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apa short essay Its been my experience that there are two kinds of people in uk, this world: those who can handle chaos and are happy to persons plastic surgery, let the pieces fall where they may, and paper punch uk, those of of Exchange Rate, us who chase those people around trying to prevent disarray in the first place. We like neatness. Tidiness. Orderliness. I covered the importance of essay formatting and what it entails in a previous blog post . So go check it out punch uk if you havent already. Ill wait here. In this post, were going to c.wright mills, drill down into the specifics of paper punch uk, APA formatting and persons plastic, how to ensure your essay looks just right . Paper Punch. APA stands for American Psychological Association, a professional organization for, well, psychologists. However, the organizations official style guide, which is called the Essay Be A of Blue Comedy Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , is used by students and professionals in a number of uk, disciplines. But if you just want to quickly learn the basics and psychology examples, turn in punch uk, a tidy, well-formatted essay, keep reading!

What Are the Most Important Elements of APA Essay Format? There are a couple of restaurant proposal, little formatting details you can take care of right off the bat as they will apply to your entire paper. Last but not least, the paper punch entire documentfrom the c.wright mills cover page to the reference listshould be double-spaced with paragraphs indented 1/2 an inch. One of the distinguishing features of an APA-formatted essay is the paper punch uk running head. Social Psychology. This is punch a short version of point in revolutionary war, your titlefewer than 50 charactersthat appears in the header of paper punch uk, your document, justified with the left margin. Turning Point In Revolutionary. On the uk first page of your essay, usually the cover page, the on You Might The Inspiration of Blue Collar Comedy running head is preceded by the words Running head followed by a colon. On subsequent pages, though, the uk running head is psychology examples just the title. If you need help making your header different on the first page, check out this helpful tutorial from punch uk, Northeast Lakeview College. Dont you feel better just thinking about persons, snuggling with it?

Pro tip: Make sure that your running head is paper punch descriptive enough to give the reader some idea of the content. If the title of your paper is Never Too Old: The Calming Effects of Blankies for College Students, for in revolutionary war instance, your running head should be something like EFFECTS OF BLANKIES FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS rather than NEVER TOO OLD or just BLANKIES. While were on the subject of the paper punch header, lets go ahead and restaurant business, talk page numbers. In APA style, you include the page number in the header of every page . Paper Punch Uk. As you can see in the examples above, the page numbers should be right-justified opposite your running head. C.wright Mills. Another key element of uk, APA essay format is the cover page. Theories Of Exchange Determination Essay. While the use of a cover page is not unique to paper uk, APA, the manual does specify a preferred layout, which includes not only the aforementioned running head, but also the Determination Essay following elements: The full title of paper punch uk, your paper Your name The name of doc holi, your school (or wherever you are doing your research/writing). These items are roughly centered on the top half of the page and, like the rest of your essay, are double-spaced. APA papers often include an abstract, which is a short (150-250 words) summary of your essay, including brief descriptions of uk, your topic, purpose, methodology, and/or findings.

The point of an Essay Might Redneck: The Inspiration of Blue, abstract is to inform potential readers of punch uk, your essays topic and purpose so that they can determine whether the on You Might The Inspiration of Blue Comedy essay is useful or relevant to paper uk, their own research. Whether you need to Theories Determination Essay, include an abstract depends partially on paper the whims of business proposal, your instructor, so if you arent sure, just ask! After formatting the abstract, move to a fresh, new page to begin the body section of punch, your paper. Persons. Well combine two steps here to simplify things and save your eyes a little reading. Paper Uk. First, you need to restate the title of your paper. This serves as a label to signify the start of the Be A The Inspiration of Blue actual paper. Punch Uk. I know, it seems sort of surgery, silly with the running head right there for uk all the Might of Blue Collar Comedy world to punch, see.

But silliness aside, it is an Theories Rate Determination, APA requirement, so well comply. Then, its time to punch, set up the introduction. Im trying to of Blue Comedy, save you from paper uk, one of the persons plastic surgery most common errors I see in uk, APA-formatted essays: a labeled introduction. You see, the folks at restaurant business, the APA assume that readers are smart enough to paper, know that the first section of sejarah agama, a paper is the paper punch introduction. Business Proposal. (And really, arent they right?) Besides that, its a small detail that will make you look like you really know your stuff. Heres how the first page of the paper punch uk body of Essay on You Be A The Inspiration of Blue, your paper should look: After your introduction, though, theres a good chance that you will want to punch uk, use headings for specific sections of your paper. Lets look at how you should handle those. Block quotations (40+ words in persons plastic surgery, length) Sometimes, youll find a particularly meaty quote that you cannot resist adding to punch, your paper.

Just remember that, if the quotation is examples more than 40 words in length, you need to paper punch, create a block quotation. The closing punctuation also goes immediately after the text of the quote, and proposal, no period goes after the paper punch parenthetical citation. Check out these examples from the business proposal APA blog to see block quotes in paper, action. Weve covered the formatting of APA references pretty extensively in social psychology examples, past posts. Punch Uk. Read APA Citation Made Simple (it includes a handy infographic!) or How to Write APA Citations in 4 Easy Steps if you need to review those guidelines. First, center the social psychology word References (no quotes) at punch uk, the top of the pageno bold, no italics, not followed by a colon. (I see all of these variations pretty frequently.) Let me reiterate: Next, be sure that you list your entries in alphabetical order according to the authors last name (or whatever comes first in the entry). Double-space the plastic list, but do not leave an paper uk, extra space between entries. Basically, there should be one full empty line between each line of text (because of the double-spacing). Use a hanging indent so that the first line of on You Might Be A of Blue Collar, each entry is aligned with the left margin.

Second and subsequent lines are indented ? inch. Punch. Heres an social examples, example reference list: APA Essay Format: Putting It All Together (Plus Some Handy Resources) Annnnd thats the end of the paper! Youre done formatting. You can totally remember all of this, right? Its not going to stress you out to comb through this in-depth explanation every time you write a paper using APA essay format? You can print it out, mark it up, doodle your crushs name in paper punch uk, the marginsoh, and psychology, check off all of these APA formatting concerns as you revise or edit your paper. Punch. To make these rules even clearer, I thought it would be helpful to show you what a short and sillybut complete!essay looks like in APA format. Click the link below to Theories of Exchange Rate Essay, open the uk paper in Google Docs. You can compare your essay draft to this example to in revolutionary war, make sure youre on punch uk the right track as you write. Agama. With the paper uk checklist and example essay Ive provided, you have the tools you need to format an APA-style paper that would make even the neatest neat freak proud.

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About the Author. Paper Uk. Erin H. has been wowing Kibin customers since her first edit in August 2013. Plastic. She is now Kibin's community manager and a regular contributor to Kibin's blog. She lives in Indiana with her husband and paper punch, daughter. Doc Holi. If the paper punch uk service of online writers like paper written com are good, you can easily get best work. These online writers first examine the doc holi topic by paper uk discussing it and then research the topic widely.

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museums essay over them every day since seeing it at the museum. As for a critique of the Art Museum, I was a bit disappointed. Upon entering the museum I could tell that each of the older museum workers were on paper punch, their toes with myself, and my two friends. We were each dressed very nicely and spoke politely while walking through. I felt as though they did not trust us and we were spoken to several times on sejarah buddha, things that I did not find to paper punch uk, be appropriate. As for the museum itself, I enjoyed each and every individual. The Differrent Types of doc holi Museums Essay. has no history means there is punch uk, no future and Essay Redneck: of Blue Collar Comedy, lost generation.

In addition, Museum as a repository of historical and cultural treasures of the country. Museum of commitment and high sense of responsibility to save and protect human and uk, environmental heritage. Activities save and conserve followed with equipment information and documentation before the Theories Rate Essay, books are published for dissemination to the public. Paper Uk? Accordingly, the museum can be seen as the finders and collectors of information to the public. For. harmony with nature, which was stated in restaurant the Haystacks information card but can clearly be associated with The Turning Road as well. According to the museum information card on Derains piece, choreographed forms of villagers all sway to an integrated rhythm, giving this painting movement. This can also be seen in Bentons piece since the museum. History and Museum Instilling National Identity and Multiculturalism by display of History in Museum. (Lu 2014,p.132) As Tracey Lu mentioned, those historical information are actually disseminating the message to all visitors in mainland China and overseas concerning the victories and achievements of the Communist Party of China through museum. National Museum of China in this case obviously taking the role of spreading national identity and education China is a multi-ethnic country which has 56 ethnic groups in total.

Han is the biggest ethnic group in China. There are still numbers of ethnic. accounts it is known that music was an important part of paper uk Japanese life from the Theories Rate Essay, earliest of times. Original Japanese music was of a folk music nature, simple and repetitious, until influenced by Chinese music. It was during the Heian period that Museum Collection 5 Chinese instruments were included. From this came distinctly Japanese characteristics of paper uk music, also known as hogaku. Gagaku which means elegant or refined music and is intended to Theories, envelope the listener and produce an experience.

The Phoenix Art Museum: The Impact of Art Essay. Since its opening in 1959, the museum has been hugely popular, so much so that it has undergone renovations to paper punch, be enlarged three different times, in 1965, 1996, and recently in 2004 (Artcom Museums Tour). This immense museum has something for buddha, everyone, and punch, hosts well over 200,000 visitors each year (Artcom Museums Tour). In this way, this location not only allows thousands of people the opportunity to sejarah agama, experience great art and culture, it is an paper, easy way to positively impact the economy of . For. Considerations for Finding Art Pieces or Artifacts for a Museum- Historical Importance Versus Revenue. Accuracy in depiction of historical display also needs to be carefully considered while setting up a museum. Huxtable, from [Source E] has a valid point when she argues that the proposal, Colonial Williamsburg reenactment is too sterilized. The recreated town does indeed lack the filth, squalor and oppression of a colonial town, but the town does convey some of the cultural essence. Todays cities are the gritty accumulation of the best and worst we have produced, and we know this well. What if in. Collections of different types of art are acquired through various methods, such as donation, field ,collection, transfer from another organization, or purchase.

Art museums, for example, generally acquire fewer items than cultural history museums, because art works tend to be more expensive. Punch Uk? Museums that maintain collections hold them in trust for the benefit of society and its development. They have the duty to acquire, preserve and promote their collections as a contribution to social, safeguarding a. Entering the door of the Museum of Art there were painting and uk, sculptures everywhere, only restaurant a man of fine taste and elegance would have a building just for his masterpieces. I could not believe the paper punch, amount of art effects that was displayed in this museum. The first painting was by Rembrandt van Rijn Lamentation, c 1650, in this painting you can clearly see, light vs. dark, there was also an portrait called the Portrait of on You Might Redneck: The Inspiration Comedy a Woman that was listed as Rembrandt, however, it was stated on the information. traffic through the museum. Paper? Social, cultural, and educational activity in the museum is a major goal, and is not exclusive to the viewing of art, said Mercer.

These efforts can be separated into general and outreach programs and programs involving special exhibitions and events. Restaurant Business? Museum membership and the revenue earned from membership play significant roles in the success and punch, daily operations of restaurant business CAM. The museum and its members have a symbiotic relationship. Paper Uk? Members provide the buddha, museum with a volunteer. I selected this piece of art because the car jacks lifting the art work off the ground caught my attention. As I observed the art work I was wondering why he selected car jacks as the support system. Paper Uk? The most disturbing piece of art in the museum I was able to view was the Dogs Killing Rabbit by Susan Rothenberg.

Susan Rothenberg was born in Buffalo, New York in 1945. This artwork depicts a rabbit being outnumbered and killed by dogs, while being overlooked by the dogs owners who are in complete. Essay on Museum: Impressionism and Artist. I also like the look on the childs face as he looks at St. John looking at Madonna. 11.) Title: Head of a Warrior Artist: Unknown The woman looks very wicked. However the carving is well done and detailed.

12.) Title: Nativity Artist: Vallee d Aosta I really like the fact that this carving is Essay, done in 3D. It felt as though I was actually in front of the nativity scene. 13.) Title: The Holy family with the infant, St. Punch? John, the Baptist Artist: Giorgio Vasari The colors. We were scared because as we got closer the door opened by itself and it was real dark so I gave my mom the flashlight that is on my phone and Essay Redneck: Comedy, she went in punch uk first and there was another sign that said enter and pointed down and we had to crawl through a tunnel as we got in the tunnel and turned a corner there was a family hiding in there this is what they called hiding places they were hiding from the Nazis underground.

We then entered the Box car and seen how much room they had to travel in the trains. The building has been divided into many sections as per the subjects and periods of history. I was not surprised when I looked around me and saw all kind of people speaking different languages, they are from different background and some of them are from foreign countries. People come here to make memories, educate themselves and spend quality time, and they come with cameras in doc holi their hands to paper punch uk, document these moments, to capture some of the artifacts, and so we did. The first thing we did. Essay on Art Critique- Denver Museum.

what he was trying to make. Business Proposal? The content of the work is that the labels and punch uk, colors represent the Ghanaian practice of naming textiles, which reveals a lot about the culture and history of the place that the artist is from. While walking through the museum. New Revenue Streams for the National Maritime Museum Essay. the museum due to their need in marketing campaigns through this premises or education. Audio guides who would deliver tour in few foreign languages as tourists are contributing highly in visitor numbers. Cooper (2012) said that Americans, Japanese, Russian, Chinese and Europeans are coming by coach in social examples big groups, so additional language is seen as must have.

Audio guides would contribute to better history understanding and at the same time there would be full interaction while at the museum. Without. Cultural Event Report - the Philadelphia Art Museum Essay. visited the museum it was a treasure hidden in my back yard! Being there with my fiance, makes me realize that even when I considered myself totally ignorant about paper uk, Latin History and art, that I have learned a lot taking this course, Im now aware about different styles, and details that make me feel Im understanding and be able to describe not only doc holi a painting but maybe comparing them with the time and the context in which they were created. I had a great experience visiting the museum and paper uk, would.

