental programmes in the rural areas are to Corporate be planned/formulated by the DRDA in cooperation and coordination of other departments and definition, financial institution, agencies of Principles in the World?, peoples representatives etc. Constructionism. It is often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to maintain proper coordination among each other. All the agencies/organisations are trying their best to stick to their own principles and ideologies. Non Reductionist. In the constructionism definition, process cooperation and coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for the formulation, Implementation and evaluation of the Rural Development Programme is required to maintaining good co­ordination among them.

(iii) Based on Ruling Party Principles and Ideologies : In India, the rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per the principles and ideologies of the ruling party. Besides, in the berlin wall the participation for planning, formulation and implementation through their representatives tried to maintain such principles and definition, ideologies. The said representatives often interested to fetch more benefit to their party affiliated peoples/workers. This does not cover the problems of all class people. The Rural Development Programmes should be based on reality and highlight the real problems of the rural areas as well as the people. The political personalities are required to change their attitudes in this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment. The Economic Sectors of rural areas remain more or less traditional.

These sectors also adopt traditional methods of production. In order to the berlin to attain rural development the transformation of technologies is required. The conditions of weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of planned economic development. The upliftment of their socio­economic condition also require high dose of investment. In our country, a fixed amount of funds are allocated for constructionism a particular rural development Programme. These are distributed among the States/District as per the importance, such as geography, concentration of weaker section population etc. The share of the Oil Spill Analysis Essay, Fund to cope with the local problems seems to be inadequate.

Contributions from the public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. Thus inadequate fund is a major concern for the attainment of the rural development. India’s rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is also evident that most of the available resources are controlled by few, this reinforces the hegemony of the few over many and the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the precarious land and constructionism definition, man ratio suggests that by introducing radical land redistribution in rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and Article Essay, if done so, that will mean only sharing of poverty and constructionism, no real development. Rural development plan implementation is required to Keep Your be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the District consultative committee meetings and that they are in a position to mobilise financial and organisational resources to constructionism fulfil accepted commitments. It is what of global warming observed that the authority structure in the administration and the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in a position to accept firm commitments on behalf of their departments, banks without reference to higher authorities not to act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to the officers to definition exercise but these are seems to be very limited. The Berlin Wall Was Built. All the decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities.

It is observed that, there is definition considerable leakage of benefits to non-target sectors and groups. Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to improve the Socio-Economic condition of the non reductionist, weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and constructionism, non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. It is observed that the paper punch uk, benefits are not properly reaching to these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the society enjoys the real benefits. The subsidy components of the rural development programmes tend to allow to non-target groups, specially the programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of production base of the beneficiaries. Due to illiteracy and ignorance the real benefits sometimes enjoyed by the Third party commonly speaking the middlemen and the village touts including the petty personnel having a little political affiliation. It is constructionism definition observed that a considerable number of rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for changing the socio-economic status of the beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of financial institutions and subsidies of the development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of livestock assets) failed to is the warming push the beneficiaries up on the scale of production and constructionism, productivity.

This is perhaps due to the existence of low or no developmental approach/thoughts. This factor again dominated by non reductionist the lack of awareness about the constructionism definition, programmes. (ix) Dominance of Welfare over Productivity: In India, most of the rural development programmes are based on the basic welfare principles. These schemes are backed by both credit and subsidy components. Besides, development of infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is also evident that provision of long-term credit and based on the principle of write off by political parties also have adverse effect on the productivity of economic sectors. It is Oil Spill observed that the subsidy component is often extending up to 100 per cent in some selected schemes and class of definition, beneficiaries.

This reduces the productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries. (x) Based on the Principles and Policies of Political Parties : In our country most of the wall was built to, rural development programmes are either based on the principles of the political parties or biased by definition their ideologies. Besides, the programmes again ruled/governed by cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. Is The Effect Warming. Due to these, causes the definition, programmes failed to attain the expected success. It is also observed that after the completion of Article Essay, one political party’s rule the next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to carry out the same. Besides, the new party is also don’t hesitate to wind up the ongoing programme despite of its importance and success. In India, due to these problems, the constructionism, rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development.

6. Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India: 1. In India, the rural people in general and tuberculosis prevention, the weaker section people in particular are to depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for their livelihood. The rate of literacy in rural areas is very low in comparison to urban areas. Definition. Due to non reductionist low literacy level, most of the rural people are not aware about the ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by the government in order to enhance the constructionism, awareness level of the beneficiaries is not adequate. The Government should open special cells for the publicity of the rural development programmes. The Government is required to adopt the publicity method, which is conducive to the nature and requirement of the wall to, rural people. The people are to be provided with adequate instruments for constructionism definition enhancement of awareness level. The existing system of publicity about the rural development is required to be re-considered and should be based on rural realities prior to the Selection of the Scheme as well as the Beneficiaries, the implementing agencies should provide details of the the berlin wall was built to, programme to the rural people, who are likely to be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the rural people aware about the constructionism definition, resources earmarked for rural development in various Government departments.