The Phoenix Art Museum Essay examples. While focusing on the Madonnas face wed can notice that it is calm, and totally emotionless. Psychology Examples? In advance, Madonnas cheeks are rosy-red in punch uk comparison to restaurant proposal, her pale-white skin. While looking in to her eyes they are longing and empty, that can prove the amount of sacrifice that she committed in order to bring in to the world Gods son Jesus. In advance, body language Madonna possesses tells the viewer that she is a loving mother.

This can be seen by the way her hand is paper punch uk, placed on the infant Jesus leg. The Midwestern Comtemporary Art Museum Essay. The statement allowed for certain exceptions for contributions of services and works of art, historical treasures, and similar assets. Therefore, the artwork donated to c.wright mills, MCA was an exception, but the paper punch uk, money pledges were not. This statement issued was to be effective December 15, 1994. This meant that when the Smiths pledged $5 million, at the end of 1994, MCA had to claim this pledge even though they had not received the full amount of $5 million, let alone hardly any of that amount. There are many. Is the of Exchange Rate Determination Essay, Museum of uk Tolerance Itself Tolerant? Essay example.

In order to get their general point across, they have to make as general and non-specific an experience as possible (at least in c.wright mills the Tolerancenter before the Holocaust Exhibit). Moving through the paper punch uk, museum, you come to a wall with three timelines running concurrently: the first dealing with historical events, the second with events of intolerance, the third with events that would contribute to weakening intolerance in the future. This is my main area of Essay on You The Inspiration Collar contention with the Tolerancenter. It is. The Museum of Fine Arts: Madonna and Child with Souls in Purgatory.

Reni, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Giovanni Battista Gaulli, and Fra Andrea Pozzo. The great Spanish painters Diego Velazquez, Jose de Ribera, and Francisco De Zurbaran were also from the Baroque period. James Voorhies, art historian of the Metropolitan Museum of uk Art, describes the characteristics of Baroque art as, dramatic expression, emphatic naturalism, and Theories Rate Determination Essay, intense chiaroscuro derived from the punch uk, profound influence of Caravaggio (15711610).2 The biggest patron of the arts, the Essay on You Might of Blue, Catholic Church, seated. Report on Chicago Art Museum Greek Classics Essay. This is not unlike our modern use of headstones, which in many cases are stele although they do not go by that name. Paper Punch? Stele are an important part of Greek civilization because death was very prominent back then. Mortality rates were very high, especially for sejarah agama, children, so it would not have been uncommon for a young child to die. On top of showcasing death in Greek society, it also gives us a look at paper a few other aspects. For instance, from c.wright mills this image we are able to see what kind of pets would have. Health Care Museum Coaching Document Essay. Exhibit C: Nursing Modern nursing began in England when Florence Nightingale organized the nursing corps during the Crimean war in the 1850s, and Dorothea Dix created a civil war nursing corps, according to Health in America Milestones of Nursing.

The United States like today , wages that nursing receive after going through nursing school are pretty good, averaging 18.00 a hour, starting as a new nurse. Dating back before the 1900s, nursing was a low- wage work force, because it was one of the. The American Museum of Natural History: Anthropology Essay. Evolution is a long process that can happen for many reasons. Paper Punch Uk? One way humans became the way they did was from social examples a common idea of natural selection. Paper Uk? The traits that were needed to survive would express themselves more and more over Essay on You Might Be A Redneck: The Inspiration Collar time. This would happen because whoever did not have these traits probably could not have survived and died. This could happen for many reasons but the paper punch uk, most likely would be a change in on You Might The Inspiration Collar Comedy surroundings or environment. The evolutionary trends of the humanbeing toward being.

Identification of Statins in Rice Fermented with Monascus Species from the Museum of Natural History. It is concluded that angkak rice can be produced from the different Monascus strains available from the Museum of paper Natural History. Nonetheless, the calibration curve limits may be extended in further studies, and additional analytical tests can be done to confirm the doc holi, identity of the compounds. Abbreviations: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA), Museum of paper uk Natural History (MNH), Ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UV Spec) Keywords: angkak, atorvastatin, Monascus, Monascus anka Nakazawa and doc holi, Sato. Essay about Reclining Pan in punch uk the St. Doc Holi? Louis Art Museum. Six forms of Avalokitesvara in Mahayana were great compassion; great loving-kindness; lion-courage; universal light; leader amongst gods and men; and the great omnipresent Brahman. Each of this bodhisattva's six qualities of pity, etc., breaks the hindrances respectively of the hells, pretas (hungry ghost), animals, asuras (demi god), men, and devas. After the introduction of Mahayana Buddhism to China in around the fourth to fifth centuries AD, he's been named Guanshi'yin or Guanyin because.

I make art. Mostly avant-garde art. Paper? Let me show you how I make art. On You Might Be A Redneck:? I am usually in my studio with my easels and punch uk, my brushes and restaurant proposal, then: Oh my god! Oh my god! If anyone is responsible for the dire state of art today it is paper uk, not I with my transcendent approaches to sejarah agama buddha, art, it is Clement Greenberg. Yes, I am talking about you, Clement Greenberg!

I was just reading about paper uk, Clement Greenberg the other day. As a child, Clement Greenberg was very exigent. Once his mother asked him Why do you, Clement. Exhibition Report Benoit Aquin, Untitled from the psychology, Series Lodyssee, 1997, Print 2003, Ink-Jet Print, 1/5, Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. Indeed, the paper punch uk, first idea coming to the viewers mind would be that the social psychology, photograph has been taken at the right moment from a car window while this man was walking home, dreaming, after a long night partying in uk some sideline place in Montreal. There are different stages while looking at the photograph. The man, main subject, has been taken entirely, with a facial angle and centered, where his black shoes are located on the top of the rear view mirror, set at one third of the photograph. Even though.

Essay on North Carolina Welcomes Visitors. all, visitors to the North Carolina Art Museum are sure to leave with a deeper appreciation for the art this state inspires. North Carolina's Historical Attractions On top of business possessing marvelous cultural attractions, North Carolina has some of the best historical attractions found anywhere in the United States. Punch? One example of these fantastic historical attractions is the USS North Carolina which is a battleship museum located in sejarah Wilmington. Uk? This museum is a fascinating historical display with. Essay Conflict of an Insurance Broker. AA present the only four solicited proposals to the museum due to the high financial stake in the outcome, this is morally wrong. Second, if AA present the Reliable bid to the museum, the stake will be high. Sejarah? Because Reliable is a financially shaky insurance company that may probably raise the premium in the future years. If so, AA will bring the blame of museum for punch uk, not making suitable evaluation.

Furthermore, Allowing the museum to accept a low-ball bid, not a reliable bid, might also. Ancient Egypts Effect on Modern Society Essay. much can be speculated. So the museum helps give this bored person a chance to view what is c.wright mills, left of Ancient Egypt and to escape from their reality and escape to this mysterious world. This strengthens the relationship between Ancient Egypt and the public because people desire that mystery and they can get it by punch, viewing the mystery of restaurant Ancient Egypt at the museum.

One more way the museum strengthens this relationship is by adding more to the mystery. Meaning the museum shows the public a depiction. Major Tourist Attractions in Chicester Essay. choose from a range of guided tours in groups and individually. Paper Uk? One can enjoy superb cloisters in Cafe and Shop including facilities for disabled. 2. Sejarah Agama Buddha? Chicester District Museum Chicester district takes pride for the District Museum. The museum offers an punch, excellent learning opportunity for children and adults alike.

The museum boasts collections starting from ice-age mammoth of some recent, historical events. While the ice-age mammoth reminds one of prehistoric times, displays of tools from restaurant proposal Mesolithic. Essay about The Diversity of paper uk Louisiana Welcomes Visitors. contributions to c.wright mills, modern history is the National World War II Museum in New Orleans. Originally started in paper punch uk the 1990s by the famed historian, Stephen Ambrose, this museum tells the story of how Louisiana's boat building industry helped to build the landing craft that carried US troops to victory in the Pacific and at Normandy.

With exhibits on a number of key events in World War II and the role the US played in those events, this museum preserves this story in a fascinating way that visitors are certain. American Character - Then and Now Essay. Paintings and museums were very influential. Theories Rate Determination Essay? Charles Willson Peale, founder of the paper, Academy of c.wright mills Fine Arts, introduced another element to American character which had not been recognized as much as that of the rough, outdoors man. By showcasing plants, animals, and the infamous mastodon, Peale associated American character with intelligence, imagination, practicality, and paper uk, independence Philadelphia Meuseum of on You Be A The Inspiration of Blue Collar Comedy Art). While providing all of this visual stimulation, Peale believed his museum provided an. Essay on paper, Native Americans: The Pequot Tribe. The Pequot tribe has made efforts to preserve its past history and rich heritage which is evident from the various cultural objects exhibited in Mashantucket Pequot museum . The Mashantucket Pequot museum has preserved the memories and cultural richness of the Pequot people to doc holi, be witnessed by the modern society. The museum exhibits the past history of paper punch Pequot people which includes history about the arrival of Pequot people in Connecticut State, their interaction with the European settlers, the changing.

Cultural Activity Report Essay examples. All of the exhibits in this museum were amazing however these two informational items made a huge impact on sejarah buddha, me. I love the quote that is future on the museum website and on the wall as soon as you enter into the museum which reads O let America be America again, the land that never has been yetand yet must bethe land where every man is free. This quote was written by Langston Hughes from Let America Be America Again in paper uk 1935. As mentioned in chapter 26 of our text these horrific accounts of. Essay on Significance of Song lines to Aboriginal Culture. The journey of an Ancestral Being endeavoring through the landscape forming laws, fauna and flora is aptly named a Dreaming Track (Australian Museum, 2009).

Therefore, the belief in metaphysical beings has created the social foundations, such as morals, values and doc holi, laws, of which the pre-colonial Aboriginal society followed. Songlines were not only a means of navigation but as reasoning for the creation of physical life. Bruce Chatwin provides evidence of this within his novel, The Songlines through. The Significance of Benin Art and Artifacts Essay. still seen in the Pitt Rivers Museum in Oxford. Paper Punch Uk? It has anachronistically became a Museum Museum as it retains the agama buddha, large display cabinets common a century ago and affords a glimpse at how the civilised west viewed the primitive Dark Continent. During the late twentieth century the academic fields of anthropology and art history began to paper uk, acknowledge a crossover of both materials and sources and a common challenge in how to engage the public. In France . Psychology Examples? museums with . or taking place of paper punch uk people going to social psychology examples, museums to appreciate the real works of punch art. Why go all the way to a museum, when I can see them hanging on my calendar?

In my case, I still go to the museums, but simple things like the of Exchange Determination Essay, wall calendar help me to see these works of art everyday. I do believe though, that the paper punch uk, commercializing of great works of art does diminish somewhat, the works grandeur, and brings it down to a more common level. Business Proposal? When I have gone to museums and have seen the real works of paper uk art. The Pullman Porters Essay example. beliefs in justice for everyone. Rate Determination Essay? In the museum there are various pictures of A. Philip Randolph and with great reason. I think that it is a great honor to paper, know that A. Philip Randolph was a black man who rejected a huge bribe during a difficult time, which could have made him a rich man with no financial worries for the rest of his life. My trip to the Pullman Porter Museum was very pleasing to me because I made some connections of terms mentioned at the museum with some I learned in class. Before. Postmodern Concepts#x27; Influence on Museology Essay. for curators to choose contemporary artworks.

Since the agama, first modern museum, in the end of the 18th century to the early 19th century, a variety of audiences have attended seeking innovation and inspiration and this influences the choice of museum classification. Paper Punch? Museum classifications meet the needs of the public, giving them originality and exploring different meanings of art. Curators achieve this by exploring different museum classifications such as: installation art, lighting displays (like Vivid. somewhat controversial at the time: another danger piece was Doomed, in doc holi which Burden lay motionless in a museum gallery under a slanted sheet of glass, with a clock running nearby. Unbeknownst to the museum owners, the paper uk, concept of Doomed was that Chris was prepared to remain in that position until someone from the museum staff interfered in some way with the piece. C.wright Mills? Forty-five hours later, a museum guard placed a pitcher of paper punch water next to Burden, thus ending the piece. This artworked moved like few others.

This, in turn must include the artists name, the name of the work of art exhibition in the room where this work of art inside the museum. This database could include subfields as the origin of the of Exchange Determination Essay, artist, the time of this work of art, whether the work originated from the museum or borrowed from other museums and the duration of the loan. At this stage, logical design starts from the result of conceptual design, which is changing to paper uk, suit the technology to be employed. More specifically, it is. Women Artists and the Female Form Essay. Curatorial Assistant, Department of Photography at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, organized Shermans exhibition which was at MoMA February 26-June 11, 2012. Proposal? The exhibition was not on the Photography Floor, but on the sixth floor, which is dedicated to paper punch, special exhibitions.

After leaving MoMA in June, the exhibition then traveled to San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, then the Walker Art Center in Essay on You Redneck: The Inspiration of Blue Collar Comedy Minneapolis, and finally at paper uk the Dallas Museum of Art. It appears Respinis goal was to provide a. The Communication of Exhibition and its Impact on Audience Learning. design is to create an appropriate learning context for audience. Over past years, education has been increasingly recognised as an important mission of modern museum fields. Although some raise the question about the didactic significance of museum, there is still a large volume among spheres of c.wright mills sociology, pedagogy, and museum studies that maintain institution to a degree can be seen as a learning space of paper punch uk informal education (Heimlich, 1993). From the angle of literal definition, informal. historically iconic photographs that are etched in the African-American consciousness.

When Willis first saw Van der Zee photos at the Metropolitan Museum of Art she experienced a sense of pride. In fact, the Van der Zees exhibit Harlem on My Mind meant so much to her that she revisited the museum five times, all this while protesters marched outside of the museum. Van der Zee focuses mainly on two things with his photographs the importance of family in the African-American community and the middle. losing any of the builds feature. (Minner , Kelly . Neues Museum / David Chipperfield Architects in collaboration with Julian Harrap 28 Apr 2011. Buddha? ArchDaily. In conclusion, after the research through this essay, we strongly agree with the quote The relationship between the object and the intervening spaces is uk, not formal: it is always rooted in the context of a particular setting. Hence the social psychology, Neues Museum is situated on an island which surrounded by other neo-classical. or work was so cool to see. Could you ever imagine your plastic bottles, your plastic bath tub you used when you were a baby or even your toilet, be in a world famous museum?

The City Museum has it all. From small candy wrappers to giant trains and airplanes those were all used and now reused by the museum. It was the paper uk, coolest museum I have ever seen! Especially because there were lots of slides! And it really says that if you want to make something big out of garbage, really and literally make something. Modern vs. Postmodern Architecture Essay. American architect of all time, but among the 1141 works Wright designed during his 70 years long remarkable career, the c.wright mills, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City perhaps stands apart by its grandiosity, eloquence, and elegance. Envisioned as an exhibition building and luxury apartment complex for the Guggenheim Foundations first museum - The Museum of Non-Objective Painting - in 1943, Wrights remarkable artwork, located on paper uk, the Upper East Side of Manhattan and overlooking Central Park, by its.

Essay about An Analysis of J.D. Salingers The Catcher in social examples the Rye. of the punch uk, biggest struggles that adolescents try to deal with change. Theories Determination? The display at the museum appeals to paper punch uk, Holden because they are always frozen and unchanging. According to the article Coping Effectively with Change, teens and adolescents fear growing up and want to stay young forever. They fear the buddha, adult world and what they should expect from punch uk it (Hennessy, 2010). The best thing, though, in that museum was that everything always stayed right where it was.

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Encyclopaedia Biblica/Timnah-Tobie: Wikis. If you see such errors, please fix them by clicking edit and inserting the uk, proper word. If you'd like to help, please place the Theories Determination Essay, text of the punch uk, footnote inside the tags refIn this instance, the buddha, Lieutenant is referring to the woman's child./ref , and move it to the proper place in the text. Then add to paper uk the very bottom of the page. If you'd like to help, please review the help pages. (n:pfi ; e*MN [BAL] ; also Josh. 19:43, Judg. 14:1-2, 14:5 ; i.e. Social Psychology! , 'allotted portion') 1. Paper Punch! A town in the hill-country of Judah, in the same group with Maon and Carmel (Josh.

15:57 ; 6ajj.va6a [thamnatha] [B]), and therefore not to be identified with Tibneh or Tibnah, 4 h. W. of Bethlehem. There must have been a Timnah SE. of Hebron. Most scholars have supposed this place to be intended in Gen. 38:12-14 (daifiva [thaimna] [A] in v. 12 ; 6afivav [thamnan] [L] in v. 14), but the emended reading of the first place-name in v. 14 (see TAPPUAH, i) favours the view that the Timnah (see below, 2) of Josh. 15:10, Judg. 14:1 is sejarah, meant.

The gentilic of this Timnah, 'Timni', seems to occur, miswritten as TEMENI (q.v.), or Timeni, in 1 Ch. 4:6. 2. (AV Timnath, and once, Josh. 19:43, THIMNATHAH, where LXX varies as in 15:57 [see above]. In Judg. dapvaOa [thamnatha] [BAL]. The gentilic :an, 9a/zw [thamnei] [B], OauvaOaiov [thamnathaiou] [AL], Timnite, Judg.

15:6.) A place on the northern frontier of Judah (Josh, 10:10, where LXX has e-n-l ij3a [epi liba] [BL], eiri vorov [epi noton] [A]), assigned to Dan in Josh. 19:43, but according to Judg. 14 inhabited by Philistines in the pre-regal period. The latter narrative describes most graphically an occasion on which Samson 'went down to Timnah' (Judg. 14:1) from Zorah. The Chronicler includes it among the paper punch uk, cities taken from Ahaz by the Philistines (2 Ch. 28:18; om. LXX ), and the contemporary evidence of Sennacherib in the 'Prism-inscription' (KB 2:92-93) records that king s capture of Tamna after the battle of Altaku before he laid siege to Amkaruna or Ekron. Timnah is now represented by the village of Tibneh, on the S. Agama Buddha! side of the Wady Sarar, 2 mi. W. of 'Ain Shems (Beth-shemesh) and a little farther to the SW. of Sarah (Zorah). The site, however, has been robbed of three-fourths of its ruins by the builders of a neighbouring village (Guerin, Jud.

2:30-31). But cp ZORAH. 3. A third Timnah (possibly the same as TIMNATH-HERES) may be recognised in punch the THAMNATHA of 1 Macc. Doc Holi! 9:50 (on the readings, see PIRATHON), which was one of the Judaean cities fortified by Bacchides. It is doubtless the Thamna mentioned by Josephus (BJ 3:3:5) and Pliny (HN 5:14:70) as giving name to one of the toparchies (the Thamnitica) of Judaea, and incorrectly described by paper punch uk Eusebius and Jerome (OS 260:3, 1566) as being in the district of c.wright mills, Lydda on the road to Jerusalem. The topographical notices in Jos.

BJ 4:5:1 confirm the view that this Timnah or Thamna is the northern Tibneh, a village about 10 mi. NW. of Bethel, with extensive ruins which have been described at length by Guerin (Sam. 28:9+). Cp Clermont Ganneau, PEFQ, 1875, p. Paper! 169; Schurer, GVI 2:138. (Dnn njpn, as if 'Portion of the Sun', see NAMES, 95; Judg. 2:9 fla/ui/aSape? [BL] 8anva.0a.p- eta? [A], also called in Josh. 19:50, 24:30 Timnath-sorah (rnD nrpjjt ; Sa^ap X ap^ [thamarchares] [B], ea^avapax [thamnasarach] [Ba. mg.], 0a^ia0ropa [thamnathsara] [A], 0a;aia0aerap [thamnathasar] [L] in 19:50; 0aui/a0a0-aYapx [thamnathasachara][B], fla^ao-axap [thamnasachar] [A], fla/uia6r. [L], in agama 24:30).

A locality in 'Mt. Ephraim on the N. side of the paper punch uk, Mt. Restaurant Business! GAASH' (q.v.). According to the book of Joshua it was assigned to Joshua at his own request ; he fortified the paper, city, dwelt there, and was buried there. The place has been identified with the modern Tibneh (see TIMNAH, 3), where, on Determination Essay, the N. slope of the hill to the S. , are some remarkable tombs described by paper uk Guerin (Sam. 2:89-104). This, however, assumes that there is only one Ephraim, whereas the probability is that there was a second Ephraim ( Jerahmeel) in the Negeb. The alternative identification with Kefr Harith (a small village NE. of Tibneh), proposed by Conder, has only the support of a late Jewish and Moslem mediaeval tradition (see ZPDV 2:13+, 6:195+, and cp Goldziher, PEFQ, 1879, pp. Theories Of Exchange Essay! 193+). It also implies the correctness of -heres, whereas Josh. (ll.c.) gives -serah, which is paper punch uk, hardly to sejarah be treated as a deliberate metathesis (so Moore). But possibly Din [HRS] (whence by error mo [SRH]) comes from -nv [ShHR] - i.e., TintrN ['ShHVR] (this also accounts best for 'Mount Heres').

This will become still more probable if 'Nun' in 'Joshua son of Nun' should really be Nahshon (apparently a Rehobothite or Jerahmeellte name). Joshua surely represents a clan of the Negeb ; see JOSHUA. It is also important that Eleazar son of Aaron (apparently a kinsman of paper, Joshua), is said to restaurant business have been buried in paper punch uk Gibeath-pinehas, 'which was given him [omit ^3] in Theories Determination Essay Mt. Ephraim', for bi[ne]has is not improbably another corruption of Jerahme'el. See PHINEHAS.

1 For a parallel cp ?n in y. X Vn, which may represent see TEL-ABIB. (TIMCON [Ti. WH]), one of the seven deacons (Acts 6:5). He has a Greek name and was perhaps a Hellenist. Traditions contained in Pseudo-Dorotheus and Pseudo-Hippolytus make him bishop of paper punch, Bostra in of Exchange Rate Essay Arabia, and according to the former he suffered martyrdom by burning at the hands of the heathen. 1. An Ammonite leader; whether an Ammonite with a Greek name, or a Greek who had been put by the Syrian general in command of the Ammonites is unknown. He was defeated on various occasions by punch uk Judas the Maccabee ; first in the campaign which resulted in the capture of Jazer, and again in that which included the battles of Dathema and Raphon and the relief of Bosora, Bosor, Alema, Casphor, Maked and Carnaim (1 Macc. 5:6-12, 5:24-44).

He is also mentioned in 2 Macc. 8:30, 8:32, 9:3, 10:24, 10:32, 10:37, 12:2, 12:10, 12:18-21, 12:24, where the c.wright mills, scene is transferred to punch Western Palestine and a chronology implied which has suggested to many scholars that a different person must be intended. Social Psychology! The most probable explanation of the discrepancies, however, is that suggested under MACCABEES (SECOND), 2,3; viz., the inadequacy of the sources, and the uncritical character of the compiler, of that book. Birthplace, etc. (1). Circumcision (2). Journeys (3-5). An author? (6).

Traditions (7). This Hellenistic name (see TIMOTHEUS) is in uk the NT (TIMO06OC [Ti.WH]) borne by agama buddha one of Paul s younger companions who was connected with, and punch, Drobably born at, LYSTRA ( 3) in Lycaonia, where the apostle first came across him. In Acts 16:1 efcei [ekei] is epexegetic of c.wright mills, Ka.1 els AuVrpar [kai eis lystran], and the text of 20:4 is too secure to uk justify any alteration which (GAIUS, 2) would connect AepjSaios [derbaios] with Tifj.66cos [timotheos], identifying this Gaius with the Macedonian of the same common name (19:29) from whom in all likelihood the epithet Aep/3aios [derbaios] is expressly intended to Essay on You Might of Blue Collar distinguish him. Cp Holtzmarm, Die Pastoralbriefe, 65-66 (1880). The diminished strictness of local Judaism (PHRYGIA, 3) is punch uk, betrayed by two features in the Lystran household where Timothy was brought up; his Jewish mother had married a pagan, and their son was allowed to reach manhood uncircumcised. His father, it has been conjectured, died during the boy s early years ; this is c.wright mills, corroborated at any rate by the absence of all reference to him as well as by uk the strong influence assigned in reliable tradition to the lad's mother (EDUCATION, 5) and (maternal?) grandmother, even though we hesitate to lay stress on c.wright mills, the slight textual evidence for Eunice's widowhood (Acts 16:1, add x ? W xls [cheras] 2:5 : X- [ch.] for lovSalas [ioudaias], gig. fu.), or even on the tense of virripxev [hyperchen] (fuerat, Acts 16:3 ; virdpxti [hyparchei] would have been used, had he been alive [Blass]) Whether her husband was among 'the men that worship God' ( re/36/uevoi rbv Qtov [sebomenoi ton theon]) or not, Eunice (Acts 16:1, cp v. 15) seems to have become a Christian at Paul's first visit to Lystra (Acts 14:6-7, 14:20-22). Later notices, embodying a tradition which there is no reason to suspect, indicate that her mother Lois had assisted her to train 1 the lad in the knowledge and piety of the OT previous to their joint conversion (2 Tim. 1:5, 3:14-15, cp 1 Tim.

5:4) ; and it may be inferred that their influence subsequently brought Timothy over to the new faith some time before the return of Paul a couple of years or so later. Passages like 1 Cor. 4:17 (contrast v. Paper Punch Uk! 15), 2 Tim. 2:1, etc., refer to Might Be A Redneck: of Blue Collar kinship of spirit, and Phil. 2:22 expressly identifies Timothy's genuine sonship with his loyal service to Paul, not with spiritual parentage. At any rate his intimate connection with Paul dates from the latter's second tour with Silas, when he found the young Lystran not a neophyte but a full member (uadijTris [mathetes]) of the local church. The allusion in 2 Tim. 3:10-11 (a genuine fragment) simply means (Lk. Uk! 1:3) acquaintance with the facts and experiences narrated - an acquaintance involving moral imitation (1 Tim. 4:6) - and does not imply that Timothy accompanied Paul on the journey described in Acts 13:14-14:20. In this flight, according to Acta Petri et Pauli, etc. (ed.

Lips. 1891, pp. 235-236), Paul is accompanied by doc holi Demas and Hermogenes 6 xaAicevs, vrroicpio-eios yeT-coiTey, KGU e^eAtrrapoui TOV IlauAor to? ayaTritVTS O.VTOV [o chalkeus, hypokriseoos gemontes, kai exeliparoun ton paulon oos agapoontes auton]. 1 As the nearest synagogue was at Iconium, the religious instruction of the child devolved on Eunice, who probably possessed a copy of some part of the OT scriptures is well as the paper punch uk, little parchment rolls, specially for the use of children, containing. e.g.. the Shema, the Hallel, the history of Creation down to the Flood, and Lev. 1-8 (Edersheim, Sketches of Jewish Social Life, 114-117).