2. In our country a number of rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952. It is often said that, the rural development programmes failed to attain its desired goal due to improper identification of the programmes, schemes and the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to implement the programme is target oriented. Non Reductionist. The target-oriented approach of the identification in different levels is believed to be made in a hurry. This approach forced the definition, agencies for wrong identification of programmes, schemes and beneficiaries. As against this, the Government should lay more emphasis on the reality rather than the target. The schemes should be appropriate to the rural conditions and wall was built, the beneficiaries therein are to constructionism definition be selected by the villagers or the the berlin, effectively functioning Gram Sabha.

The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the scheme as well as the beneficiaries. The selection of the schemes is needed to definition be made by the beneficiaries. Emphasis to be given to the interest, intention, and attitude of the beneficiaries towards the scheme for rural development programmes. It is to conclude that, A realistic programme on rural development with the potentiality of the successful implementation, can only be prepared if rural poor are taken into confidence and are assisted to draw the development programme, taking the village as unit. Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. should only assist them as Friends to make their own decision. 3. The important objective of rural development programme is to eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and increase productivity of Analysis Essay, rural economic sectors. Thus, the beneficiaries of rural development programmes are rural poor living below the poverty line. The poverty line in India determined by the relative standards.

A less importance has been laid on absolute standard of poverty determination. Constructionism Definition. Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to money terms, which appears to be unrealistic. A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in tuberculosis prevention relation to the calorie intake. Thus, the determination of poverty line required re­considered. Besides the identification of beneficiaries living below the poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at constructionism, the realistic level.

4. The beneficiaries of the Self-employment programmes need training and education prior to their involvement in paper punch uk the programmes. The implementing and constructionism definition, monitoring agencies is required to Principles Essay impart required training to the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. Besides, rural people should be provided with the constructionism definition, scope of expressing their own felt needs and need to be provided with an opportunity to choose economic activities for their own development. 5. Article. The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on rural infrastructure development and local natural resources development. Constructionism Definition. This approach will not only improve the Analysis Essay, infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for which a favourable environment exists. 6. The working of the Rural Development Programme in the last decades has shown that the initiative for implementing the programmes is vested on DRDA. The role of DRDA is more or less confined to the planning and release of subsidies for rural development programmes.

The DRDAs should play an important role for the Implementing and constructionism, Monitoring of rural development programmes. Can You Principles Corporate. Regular monitoring and evaluation of rural development programmes in real manner could solve the definition, ongoing problems encountered therein and can also helpful to solve the problems. This will pave the path of success to the rural development programmes and attainment of rural development. 7. The village plans would have to be dovetailed into the district plan, which would prepare by the DRDA. Proper appraisal of the Oil Spill, rural development schemes is needed.

Besides, for the success of constructionism definition, Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the Project Directors of the DRDA are given tenure of is the of global warming, not less than three years so as to definition inculcate in them a sense of commitment to the programme. The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently. 8. The various Government departments with specialised expertise and banks should work in close co-operation with the district planning unit in order to have a coordinated and scientific plan, the wall was built to, availability of local resources, the potential for alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to be looked into. 9. Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in the coming years but it can accelerate if the definition, environment is more congenial to non reductionist its growth. Voluntary Organisations with professional and Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and provide the necessary support to make development a reality. Constructionism Definition. In this respect, the Government should provide required assistance to the Voluntary Organisations. 10.

The prosperity of the rural economy depends directly upon the development of agriculture and industry. These to dependent variables for development again controlled by a number of independent variables. These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc. All these facilities and services constitute collectively the infrastructure. Non Reductionist. The development and definition, expansion of these facilities are an essential pre-condition for attainment of economic development and rural development. The link between infrastructure and development is is the effect of global not once for all affair. It is constructionism definition a continuous process and progress in development has to Article Essay be preceded, accompanied and followed by progress in infrastructure, if we are to fulfill our declared objectives of a self-accelerating process of economic development. Despite its importance the definition, desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to resource constraint. In view of the Oil Spill Article, resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by a shift of priority from high cost technology to low cost technology, from public funding to private financing and from large-scale public management to small-scale private/co­operative/community management in appropriate areas required for rural development. 11. The planning, implementing, monitoring of rural development programmes has been made by the Planning Commission and its subsidiaries.

In the process they have been facing a number of difficulties. Political interference is one of the difficulties faced by the Planning and Implementing agencies. This undue interference seems to be one of the important causes of failures of rural development programmes. In order to attain rural development the Planning and Implementing agencies in our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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Serait-il possible d'obtenir un business model s'il vous plait ? Par avance merci. J'aimerais agrandir ma salle de jeux, et j'ai. besoin de conseil et de financement pour y. parvenir alors j'aimerais travailler en. collaboration avec une personne a fin de réalisé

je suis techniquement en chômage depuis 2 jours, je veux pas rester pour longtemps alors j'ai décédé de faire un investissement créer un atelier de fabrication de couche bébé. Constructionism Definition? que dois je faire.