The language of Acts 16:1 (/ecu I8ov [kai idou], cp 1:10, 8:27, 10:17, 12:7) is intended to denote a remarkable and c.wright mills, happy episode in the tour (cp Hort, Christian Ecclesia, 178-179). It seemed providential that another youth was found willing and fit to join Paul's company and enterprise, after the defection of Hohn Mark and Barnabas. Characteristically (cp 6:3, 10:22, 22:12) an excellent reputation is singled out as one essential feature in his moral equipment ; Actsl62 suggests also, though it does not necessarily imply, that he had already preached in paper punch the neighbourhood. However, as his father's nationality was notorious in the locality, Paul had him circumcised. He carried out this long-deferred rite upon the eve of on You Might Be A of Blue, proceeding farther on a tour among the Phrygian churches with their Jewish surroundings and partially Jewish atmosphere, his object being to prevent people taking needless offence either at Timothy's connection with Paul or at paper, his entrance into Jewish circles. Acts 16:36 is often taken as an social psychology examples, editorial gloss (e.g., Clemen, Jungst, Hilgenfeld, and Wendt), and on paper uk, different lines the last-named critic and McGiffert (Apostolic Age, 232-234) have attempted to explain the whole passage as the sejarah agama, popular and later misstatement of an actual fact, in opposition to the dominant view (cp ACTS, 4, 7) which - apart from minor variations - generally regards the story as an invention of the punch uk, author, introduced in order to illustrate what he conceived was or should have been Paul s deferential and Theories Determination Essay, conciliatory attitude towards Jewish-Christian scruples. But the uk, existence of a strong Timothy-tradition in the later church makes it hard to c.wright mills believe that a strange story like this could be spread not long after Timothy s death, if it did not correspond to fact. And psychological reasons can be adduced which render the tradition fairly acceptable (cp Renan, S. Paul, 125, 313 ; Hort, Jud.

Christ. 85-86). Paper Punch Uk! Paul, either before or after the conference at Jerusalem, was independent of petty scruples against or for circumcision, which he probably regarded as among the adiaphora (1 Cor. 7:18). Particularly in Theories of Exchange Determination the case of a half-caste or semi-Jew like Timothy, where no principle was at stake, Paul could not have felt bound to paper abstain from Theories of Exchange Rate Determination circumcision, if it promoted effectiveness, any more than to insist upon it uniformly. His liberal views (cp Rom. 2:28-29, 14:13-21) left him free to act upon his own judgment and to decide any case upon its merits, free even to accommodate himself to scruples felt by punch uk Jews when such accommodation could not fairly (yet cp Gal.

5:11, and Rams. Hist. Comm. Galat., 8) be misunderstood. Timothy s circumcision was a matter of convenience, not of principle ; and Paul would make that perfectly clear before permitting his friend to become legally a Jew to save the Jews.l Upon the whole, therefore, there is agama, a distinct case to punch be made out on behalf of the historicity of this paragraph, as against the plausible but somewhat arbitrary view that it represents a make- weight to Gal. Examples! 2:3-4. Punch! The case of doc holi, Titus was entirely different. Punch Uk! And it is one thing for a writer to omit an awkward fact, another and a much more serious thing - requiring greater motives and historical justification than can be reasonably brought forward in this case - deliberately to invent a story which hundreds of contemporary Christians (cp Heb.

13:23) could have readily refuted. Redneck: The Inspiration! This forms an almost insuperable difficulty in the way of accepting the ordinary hypothesis of criticism upon Acts 16:1-3 ; and it seems therefore more natural to regard Paul s action as somewhat exceptional, though it depends on uk, the view taken of the date of Galatians (cp 5:2) whether we suppose Paul deliberately made this exception afterwards (so Weber, Abfassung des Galatterbriefes, 77-78 [1900]), or advanced to a clearer and more consistent line of action. In sketching at a later date some personal traits of Timothy, the restaurant business, author of the pastoral epistles, either drawing upon Acts or upon punch, independent oral tradition, lays characteristic stiess on the questions of c.wright mills, good character and paper punch uk, reputation as a requisite for the ministry (e.g., 1 Tim. 3:7), preserves the names of Eunice and agama, Lois (2 Tim. Paper Punch! 1:5), suggests timidity and backwardness as qualities of Timothy (2 Tim. Business! 1:7-8), and punch, refers to several circumstances attending Paul's selection of the younger man.

There is doc holi, no reason to doubt the substantial accuracy of such notices or of the tradition that this momentous event (1 Tim. Punch! 1:18, 4:14) was due to some local Christians, possibly including Paul himself, who felt themselves inspired in the assembly to single out the of Exchange Determination Essay, youth as a fit companion for Paul. Paper Punch! The statement agrees at any rate with phenomena such as those noted in Acts 13:3, etc., and merely implies that the local prophets and Essay on You of Blue, leaders felt themselves divinely guided in paper uk selecting Timothy, or in ratifying Paul s judgment on a matter which may have already occupied his mind. But ecclesiastical tendency of a later age is felt in business proposal the further description, throughout these passages and elsewhere (e.g., 2 Tim. 1:6, cp TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 7), of paper uk, a supernatural xapio-jua [charisma] due to solemn ordination; although the fact of the laying-on-of-hands at such a time is in itself quite credible (cp Acts 13:3, 14:23). 1 Zahn (Einl. 1:479-480) subtly traces an allusion to this characteristic of Timothy in proposal the emeis of paper punch uk, Phil. 3;3, which he insists on taking (as in v. 17) as a reference to Paul's coadjutor (Phil.

1:1). See further K. Schmidt's Ap.-gesch. 358-359 (1882). Accompanying Paul and Silas on sejarah, their European tour (PAUL, 20), Timothy apparently took a specially keen interest in the Macedonian churches which he helped to found at Philippi and paper, Thessalonica, although it is remarkable that the narrative in Acts only mentions his name quite incidentally (Acts 17:14, 18:5). With the former church (Phil. 2:20-22) his relations remained singularly close and warm, but it is impossible to see him (with Volter, Th.T, 1892, p. 124) in a second-century allusion (4:3) to rwfirye [synzyge] (cp SYNZYGUS).

His subsequent movements between Beraea (BEREA, 3) and Corinth are not quite clear owing to the loose and general statements of Acts at this point. The probability is, however, that (1 Thess. 3:2 being parallel to 3:5) Timothy rejoined Paul soon at Athens, and was sent back (perhaps with a letter, cp Rendel Harris: Expos., 5th ser. , 8:161-162, 8:401-402) to Thessalonica to confirm the local Christians and bring back news of their condition to their anxious apostle. Returning from this errand Timothy, now accompanied by Silas, found that in despair Paul had gone across from Athens to Corinth. Cp THESSALOXIANS, 1-2. The 'awkward and badly constructed' (Ramsay, St. Paul, 233) narrative of sejarah agama, Acts 17:10-11 shows that the author, or the source which he followed here, was ignorant of this Macedonian mission; he offers no explanation of the extraordinary delay which - on paper punch, his own statement - transpired between 17:13-14 and 18:5, imagining that Silas and social examples, Timothy had simply remained in Beroea.

Whereas it is probable that the visit of Paul's two emissaries extended to Philippi as well as to Thessalonica, and that they conveyed from the former church to punch uk Paul (2 Cor. 11:9 ? Phil. 4:15) a gift of money. At Corinth and throughout Achaia, Timothy, as an apostle (1 Thess. Doc Holi! 1:1, 2:6) in the wider sense of the term (cp MINISTRY, 17; McGiffert, Apostolic Age, 648-649), shared Paul's pioneering work (cp 2 Cor. 1:19) and was associated with him in the epistles (epistle?) to Thessalonica, which were written in uk the earlier part of the apostle s stay on the Isthmus - for although the mention of Athens (1 Thess 3:1) does not exclude the possibility of that city as the place where they were composed (see 1 Cor. 15:32, 16:8), it is plain from other allusions (cp 1 Thess. 1:8) that they presuppose the social psychology, apostle's entry into Achaia. From Corinth two years later Timothy seems to punch uk have accompanied Paul as far as Ephesus, where he became known to the churches in the neighbourhood (Col. 1:1) and to local individuals (Philem.

1). At any rate (cp CHRONOLOGY, 68) towards the close of the two or three years spent by Paul in Ephesus and the surrounding district, Timothy and business proposal, Erastus (Acts 19:22), as two assistants of Paul upon the spot, were despatched to Macedonia and Achaia (possibly; dav ZXdy [ean elthe], 1 Cor. 16:10) in advance of paper uk, their leader, who intended to social follow up his letter to Corinth (despatched by sea after March 5, when navigation became open) by a personal visit. It is plain, from punch uk 1 Cor. Theories Determination! 4:17, 16:10-11, that there was a chance of Timothy failing to arrive until after the letter reached its destination ; for Paul bespeaks a courteous reception for his young representative. The absence of any greeting from the uk, latter, and the temporal aorist ^jrea^a [epempsa] ('I have sent', 1 Cor.

4:17), show that he had left before the epistle was despatched. Doc Holi! His instructions were to return with some other Christians directly (i.e., by the sea-route) to Paul at Ephesus (1 Cor. Paper Uk! 16:11), after instructing the Corinthians afresh upon Pauline methods and views (1 Cor. 4:17) and proposal, generally consolidating their faith. The obscurity of the punch uk, Corinthian episode at this stage (cp TITUS, 2) renders it difficult to decide whether Paul s silence in Essay on You Might of Blue 2 Cor. upon paper punch uk, the mission of Timothy and any results attending it forms a tacit proof that Timothy did not manage to reach Corinth (so, e.g., Lightfoot, Weiss, and Ramsay), or that he did arrive and then, failing to cope subsequently with the fresh trouble, returned to Paul or simply sent him word of the crisis. On the last-named hypothesis he may have been either (so Beyschlag, Pfleiderer, G. G. Might Redneck: The Inspiration Of Blue! Findlay) in person, or with Paul on the latter's painful visit (2 Cor.

2:1, 2:5-6), actually the man insulted (oiSiKrjfJei s [o adiketheis]; 7:12) by the recalcitrant majority at Corinth. On the whole intricate question see Schmiedel, HC 2:1;220-223. Whatever happened to Timothy in uk the interval, Paul at last met 2 him somewhere among his favourite Macedonian churches (2 Cor. 1:1, 7:5) whither he had retired from Corinth probably to find a more congenial sphere ; unless we are to suppose that he accompanied Paul thither from Ephesus. Evidently he had not been in Achaia lately (2 Cor. Social! 7:5-6, 7:13). But when Paul went on to Corinth, Timothy accompanied him (Rom. 16;21), and formed a member of the apostle's entourage on his return to Asia in the spring of the punch, following year. 1 If the note to Ephesus, incorporated in Rom. 16, extended (as, e.g., Weizsacker and doc holi, McGiffert suggest) to v. Punch! 23, the sejarah agama buddha, mention of Timothy in punch v. 21 would be highly appropriate.

But the note probably contained v. 1-20 and no more. Doc Holi! [Cp, further, ROMANS, 13.] 2 Or, sent for him ; if one plausible reconstruction of the period, based on a critical view of uk, 2 Tim. 4:9, 4:11-18, 4:20-21 (see TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 12), could be established. Whether he accompanied Paul to Rome or was summoned by him afterwards, the scanty data available do not permit us to determine ; the latter conjecture (cp TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 12-13) fits in c.wright mills well with the tone of 2 Tim. 4:13-15, 4:21-22a when that fragment is assigned to a genuine note sent by Paul either late in punch uk the Czesarean or early in the Roman imprisonment, urging his friend to c.wright mills join him. At any rate it is punch uk, obvious that Timothy did stay beside him at Rome for a considerable period (Col. 1:1, Philem. 1, Phil. 1:1). Later on, however, Paul s concern for the Philippian Christians led him to arrange for psychology examples, the disinterested and zealous Timothy paying them a visit (Phil.

2:19-22) in order to relieve the apostle s mind by bringing back news of his old friends. Timothy had a tried character by paper uk this time and his 'solicitude for the Philippians had become a second nature' (Lightfoot). Clearly he was not a a prisoner, but free to come and go. His journey may have detained him ; or he may have proceeded farther to Ephesus. 1 At least a genuine fragment preserved in 2 Tim. 1:15-18, 4:6-12, 4:16-19 shows that at some subsequent period Paul had been forced to abandon his hope of release and now, in view of a martyr s death, wanted to sejarah have Timothy beside him again in his isolation.

We do not know if the summons was obeyed in time, or at all. A final glimpse of the uk, envoy is afforded, some twenty years later, by a casual remark in an epistle apparently addressed to some Christians at doc holi, Rome (Heb. 13:23), from which it would appear that Timothy, who was familar to this circle of readers (cp Rom. 16:21, HEBREWS, 9), had been recently released from imprisonment somewhere and might possibly revisit Rome in company with his friend the paper uk, writer. Apart from a hypothesis, which needs only to be chronicled, that he actually edited the two pastoral epistles bearing his own name, three lines of critical reconstruction connect Timothy with authorship either independently or as an amanuensis of Paul, (i.) Least probable of all is Spitta's ingenious attempt to find in social examples him the author of 2 Thess. (Zur Gesch. u. Punch Uk! Lift, des Ur-christenthums, 1:22-23), an epistle written by him in the name of his companions (2 Thess. Business Proposal! 1:1) - hence its somewhat formal and official tone - and uk, saturated with apocalyptic fantasies of Judaism peculiar to himself (cp Acts 16:1, 2 Tim. Sejarah! 3:15-16, 1 Tim. 1:4, 4:7) See THESSALONIANS, 14. (ii.) When 2 Cor.

10-13 is accepted as part of an intermediate letter to paper punch uk Corinth, written previous to business 2 Cor. 1-9, it is paper uk, natural (Pfleid. Das Urchristenthum, 106-107) though far from necessary to suppose that these four chapters were preceded by a part (no longer extant) written by Timothy or by some other companion of Paul interested in the local church. On this view the avrbs 5e eyoo IlaCAos [autos de egoo paulos] means that Paul now strikes in to speak alone and independently, (iii.) With more plausibility the composition of the 'We-journal' in Acts has been assigned occasionally to Timothy (e.g., by Konigsmann, Ulrich, Beyschlag, de Wette, Bleek, and [?] Weizsacker), although the threads of positive proof are extremely subtle (cp ACTS, 9b) and the general probabilities point rather to c.wright mills Luke as the diarist. Besides, even if the Bezan reading in Acts 11:27-28 be rejected, a passage like Acts 20:4-6 (unless we are to paper punch suspect a serious dislocation of the text) tells against the composition of the c.wright mills, journal by uk Timothy.

Sorof, however, has followed a modified form of Mayerhoff s theory in buddha attributing to Timothy the task of editing Acts in its extant shape from. (a) a Lucan sketch of early Christianity in paper punch uk connection with Paul and (b) a rather legendary Petrine source (Die Entstehung der Ap.-gesch. 1890). 1 If so, this would be the basis for sejarah, the literary setting adopted by the later author of the pastoral epistles in uk his third composition (1 Tim. Psychology! 1:3-4, cp TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 11). The casual way in which Timothy's connection with Ephesus is assumed there, may be pure fantasy; but it is more likely that it may reflect some actual tradition of paper uk, his career after Paul's removal ; certainly (although the far from exhaustive or accurate nature of Acts as a record of doc holi, Paul's later life does not make this an insuperable objection) there is no recorded period in Acts when Paul started for Macedonia leaving Timothy to superintend matters at Ephesus. The widespread belief of Christian tradition (Ap. Const. 746, Euseb. HE 3:4, Photius, Bibl. 254), that Timothy was appointed by Paul as the first bishop of Ephesus, is probably nothing better than an inference from the pastoral epistles (1 Tim.

1:3-4), which, however, may echo some historical relationship. The story is punch, occasionally improved by some circumstantial details: e.g., that he was succeeded in his episcopate by the apostle and doc holi, the presbyter John, suffering martyrdom (Jan. 22, Greek church ; Jan. Paper Uk! 24, Latin ; Sept. 27, Ephesus) during the former s exile at Patmos towards the close of the first century A.D. (see Nicephorus in HE 3:11). No miracles are narrated of him in the fifth century Acta Timothei (ed.

Usener, 1877). For these and other legends see further Lipsius, Apokr. Ap.-gesch. (1884), 372-400, and, for the traditional connection of Timothy and Ephesus, Zahn, Einl. 1:426-427. His martyrdom 1 Tim. C.wright Mills! 6:12-13) is connected in one tradition with wild orgies in vogue possibly at the local festival of Diana, the mob having clubbed him to paper punch death for protesting against their licentiousness.

Contents of epistles (1-3). Period and object (4). C.wright Mills! The errorists (5). Paulinism (6). Sub-Pauline elements (7). The faithful sayings (8). Punch! Style and diction (9). Second imprisonment (10). Genesis of pastorals (11). Critical analysis (12-14). Order of composition (15).

Author (16). Pseudonymity (17). Bibliography (18). These three epistles commonly form a group 1 in the NT canon, 2 and the general similarity of their diction, aim, and atmosphere makes it convenient to discuss them side by side. 1 As 'personal' letters ('pro affectu et dilectione', Murat. Social Psychology! Can.) they usually share with Philemon the last place in the list of Pauline epistles. After the Murat. Canon, where for some reason Titus precedes the other two, the uk, normal arrangement is Essay Might Be A Redneck: The Inspiration Collar, 1 Tim., 2 Tim., Titus. 2 The allusions and citations in early Christian literature simply prove the existence and (by no means unanimous) acceptance of these epistles during the paper uk, second and psychology examples, third centuries. Neither their rejection by paper uk writers and leaders outside the catholic church, nor their welcome within it, can be supposed to throw independent light upon the question of c.wright mills, their actual origin and authorship.

Errorists usually refused to admit what was in more or less plain conflict with their own tenets, and one has always to suspect the bias of moral dislike (Clem. Alex. Strom. 2:11) behind their so-called literary verdicts upon authorship. Paper Punch Uk! But as little do the employment and the approbation of c.wright mills, such writings by uk church-authors tell in favour of their reputed authorship. When admitted to the canon as documents bearing Paul's name, they were judged healthy in proposal religious tone, practically serviceable to the church ('in honore ecclesiae catholicae in ordinatione ecclesiasticae discipline sanctificatae sunt', Murat. Can.), and punch, generally congruous with the Pauline tradition and temper. Those who thus stamped them with approval had no independent knowledge of their composition ; it was enough that the epistles contained nothing which jarred with what was judged to be apostolic or Pauline ; and the early Christian attitude towards 'Hebrews' is abundant evidence of how loose that judgment could be. The modern critic is therefore justified in going behind such ecclesiastical tradition in social order to face directly problems of origin and paper punch, authorship which, in doc holi the nature of paper uk, things, could hardly have been present to Theories of Exchange the consciousness of those who with sound instinct preserved writings handed down by religious usage from the paper punch, past. No one would dream of challenging the verdict of the Homeric ioptfoi Te [chorizontes], simply because in restaurant common with antiquity generally Aristotle (with the same facts before him) found no difficulty in treating the Iliad and paper punch, the Odyssey as products of the same mind.

And the identification of social, canonicity or worthiness with direct apostolic authorship, which tacitly controlled nearly all early Christian discussions upon the primitive literature of the church, is a literary convention which it is needless at this time of day to punch uk spend space in refuting. Doc Holi! Consequently, in the case of the pastoral epistles, there need not be any hesitation in paper punch concentrating attention upon their internal evidence when problems such as pseudpnymity are raised. This is just one of the instances in which the naive presuppositions of early Christianity imposed limitations upon Might The Inspiration, its judgment, when that judgment was exercised upon the remote literary and historical sources of its treasures. 3 J. Punch Uk! Turmel, 'Histoire de l'interpret. de 1 Tim. C.wright Mills! 2:4' (Revue d'Hist. et de Litt. Relig. 1900, Sept.-Oct.).

Their contents are as follows : 1 Tim. is somewhat loosely knit together; the contents are miscellaneous rather than orderly, as if the writer had had no single topic dominant in paper uk his mind. But in spite of this desultory character the general trend of the epistle is not obscure. After the usual greeting (1:1-2) the epistle opens by describing the commission already given by Paul to his lieutenant at Ephesus and now urged afresh upon sejarah agama, his attention that he may be able to counteract local errorists of antinomian proclivities. This commission enforces sincerity and moral earnestness, according to the Pauline standard presented as an apostolic trust and tradition to which Timotheus is naturally heir (1:3-11). Punch Uk! Here a digression occurs, suggested by the closing words of v. Sejarah Agama! 11; Paul claims to be the staunch though unworthy representative of this evangelical standard, and summons Timothy to unflinching loyalty (1:12-20) in view of some recent instances of aberration (HYMENAEUS and ALEXANDER). The epistle then passes away from polemic and personal allusions into the first of its two sections (2-3). Directions are laid down for the regulation of church-life in general: (a) for whom (2:1-2) and by whom (2:3) prayer is to be offered in church - both paragraphs expanding into uk, slight digressions upon the universality of Essay on You Be A The Inspiration, salvation in paper punch uk the Pauline gospel (2:3-7) and upon the subordinate place of women (2:9-3:1).

The writer then proceeds from Christian worship to the more vital question of (b) organisation, laying down the moral criteria (see EDUCATION, 16-17) of episcopi (3:2-7) and diaconi (3:8-13, incidentally deaconesses are included), and closing the whole section with a lofty stanza or fragment of a primitive confession upon the incarnate Christ (3:14-16). The second section (4-6), which resumes the tone of polemic, is thrown into the form of doc holi, rules for paper uk, the personal conduct and ministry of Tim. in view of psychology examples, serious moral aberrations fostered by the ascetic tendencies of certain Christian teachers; these sophistries and superstitions he is authoritatively to paper punch refute (4:1-16). He is further advised upon his attitude to the practical problems created by differences of age and sex within the membership of the sejarah agama, churches (5:1-2), and some space is paper uk, devoted to the maintenance and control of two special classes of officials - widows (5:3-16) and presbyters (5:17-25). After a word on the relative duties of slaves and masters (6:1-2), the epistle comes round to lash the c.wright mills, errorists, attacking them with considerable vigour for making a trade of punch uk, religion. Naturally this suggests a warning to Christians in general against doc holi the passion for money (6:3-10), and with an impressive charge addressed to the 'man of God', the epistle dies away in a doxology (6:11-16). Punch! In a postscript, some words to rich people are appended, together with a supplementary warning to Timothy against contemporary yccocris [gnoosis] (6:17-21). In 2 Tim., after the greeting, Paul gives thanks for Timothy's inheritance and experience of faith (1:1-5). He then warns his friend against false shame, urging his own life and teaching to restaurant business proposal the contrary (1:6-14), as well as a recent example of energy and fearlessness on paper, the part of an Asiatic Christian called Onesiphorus (1:15-18).

Especially for Essay on You The Inspiration Collar, one who like Timothy is heir to the Pauline trust and tradition, endurance for Christ's sake and paper, adherence to the Pauline gospel (of which, indeed, endurance is c.wright mills, a note) form a pressing duty; the former is certain of a reward (2:1-13), whilst the latter is the one useful and honourable course of action open for a Christian teacher (2:14-26) amid the heightening temptations of unpractical controversy and immorality. After vigorously exposing the principles and methods of these errorists (3:1-9, see JANNES AND JAMBRES), Paul bids Timothy maintain the principles of the Pauline gospel, even when they involve suffering and obloquy, and at the same time adhere to the OT scriptures (3:10-17); then follows a resume containing his final charge and uk, the swansong of his own confession (4:1-8). Data of Redneck: The Inspiration of Blue Comedy, personal information and private messages close the letter (4:9-22). 1 The personal reference elsewhere in uk the NT (Gal. 2:9, Rev. 3:12) does not justify Bois in Theories Rate bracketing 'which is the church of the living God' (TJTIS . . . Ju)fTOs [epis . zoontos] : 3:14-16) and connecting 'pillar' (crri/Aos [stylos]) with the subject of 'behave' (ayacrTpfV/ietrOai [anastrephesthai]). 2 The concern to keep the widow-class under the bishop's control is thoroughly sub-apostolic (cp Ignat. ad Polyk. 4, 5). See MINISTRY, 41, and Hastings' DB 4:916-917. 3 The interpolated remark (5:23), if not an aside suggested by 'pure' (dyrdr [agnon]), may have originally lain between 4:3 and 4:4 or 4:12 and 4:13, from which it has got displaced (instances of this in paper punch uk Hist. New Test. Business Proposal! (2) pp.

39:676 ; also Jahn on Juv. 3:12, 3:16 and Che. on Is. 38:22). Its insertion after 5:22, which must have taken place very early, would thus be due to a copyist who read the paper punch uk, sentence as a qualifying definition of 'pure' (ayvuv [agnon]) - Christian purity being no Essene-like abstinence. Epictetus (Diss. 3:22) similarly regards bodily health as a necessary part of the true Cynic's religious equipment; 'for if he has the appearance of a consumptive, pale, and thin person, his testimony has not the same weight'. Julicher and Bacon group vv.

23-25 together, and von Soden links 25 to 23, 24 to Might Be A Redneck: of Blue Collar 22, whilst Calvin plausibly suggested that 22c-23 was a marginal note of the author. 4 In particular to teachers who found Christianity a lucrative trade (cp Did. 11-12, Barn. 10, Ignat. Ephes. 7, Tit. 1:11). 5 The absence of any greetings to members of the Ephesian church, together with the paucity of personal allusions, shows that the epistle is not a letter in the strict sense of the word. The author is paper punch uk, writing with his eye on the Christian church of his own day, as the phrases (2 Tim. 4:22, Tit.

3:15, 1 Tim. 6:21) prove for all three epistles. In Philemon, the one genuine 'private' note of social examples, Paul extant [cp, however, PHILEMON], the 'your' (uuwv [hymon]) in v. 25 refers to punch uk the different persons associated with Philemon in the introduction. Cp also the Essay Be A The Inspiration of Blue Collar, variant 'know ye' (yivtuCTxeTe [ginooskete] : Lachm.) in 2 Tim. 3:1. Paper Punch! The alternative open to the traditionalists is the gratuitous assumption that passages like 1 Tim. 2:1-3:13, etc., were meant to be communicated by their recipients to c.wright mills wider circles (Zahn); which of course destroys the character of the writings as private letters.

Cp 1 Tim. 2:8 (1 Cor. Paper Punch! 7:17). 6 On the contents of 1:6 see below (section 7). C.wright Mills! But even if 'us' in v. 7 referred to Paul and Timothy (which is not absolutely certain) it would simply allude to them as the persons immediately under consideration, not as officials. The passage, therefore, does not in paper punch itself betray the narrowing of the Spirit to a class ; and the contents of the Spirit are distinctly ethical : vigour issuing in love to others and in self-control. 7 On 3:13 cp Aristides 6:16 (Wendland, Klicin. Mus., 1894, 49:309).

8 The curious antipathy of the writer to c.wright mills second marriages on the part of punch, presbyters, episcopi, diaconi, and 'widows' (?pu [cherai], see WIDOW), is quite un-Pauline, but corresponds to the more general cast of feeling prevalent in the second century throughout the churches (e.g., Athenagoras, Leg; pro Christ. Restaurant Business! 33, 'respectable adultery', euvrpeTri)? /aot^ eta gt [euprepes moicheia]; Herm. Mand. 4:1:4 ; Clem. Alex.

Strom. 3:1). See Jacoby, Neutest. Ethik (1899), 378-399. After a somewhat elaborate greeting (1:1-4), the epistle to Titus opens by reiterating Pauls instructions with regard to the choice and duties of presbyters or episcopi in Crete, in order to sharply check erroneous teaching and immoral practices on the part of some Judaising propagandists who were upsetting the churches (1:5-16). Titus is then instructed how to enforce the moral obligations of punch, Christianity upon aged men (2:1-2), aged women, and married women (2:3-5), younger men like himself (2:6-8), and slaves (2:9-10). Paul insists on c.wright mills, this moral life as an essential of the Christian faith (2:11-14, see PECULIAR PEOPLE), and urges Titus to press home the positive duties of obedience to authority and of pure conduct, instead of punch uk, wasting time over-controversialists and sectaries (2:15-3:11; cp EXCOMMUNICATION, 3 ; HERESY, 2). C.wright Mills! With some brief personal notices (3:12-15) the paper punch uk, epistle closes; the mention of the jurist Zenas and the evangelist Apollos is perhaps intended to suggest that it was conveyed by their hands to its recipient. The cluster of problems offered by Rate Essay these epistles is intimately connected with the dual nature of their contents.

Within a setting and alongside of material which, upon all available criteria of internal evidence, must be pronounced distinctly sub-Pauline, 4 the reader meets passages apparently alien which have high claims to be considered as directly due to the apostle whose name the letters bear. The task of criticism is to do justice to both of these elements. The sub-Pauline element is primary, and in view of it any reasonable appreciation of the whole question, not merely of punch uk, isolated details, leads almost inevitably to the conclusion - one of the best established in NT research - that the three epistles are pseudonymous, composed by doc holi a Paulinist in Asia Minor 5 not earlier than the close of the first century, and not later than the second decade of the second century, based in paper punch uk part upon genuine fragments from the apostle s pen as well as upon more or less reliable oral tradition, and intended to express and instruct the common Christianity 6 of the day in proposal terms, as far a! was possible or useful, of the great Pauline tradition. Substantially they were written and circulated early in the second century, as is evident from their employment in the epistles of Ignatius and Polycarp. During the period 90-120, and during that period alone, they possess a career and object which corresponds to paper their own internal evidence as well as to the data afforded by more or less contemporary literature.

The latter point is minor though real. Their literary affinities are beyond question with Lk.-Acts, 1 Clem. Rom., Barnabas, and the epistles of Jude and 2 Pet. , as well as with the fourth book of the doc holi, Sibylline oracles (Asia Minor, circa 80 A.D. ) which, like 4 Maccabees, reiterates the term 'pious' (eire,i?7s [eusebes]). Punch! Unlike Paul, the author also makes copious use of the vocabulary of 2 Maccabees, and, at least in Titus and 1 Tim. , there are traces of c.wright mills, acquaintance with 1 Pet. 1 The concrete and bitter description of the Cretan character - with its prevalent traits of falsehood, avarice, drunkenness, and uk, restless sedition - does not favour the ingenious hypothesis that Cretans in psychology examples this epistle are an allegorical equivalent for Philistines (Kprji-es [kretes], cp CRETE), whom tradition occasionally connected with the island. Paper Uk! There is social examples, no evidence for such personification in punch uk the pastorals as would represent the church under the c.wright mills, figure of the twelve tribes scattered in the dispersion (Jas. Paper Punch! 1:1) and opposed by on You Might The Inspiration Collar Comedy enemies of the true Israel. 2 In v. 16 o/j.ooyovcriv [homologousin] (EV 'profess') is (as Heb. 11:13) 'to make public avowal', especially when called upon (1 Pet. Paper! 3:15).

The writer s point is, not that the errorists made extravagant claims, but that they did not act up to the normal profession of the Be A The Inspiration Collar Comedy, Christian faith. 3 For npfcrBuTis [presbytis] in early Christianity see Achelis, ZNTW, 1900, pp. 92-93; 'young men' (vfwTfpoi [neooteroi]) came to mean 'laymen' as 'presbyters' (npfcrbuTfpoi [presbyteroi]) passed into an official term (see MINISTRY, 43). 4 It is only fair to the ascertained results of paper punch uk, criticism to adopt this position, although one still meets statements like the following: 'It may be asserted without fear of contradiction that nothing really un-Pauline has been proved in any of the disputed epistles' (Sanday, Inspiration, 338-339, 363-364, 379-380, 1896, a discussion characterised by Dr. Hincks of psychology examples, Andover thus: 'General assertion, bolstered up by the opinion of those like-minded this is not the way in which an paper, intelligent man, who has solid arguments at doc holi, his disposal, maintains an imperilled cause'). 5 Cp von Dobschutz, Die urchristlichen Gemeinden, 127-139 (1902), Harnack, Ausbreit. d. Christ. (1902) 461-462. 6 The motto of the pastorals lies in a sentence like (RV) 'For the grace of paper, God hath appeared, bringing salvation to all men, instructing us' (Tit. Rate Determination! 2:11, eTre^afr; yap TT apis TOV 9eoO cramjpio? iracrti/ ayflpiuTroi? TraiSev ovtra rjfias).

In their age Christianity had to fight for its life against a subtle spirit in the air rather than against paper uk civil persecution ; visionaries and sophist? were more deadly than proconsuls and lictors. Thanks to the moderation and steady sense of psychology, writers like the author of the punch uk, pastorals, however, ordinary Christians came safely through the restaurant business, struggle with four truths as a secure possession; the unity of the Creator and the Redeemer, the unique and sufficient value of Jesus for redemption and punch, revelation, the vital tie between morals and faith, and doc holi, the secure future assured to the church of God. The distinctive element, however - i.e. , the prominence assigned to Timothy and Titus, is intelligible only upon the supposition that the author had specially in view the ulterior end of vindicating the legitimate evangelic succession of contemporary episcopi and other office-bearers in provinces where this was liable for various reasons to be challenged. The pastorals were composed, says Tertullian, to expound church affairs ('de ecclesiastico statu'). The craving (visible in Clem. Rom. ) for continuity of succession as a guarantee of paper, authority in doctrine (and therefore in Rate discipline 2 ) underlies the effort of uk, this Paulinist to show that Timothy and Titus were genuine (yvrjcrioi [gnesioi]) heirs of Essay on You Be A Collar Comedy, Paul, who himself (as the author goes out of his way to repeat and assert) was a divinely commissioned herald of the gospel. Inferentially, the successors appointed by Paul's lieutenants possessed the true central deposit of the faith. Conscious of this inheritance, and alive to its value, they are urged even as novices to instruct 3 the churches personally upon the faith in a peremptory and positive manner, 4 instead of allowing converts to lie exposed to unreliable teachers or false leaders. Such teachers and leaders abound. Indeed, one note of the age is the flaunting confident temper of the errorists (2 Tim. 2:23-24, 3:1-2, 4:3-4, Tit.

1:10-11, 3:10, 1 Tim. 1:7, 4:1-2, 5:24, Acts 20:29-30, Jude 8-10, 12, 19, Rev. 2:20, 1 Jn. 4:1, 4:5, 2 Jn. 7, 3 Jn. 9 ; Ign. Ephes. Punch Uk! 7, Trall. 6, etc. ). 1 Cp von Soden, Theol. Sejarah Buddha! Abhandlungen, 133-135 (1892).

A comparison of the pastorals with Lk.-Acts, etc., establishes not their priority or literary filiation, so much as the relatively late period at which all were composed. Diction, ideas, standpoint - all indicate unmistakably the sub-Pauline period, with its stereotyped expressions and punch, current phraseology. 2 The concern of the doc holi, pastorals, less avowed yet none the less real than in paper punch Ignatius and Clement, is to vindicate the authority of the elders or bishops over the enthusiasts and ascetics in the church ; the second century reveals this perennial struggle going on particularly in Asia Minor. Hence this Paulinist is forward to claim Paul s authority on examples, behalf of the organised discipline of the churches. 3 The prominence given to punch uk 'teaching' qualities shows that one danger of the Rate Determination Essay, contemporary churches lay largely in the vagaries and crude speculations of unauthorised teachers (Did. Paper! 15:1). The author's cure is simple. Better let the episcopus himself teach ! Better let those in authority themselves be responsible for the instruction of ordinary members ! Evidently teaching was not originally or usually (1 Tim.

5:17) a function of the buddha, presbyters ; but abuses had led by this time, as the Didache proves, to a need for combining teaching with organised church authority. A contemporary spirit of contempt for young episcopi (Ignat. Magn. 3 etc.) is answered by the repeated encouragements of Paul in 2 Tim. Punch! 2:22-23, Tit. 2:6-7, 1 Tim.

4:11-12, 5:1; these are effective from the writer's standpoint, though such a tone would have been singularly inappropriate from Paul to lieutenants of mature experience. Here, however, they are types of loyalty to the Pauline gospel; that is on You Be A Collar, all. 4 Timothy (2 Tim. 4:5), eg., is not an evangelist, but he is to do an evangelist's work as part of punch, his full service. See EVANGELIST, MINISTRY, 39b, and Dieterich in ZNTW, 1900, pp. 336-338. The whole evidence from the allusions to ecclesiastical organisation points to on You Might The Inspiration Comedy the period immediately preceding that of Ignatius (MINISTRY, 54).

5 Also to the statement of Clem. Alex. (Strom. 7:17) that Gnostic heresies first became threatening about Hadrian's reign, whilst the paper, apostolic age and teaching ended with Paul's ministry under Nero. 6 Emphasis on the visible church as a bulwark of morals (2 Tim. 2:19-20 etc.) is accompanied by its elevation to the rank of foundation (#e/xe Aios [themelios]), hitherto reserved for Christ (1 Cor. On You Might Be A Redneck: Of Blue Comedy! 3:11), or, at least, for the prophets and apostles (Eph. 2:20). The church now takes her place in a fairly stable world; the old anxious outlook for an immediate return of Jesus is no longer central. The really pressing questions concern not the next world but the present, and institutions are brought forward as a means of moral discipline and religious settlement.

Open attempts, as well as cunning intrigues (2 Tim. 3:6, Jude 4), are on foot to exploit the principles of the faith, and the new tone of overbearing petulance, among other traits, answers to the tradition preserved by Hegesippus (circa. 160 A.D.) that such a phase occurred first of all during Trajan's reign (Eus. HE 3:32), previously to which the church had remained 'a pure and punch, incorruptible virgin' (mtpScvos KaOapa. KO. aidtji0opo; [parthenos kathara kai adiaphthoros]), her seducers lurking somewhere in obscurity (ev afiijAo TTOU cr/corei [en adeloo pou skotei]). This comparatively virgin purity of the church lasted not merely till the death of the apostles, but till the close of the next generation, 'of those thought worthy to be immediate listeners to the very words of the divine wisdom' (riav avrals dicoats TTJS evBiov rofia.f eTraicoGcrai /caTTjfiiojitei coi [toon autais akoais tes entheou sophias epakousai katexioomenoon]), when the deceit of teachers of other doctrine (TO eTepo6ifiao-/taAui^ [toon eterodidaskaloon], cp 1 Tim. 1:3, 6:3) produced impious error in the communities. Since none of the apostles survived, these [eTpo6iSd(rcaAoi [eterodidaskaloi]] now attempted, unabashed and openly, to preach 'so-called gnosis' (TTJC l/tvtawnov yvtatriv [ten pseudoonymon gnoosin], cp 1 Tim.

6:20) in opposition to Theories Determination 'the preaching of the truth' (TUJ TTJS aArjSei a? (cijpuy/maTt [too tes aletheias kerygmati]; cp 2 Tim. 4:17, Tit. Uk! 1:3). Of these Marcion 1 was the foremost. In the pastorals, as in Jude and 2 Peter, this movement in its incipient stage is met by equally frank methods, which seem denunciatory merely because we no longer possess any statement of the other side and c.wright mills, are, therefore, prone to forget that such rough and decisive ways are at times the paper, soundest method of conserving truth. Popular applications of gnosticism were, as a rule, brilliant and poisonous fungi. Instead of writing a botanical treatise on their varieties, this writer felt the simpler and on You Might Be A Redneck: Comedy, more practical plan was to make people either avoid or destroy them. It was a short and easy plan, and probably effective at the time, although its expression in literature runs the natural risk of being reproached for containing more heat than light. Firmness and even ridicule have their own place as ethical weapons of defence, and punch uk, the opening of the second century offered Christianity some admirable occasions for their use. The physiognomy of the errorists is indistinct, for several reasons.

The author had to preserve the verisimilitude of a Pauline situation, for one thing ; and the desire of avoiding undue anachronisms prevented him from being more explicit about the details of errors which had arisen in his own later age. Besides, the errors were familiar to restaurant proposal his audience and might be taken for granted on the whole. It is even probable that he abstained purposely from confining his range to any one set of visionaries and opponents, inasmuch as his letters were intended (like 1 Peter, James, and 2 Peter) to be manifestoes to the church in general, rather than homilies for any local audience. The numerous forms of opinion and punch uk, conduct in and around contemporary Christendom, which by c.wright mills a sound instinct he regarded as a menace to the faith, had certain common features; and to describe these as due to a syncretism of Gnosticism and paper, (Tit. 1:10-11, 3:9, 1 Tim. 1:7) Judaism, is to go as far as the c.wright mills, evidence of the pastorals warrants.

The environment (as in Rev. 2-3, and the Ignatian epp.) is marked by the incipient phases of what afterwards blossomed out into the Gnosticism of the second century : an amalgam of tendencies towards dualism and docetism (1 Tim. 2:6, 3:16, as in 1 jn.), the paper punch, multiplication of doc holi, media between God and man (1 Tim. 2:5-6), a distinction between the punch uk, God of creation and the God of redemption (1 Tim. Essay On You Might Be A! 4:3-5, cp Herm. Vis. 1:3), a depreciation of the OT (2 Tim. 3:16), and a penchant for magic and superstition (2 Tim.

3:8, 3:13 ; cp. Acts 8:9-24, 19:11-19 for punch uk, Ephesus, 13:6-12 for Cyprus). These tendencies were allied to doc holi ascetic predilections (like the prohibition of marriage among the paper uk, Encratites, of c.wright mills, marriage and flesh among the Saturninians and the Marcionites), which as usual bordered on antinomian license, to an aristocratic exclusiveness (opposed in paper punch non-Pauline fashion, 1 Tim. 2:4-5, 4:10), to a semi-philosophic evaporation of primitive beliefs - e.g., on the resurrection (2 Tim. 2:18 ; so Menander and Dositheus), to indulgence in superficial theories and c.wright mills, rhetoric, and so on.

To our author's eye these errorists were heterogeneous. Paper Punch! 'For there are many insubordinate people, chatterers and cheats, especially those who have come from the circumcision' (Tit. 1:10). The mischievous feature about them was their presence within the churches and business, their combination of paper uk, plausible errors with apparent, even ostentatious, fidelity to the principles of the faith - a trouble elsewhere reflected (Acts 20:29-30) in connection with the Ephesian church towards the close of the business, first century. 1 Marcion's omission of the pastorals from his canon tells heavily against their origin as preserved in tradition. Philemon was accepted by him, though far more of a private note than any of the pastorals; and the presence of elements antagonistic to his own views need not have made him exclude them, since he could have easily excised these passages in this as in punch uk other cases. 2 Cp von Dobschutz, 180-187, 189. 3 The lack of Essay on You of Blue Comedy, homogeneity in the description of the errorists prevents this trait from telling against the reference (GENEALOGIES, 4; Hart, Judaistic Christianity, 135-136) of the 'genealogies' (yei/eaAo-yuu [genealogiai]) in Tit. 3:9, 1 Tim. 1:4 to legendary pedigrees of Jewish heroes. But the paper, phrase came to have a conveniently appropriate colour afterwards in view of the interminable series of aeons and emanations developed especially by Gnostic sects like the Valentinians.

The Jewish legalism of Tit. 1:14, 3:9, 1 Tim. 1:7-8 recalls Cerinthus decidedly. Even if the author had any single system of error in business proposal mind (which, in view of the contemporary fusion of paganism and Judaism, is unlikely), the vague and somewhat indiscriminate fashion in which he endeavours to confute their pretensions, renders it impossible to reconstruct any coherent picture of his opponents. Several traits suggest influences similar to those which fostered Essenism ; others 2 recall the picture of Cerinthus sketched in punch later tradition, others again the errorists Carpocrates, Menander, and Dositheus. The two in disputable facts are, that the collective evidence of the early Christian literature, as well as of later tradition, places the origin of c.wright mills, such phenomena (upon any considerable scale) not earlier than the close of the paper punch uk, first century, and that their locus was primarily Eastern, in Syria and particularly Asia Minor, where we find the pastorals, like the Ignatian epistles, pouring a scattered fire upon manifold forms of examples, antagonistic theosophy. Against the seductive influences of local paganism, with its ethical miasma and religious cravings, the paper uk, author assumes a moralistic standpoint based upon the popular conception of Paulinism.

No writer after Paul s death could maintain, even when - as in Marcion's case - he happened to sympathise with, the deeper aspects of the apostle's thought, which survived mainly, so far as the subsequent literature was concerned, but in altered form throughout the Fourth Gospel. As a general rule Paulinism was either misunderstood or modified. The sub-Pauline epistles, like the psychology examples, Roman symbol (Kattenbusch, Das Apostolische Symbol, 2:498-499, 596-597, 720-721 [1900]), show instances of both attitudes, and the pastorals are a vivid proof of how even a devoted Paulinist had to alter the emphasis at many points of his master s teaching upon religious and uk, practical topics 3 in a restatement of it for some later age - being forced, for example, to psychology meet the common objection to Paul's severe view of the Law, and to admit the high estimate of its value throughout the diaspora as an ethical code and check (1 Tim. 1:5-11), as well as to correct abuses and misunderstandings of certain Pauline ideas (e.g., the resurrection, 2 Tim. 2:18). 1 This notion is paper, either ultra-spiritualist (cp Jn. 5:24, qualified carefully by 5:28-29, etc.) and due to Gnostic tendencies, or chiliastic - the reign of Christ, eternal life, has already begun; therefore there can be no marrying (Lk. 20:35-36, 1 Tim. 4:3).

2 If Cerinthus and Carpocrates really rejected the virgin-birth (Iren. Adv. haer. 1:26:1, 1:25:1), it is strange that neither the restaurant, author of the Fourth Gospel nor the author of the pastorals defended this point. The former, probably, had reasons of his own; but the latter, who had no semi-philosophic christology to state, seems to have omitted the virgin-birth from paper his rhythmic summary (1 Tim. 3:16-17) owing to sejarah agama his genuinely Pauline standpoint. This adherence to paper the older view is all the more remarkable side by side with the psychology examples, eager insistence on it in Asc. Isaiae., 11:2-22, and Ignat. Paper Punch Uk! ad Eph.

19 (where a Pauline citation occurs, 1 Cor. 2:8), both contemporary writings. 3 Note, e.g., the varying proportion of the two currents - one spontaneous and prophetic, the other veering towards order and organisation. The former is in some writings of this age almost wholly subordinated to the latter (Clem. Rom., Past., even Ignat.) : in others it is dominant, almost exclusively important (Barnabas, 1 Jn., Rev., Jude, 2 Pet.). 4 Antiphanes (Fragm. Com. Graec.), 'He who does no wrong needs no law' (6 jUTjSep aSiiciuv ovfierbs 6f ITCU vonov [o meden adikoon oudenos deitai nomou]). The author rightly felt that Paul was essentially anti-Gnostic, and that the tenets of the doc holi, incipient Gnostic theosophy would have been repugnant to the man who had theoretically and paper punch uk, practically attacked its precursors at Colossae. But his own practical bent and prudent sense of the restaurant business, situation prevent him from developing in reply Paul's peculiar theory of gnosis as a special endowment, superior to faith, and mediated by the spirit. Such methods would not have been appropriate.

Popular Christianity had always been wider and more varied than Paulinism, even during Paul s lifetime, and the new period which found Christianity in fresh relations with the wider empire in the generation following Paul s death, stimulated fresh energies and fresh methods of expression, native to the age but more or less an advance upon all previous conceptions. To the paper punch uk, author of the pastorals, loyal to the apostolic and especially the restaurant proposal, Pauline tradition, but none the paper punch uk, less free to interpret afresh his Christian consciousness, God appears - in un-Pauline fashion as a Saviour ; Jesus not as the son of c.wright mills, God but as a mediator, 1 or rather the mediator ; baptism (Tit. 3:5) as almost a sacrament of salvation, the Law simply as a useful code of morals. Anthropomorphism is carefully avoided, as in the Fourth Gospel ; God is the Absolute - his unity, awe (1 Tim. 6:16, cp En. 14:21-22), and eternity, his universal purpose, but not his fatherly love, being prominent. 2 The pressing question of religion is the consolidation of the churches rather than the paper, extension of the gospel to those as yet unreached. We are in the age of the on You Might Redneck: The Inspiration Collar, Epigoni, when the creative genius has almost disappeared and is yielding place to practical activities which are mainly devoted to conserving ground already gained.

The spirit of defensiveness has increased. Christianity is now more self-conscious than ever. Her outlook is not eschatological so much as secular, directed to paper uk a useful though troubled career in the world. The church has behind her a sound body of religious truth, which it is her business to teach and enforce ; and this is restaurant proposal, presented by the writer in brief, crystallised phrases and paper punch, paragraphs, which recall the incipient liturgies and symbols of the church. Proposal! 3 Faith consequently is tending to become more than ever fides quae creditur. It is predominantly the confident apprehension of the punch, truth or the conviction that the gospel-message is authentic, sometimes the virtue of fidelity ; but neither the c.wright mills, author nor his age has any intelligent sympathy with Paul s characteristic idea of paper uk, faith as the warm tie between Jesus and the redeemed Christian. Nay more, the old Pauline antithesis of faith and works (like the idea of justification by faith, or of salvation from sin's guilt) is put into the background, evidently as misleading or apt to be misunderstood. 'Piety', nourished by sound 4 teaching, is the root out of which all human virtues spring ; and the conceptions of reward, a good conscience, and the value of business, a respectable reputation, come to the front. Punch Uk! In effect, this is practically the ethical result of Paulinism. C.wright Mills! But how differently 5 the apostle and the later church reached even the same conclusions ! Here eternal life is the boon granted to good works, and 'faith' (iriffris [pistis]) is a man's relation to the 'truth' of 'the teaching'. Similarly the church, to this unmystical author, is no longer the bride or the body of Christ but God's building, or rather a familia dei, quite in the neo-catholic manner. Paper! It is The Inspiration of Blue, beginning to assume the paper uk, place occupied by the Holy Spirit in Paul's theology, the latter doctrine having become liable to abuse as well as proving too profound for later generations.

As in books like the Apocalypse, Jude, and 2 Peter, the Spirit in the pastorals is essentially prophetic ; 1 as a means of union between the individual and Jesus, it is almost if not entirely ignored. The exceptions - and social examples, they are apparent or partial exceptions - are Tit. 3:5-6, 2 Tim. 1:14 ; even the personal relation of the believer to Jesus is not cardinal (2 Tim. 1:12, 2:11-12). 1 Sub-Pauline idea (Heb.

8:6, etc.). Paper Uk! In Test. Dan. 6, the angel of peace is the mediator between God and man. 2 The heaping up of predicates, especially in the negative, recalls earlier attempts by Jewish thinkers (e.g., Philo and Josephus) to define God semi-philosophically, as a reaction from the earlier realism and its love of theophanies.

Passages like 1 Tim. 1:17, 6:16 mark the sub-Pauline transition from this to the later efforts of the Greek spirit, as in the 'Preaching of Peter' and Aristides. The pastoral 'Trinity' corresponds, however, to doc holi the apocalyptic (e.g., Rev. 14, Lk. 9:26, etc.) - i.e., God, Jesus, and the angels (elect); while Christ s appearing (1 Tim. 6:14-15) is stated in Pauline terms of subordination, and with the substitution of epiphany (eTrt^xxveta [epiphaneia]) for paper punch, the Pauline parousia (wapowia [parousia]). 3 The pastorals, like Ephesians, are absorbed in an un-Pauline devotion to the church which ignores the local churches. This trait, absent even from Ignatius, significantly illustrates their authorship and real aim as tracts for the officers of the Catholic church. Timothy and Titus are portrayed as receiving instructions and ideals which were to control the c.wright mills, contemporary teachers and other office-bearers of the author's age. 4 This un-Pauline use of vyiaiveiv [hygiainein] in 8iSacnca.ia vyiaivovcra [diaskalia hygiaiousa] ('sound doctrine') is anticipated in the Philonic phrases 'sound learning' (vyiaivovcra |ud#T)ris [hygiainousa mathesis]), and 'sound words' (oi vytai j/orres Aoyoi [oi hygiainontes logoi]); it tends occasionally to become almost equivalent to 'rational', or 'sane'. 5 Paul could have written Tit.

2:11, 2:14; but he would have had something to say also about peace with God and reconciliation. He 'could no doubt have said all this' (i.e., Tit. 3:4-7) also, but 'probably he would have said it otherwise, and not all at a time'. Practically it is the use of such stereotyped and paper punch uk, almost formal language which makes it reasonable to say that 'St. Paul was inspired, but the writer of doc holi, these epistles is sometimes only orthodox' (Denney, The Death of Christ, 1902, p. 203). These and other items of the creed, now rapidly crystallising in Rome and paper uk, Asia Minor, are conveyed partly in hymnal fragments which, like those in the Apocalypse of John, sprang from the cultus of the examples, churches ; partly in paper punch uk the shape of aphorisms such as the terse and weighty axioms called the five 'faithful sayings' (cp Ps.

111:7-8). These are like proverbs; they mark a comparatively advanced stage of experience, expressing in concentrated form the outcome of prolonged reflection. (i.) 2 Tim. 2:11-13a. - Here the 'faithful saying' (TTIO-TO? Ao-yos [pistis logos]) resembles a fragment of some primitive hymn or confession, if it is not - like the rhythmical snatches (cp also Rev. 21:5, 22:6, Adyoi TTIOTOI [logoi pistoi]) in the Apocalypse - an outburst of the Spirit-raptures in the early church (cp Weinel, Die Wirk. des Geistes, 80-81 [1899]). (ii.) Tit. 3:8. - As the doc holi, phrase implies a condensed and pregnant statement, it seems better in Tit. 3:8 to find its contents in v. 7 rather than in 4-7, which it is sometimes supposed (e.g., by von Soden, Bernard, Weiss) to recapitulate. (iii.) 1 Tim.

1:15. Paper! Here the phrase not merely is expanded by the non-Pauline addition 'and worthy of all acceptation' (/cai Trao-rjs aTroSoxrjs a to? [kai pases apodoches axios]; as in 4:9), but also precedes its contents which are in this instance introduced by 'that' (on [oti]), (iv.) 1 Tim. 3:1 - The use of the phrase in this verse, which of c.wright mills, course refers back to paper punch uk 2:15 ('saved in child-bearing'; Chrysost. Erasm. etc.) - a wife's salvation being worked out in her own sphere of motherhood (despite the associations of Jewish tradition), not in ecclesiastical position - is remarkable for the variant (accepted by Zahn. Einl. 1:482) 'human' (avdpuiwivo; [anthroopinos) 5 in D*g (Ambrosiast. Sedul.). In 1:15 as here, 'save' (ra$ei.v [soozein]) has an indirect eschatological reference, (v.) 1 Tim. 4:9. - In this verse (which Bois and Baljon delete) the contents of the 'saying' (Adyos [logos]) might be either v. 8 (Chrysost.

Weizs. Doc Holi! Hilg. Weiss, von Soden, Horton) or v. 10 (Bengel, Schleierm. Holtzm., cp 'for' [yap [gar]] and ayuiv [hagion]. Paper Punch Uk! 2 Tim. 2:11). 1 In 1 Tim. 1:18, 4:14, where a symbol is c.wright mills, trembling into uk, a sacrament (cp Acts 20:28, not 13:1-3 which denotes a commission for some special service), divine inspiration prompts the Christian prophets, of doc holi, whom Paul is one, to select men for office in the church, and to paper punch confer upon them a supernatural charism (xcipicrjiia [charisma]) by means of the rite of imposition of hands (see HANDS, LAVING ON OF, and SPIRITUAL GIFTS, also MINISTRY, 37b, 37c). Examples! The idea of such a special rite, even in the form of 2 Tim. Paper! 1:6 (1 Thess.

5:19-20), could hardly have come from the man who wrote 1 Cor. 12:4 (diversities of gifts), 1:11 (dividing to every man), and social psychology, represents the water-mark of later Catholicism; the semi-official tinge lent to paper uk a primitive ceremony is palpable (see Gunkel's Wirkungen des heilig. Geistes,(2) 7 [1899], and especially Weinel's Wirk. des Geistes und der Geister, 140-142, 216-218 [1899], with the social, conveyancing of influence through physical contact as traced by Volz in ZATW 21:93-94 [1901]). The other function of the Spirit in the prophets - i.e., prediction of punch uk, woes and perils (1 Tim. 4:1-2, 2 Tim. Doc Holi! 3:1-2) - is naturally referred by the sub-apostolic age (Acts 20:29-30, Clem. Rom. 44:1, Jude 17-18, 2 Pet. 2:1) to the apostles. They foresaw what their successors suffer.

Hence the pseudonymous pastoral epistles credit Paul with anticipations of the errors current in their own age. 2 In 1 Tim. 3:16 the statement of the punch, resurrection ('justified in the spirit', eSixaiiaOr] ei n-i/ev/ixaTi [edikaioothe en pneumati]) is an un-Pauline development of Rom. Of Exchange Rate! 1:4 (cp Iren. 2:32:3-4) after 1 Pet. Punch Uk! 3:18, 4:6 and Jn. 16:10, as that of the incarnation is un-Pauline and distinctly Johannine (1 Jn.

3:5, 3:8, cp 1 Pet. 1:20); 'seen by c.wright mills angels' is a sub-Pauline development (Eph. 3:10, 1 Pet. 1:12, 3:18-19), 'world' (edoyios [kosmos]) appears to have its sub-Pauline emphasis of 'evil', and 'was taken up in glory' (di/eA^i^r) f v Sofrj [anelemphthe en doxe]), if an punch uk, allusion to sejarah agama buddha the Ascension, is thoroughly un-Pauline. On the Messiah as the copestone of this new temple of Truth, see Briggs, Messiah of Apostles, 228-232 [1895]. 3 The reference is neither to v. 8 (Weiss) nor to what immediately precedes (Chrysost.), but to v. 11b-13a. which, like Tit. 3:8 and 1 Tim. 4:9, looks out directly upon the future and final hope of the Christian disciple. Uk! v. 13b is probably an explanatory comment ; but there is no need to regard v. 13 (with Ewald, Hesse, Hilg.) as a gloss or interpolation.

4 Cp En. Might Of Blue Collar Comedy! 9:41, 'the paths of righteousness are worthy of acceptation'. 5 So r (humanus), 1:15. It is noticeable that of these sententiae (i.) alone is in thought anil style somewhat parallel to Paul, who never associates 'heirship' or 'hope' (as Tit. Uk! 3:7-8) with 'eternal life' (fior) aiiovios [zooe aioonios]).

The colouring of (iii.), as of Tit. 3:5 (2 Tim. 1:10, 1 Tim. Examples! 2:4 6:13-14, Tit. 1:1-2, 1:16) is Johannine, whilst (iv.) contains the pastoral triad of faith, love, and soberness, and the air. Aey. [ap. leg.] childbearing, which is paper punch uk, besides an idea generally strange to Paul's mode of doc holi, thought (particularly if childbirth is considered as a means of punch uk, salvation). In (v.) characteristically un-Pauline terms abound (e.g., 'bodily' [erw^uiTiKos [soomatikos]], 'bodily exercise' [yvuLvatria [gymnasia]], 'profitable' [ot^e Aipof [oophelimos]], v. Psychology! 7-8, niaTrjp [sooter] of uk, God, v. 10). The 'faithful sayings', therefore, not merely are characteristic of the pastorals, but betray an essentially un-Pauline conception of the regula fidei.

This difference in ground-work is sejarah buddha, endorsed by the difference in style and diction between Paul and the author of the pastorals, an argument which forms a cumulative and almost final proof of the sub-Pauline origin of the epistles. Out of the 176 hapax legomena, a proportion two or three times as great as in paper uk the Pauline epistles, nearly 80 are in LXX and were therefore consciously neglected by Paul. Of Exchange Rate Determination Essay! Favourite Pauline phrases and words are totally wanting (e.g., 'unjust' [afiixos [adikos], 'uncleanness' [aKaBaptria [akatharsia]], 'adoption' [vio0ccria [hyiothesia]], 'our Father' [n-ar)p ijjuui [pater emoon]], 'covenant' [6ia07jier) [diatheke]], 'reveal' [aTroKaAun-Teiv [apokalyptein]], 'free' [eAeutfepos [eleutheros]] and compounds, 'be operative' [ei/epyety [energein]], 'perform' [Karepyd^ftrdai [katergazesthai]], 'boast' [(cauvao-Sai [kauchasthai]], 'folly' [fiuipia [mooria]], 'tradition' [napaSocn; [paradosis]], 'persuade' [TruBeiv [peithein]], 'abound' [7repirTfvftv [perisseuein]], 'do' [ eLi [prassein], = iroielv [poiein], in past.], 'perfect' [re Aetof [teleios]], 'be gracious' [apifea-0ai [charizesthai]], 'think' [fjtpovclv [phronein]], with 'ordinance' [SiKautyia [dikaiooma]], 'greater' Oaeafiof [meizoon]], 'small' [ju/epo; [mikros]], 'body' [crw^a [sooma]], 'good' [pr)cTT6? [chrestos]], etc. ; also particles like 'then' [apa [ara]], 'wherefore' [fiio], 'because' [fiiort [dioti]], 'then' [en-ftra [epeita]], 'still' [en], 'behold' [tfie, iSov [idou]], etc., etc., prepositions like 'with' [rvv [syn] = fj.eTa [meta] of uk, pastorals], 'instead of' [ai/Tt [anti]], 'until' [dxpt [achri]], 'before' [HiJLirpor6ev [emprosthen]], 'beyond' [irapd [para], acc.]). C.wright Mills! Many fresh terms are coined, new compounds and Latinisms are introduced, whole families of words appear for the first time (cp those in a [a] privative, SiSaovc- [didask-], otico- [oiko-], Taijp- [soophr-], iAo- [philo-], etc.), and others are used with unwonted frequency (e.g., icdA- [kal-]). The extent and paper punch uk, significance of this change in vocabulary cannot adequately be explained even when one assigns the fullest possible weight to such factors as change of amanuensis, situation, or topic, lapse of time, literary fertility, or senile weakness ; for the wider evidence of syntax and style, to psychology examples be felt even through a translation, comes in to verify the impression already made by the vocabulary. Particularly where the writer is most himself and paper, least dependent on proposal, previous letters (as in 1 Tim.), the paper punch uk, idiosyncrasies of his composition appear, neither accidental nor trivial by any means. The comparative absence of rugged fervour, the proposal, smoother flow, the punch, heaping up of words, all point to another sign-manual than that of Paul. In short, the relative proportions of social psychology, likeness and unlikeness (especially to Romans and uk, Philippians) between the style of Paul and the style of these three letters, are explicable only upon doc holi, the hypothesis that the writer of the paper uk, pastorals modelled his diction in on You Might The Inspiration Collar part upon that of his master, but not slavishly - certainly not to the prejudice of his own originality and paper uk, cast of thought. These proportions are precisely what we should expect in such a literary relationship. Upon any other hypothesis they do not seem credible or reasonable.

Questions of style are proverbially delicate, but the linguistic data of the pastorals and the Pauline epistles may be said to resemble those of the Apocalypse and the Fourth Gospel ; both ratify the conclusion that we have to do with kinship, not identity, of authorship. * 1 Yet 'deny' (apvelcrOat [arneisthai]) is non-Pauline, and the stanza reads like a popular version of Paul's own words, adapted to restaurant business the requirements of a martyr-period. See Denney, 202. 2 The knowledge of God or of the truth = salvation or eternal life (Jn. 17:2-3, 17:17); cp Jn. 17:3 with 1 Tim. 2:5, the same combination of monotheism as against polytheism, and of Christ's unique and sufficient position as against Judaism or Gnosticism, besides ('the man Christ Jesus') a Johannine protest against the Gnostic or Docetic tendency to resolve Christ into punch, a phantom of abstract spirit. On the c.wright mills, Christology of the epistles (1 Tim. Uk! 3:16), see A. Agama! Klopper in paper punch ZWT (1902) 339-361.

3 No possible change of circumstances could make Paul oblivious (through three separate letters) of God's fatherhood, of the sejarah agama, believing man's union with Jesus, of the power and witness of the Spirit, or of reconciliation. They might be taken for paper punch, granted? But surely in enforcing the Theories of Exchange Determination, ethical requirements of the pastorals, Paul would never have demanded the blossom without urgently pressing the need of these spiritual facts as its root ! 4 There is no ground for the idea that the prosaic tone of the pastorals is due to their preoccupation with the practical steps of organisation, whilst in Paul s earlier letters he had been mainly employed in sketching the ideal of the church. A letter like 1 Cor., to say nothing of passages in the other letters, is enough to refute this explanation and to paper punch show how Paul would have dealt with the problems of organisation and church order, had these met him in an acute form. It would have been different from the method of this Paulinist, for Paul ever came down upon ethical tasks from a spiritual height. Still further proof in corroboration of their un-Pauline origin flows in from the impossibility of placing the doc holi, epistles within Paul s lifetime. With practical unanimity defenders of the punch uk, traditional hypothesis abandon all attempts to fix them previous to doc holi Paul's Roman imprisonment ; but their conjecture of a release, followed by paper a further extension of activity and a second imprisonment, is quite gratuitous and hardly furnishes a more tenable ground for sejarah agama buddha, the pastprals. It is not indeed bound up with the acceptance of their Pauline authorship ; the two positions are independent and punch uk, maybe held separately. Hut even apart from the evidence of the pastorals (which never mention Spain, nor allude to psychology examples so momentous a tour in the Western Mediterranean), the evidence for this second imprisonment must be pronounced inadequate (CHRONOLOGY, 79-80, PAUL, 31), resting mainly on a vague rumour (Xtryos ?x et [logos echei]) reported by Eusebius, and the allusion in the Muratorian Canon (possibly derived from apocryphal Acta) which is simply an expansion of punch uk, Rom.

15:24, 15:28 - the devout and imaginative fantasy of doc holi, later tradition being convinced that because Paul proposed a visit to Spain, he must have carried it out. No such tradition lingered in Spain itself, whilst the express statement of Acts 20:25, 20:38 and the significant silence of Clemens Romanus imply that the tradition nearest to paper punch Paul's life knew of no return to Asia Minor. Sejarah Buddha! The very passage in Clemens Romanus (5), which has been supposed to refer to this western journey, tells against punch uk it. Charged with rhetorical feeling, as Baur pointed out, it narrates (like Rom. Buddha! 15:19) the paper punch, sweep of Paul's career from Jerusalem to Rome: 'after teaching righteousness to the whole world, and reaching the psychology examples, limit of the West, and paper punch uk, bearing testimony tefore the authorities, so he left the doc holi, world'. Paul's sun had ended its course (Acts 13:47). Clement is speaking from the standpoint of his Eastern readers who would naturally take 'the limit of the west' (rd repfj.0. Trji Srcrews [to terma tes dyseoos]) as the Imperial capital (cp 'east' [dvaToXrjs [anatoles]] and 'west' [5wns [dysis]] of Syria and Rome in Ignat.

Rom. 2), and incidentally clinches the proof by adding that the Neronic martyrs of 64 were 'gathered unto Paul and Peter', implying that the latter had already died. Were the 'earlier' chronology adopted, which brings Paul to paper uk Rome early in the sixties if not even earlier, space would of course be won before 64 for the two or three years' interval required by the traditional hypothesis of the 'pastorals' (CHRONOLOGY, 64-66). Otherwise no time is left, and it is almost incredible that the 'pastorals', if written after 64, should breathe no hint of the shock produced upon the Christian consciousness of the age, especially at Rome, by Nero's massacre which outraged even the Roman conscience. But even chronological resetting only makes the hypothesis possible ; its acceptance or rejection rests on other grounds, and - to put it mildly - these do not seem at any point secure. 1 Bartlet, Bowen (Dates of psychology, Pastoral Letters, 1900), and Lisco (Vincula Sanctorum, 1900) are the paper punch uk, chief exceptions recently.

2 Especially Spitta in of Exchange Rate Essay Zur Gesch. und Litt, des Urchrist. 1:2-108 ; also Lightfoot (Biblical Essays, 215-233), Zahn (Einl. 1:435-436), Steinmetz (Die zweite rom. Gefang. des Apostels Paulus, 1897), C. H. Turner (Hastings, DB 1:421, etc.), and Frey (die zweite rom. Uk! Gefang. und das Todesjahr des Apostels Paulus, 1900). The genesis of the pastorals is therefore sub-Pauline. To account for the Pauline, or presumably Pauline element, including not merely phrases and conceptions such as could be gathered pfrom the doc holi, extant letters of the apostle or from tradition, but also private details and personal matters affecting about sixteen new figures (some of uk, whom are not mere names) - recourse must be had to social theories of compilation, whose common feature is the presupposition that the author was in possession of punch, genuine reliquiae Paulinae. No doubt a pseudonymous writer would endeavour to stamp his figures and scenery upon the reader's mind by means of circumstantial details, especially when (as in this case) the authentic letters would suggest the introduction of a certain quantum of personal matter - though in the sub-Pauline letters (Eph. , Heb. , 1 Pet.) this quantum is noticeably small. But, while it is conceivable that this may be sufficient to account for 1 Tim., it fails to agama buddha afford an uk, adequate rationale for 2 Tim.

The latter is flooded with items which by no means fall under the category of romantic ornament or literary vraisemblance, and lift the letters quite above the level of later Pauline romances. Even when such passages do not part from their context, they suggest to Theories Rate Determination a critical inquirer the advisability of admitting that they are based upon authentic tradition and that they reproduce, with more or less freedom, information still accessible to the immediately sub-Pauline generation. It may be allowed, still further, that genuine notes have been incorporated, although these cannot any longer be deciphered. But the advocates of compilation attempt the subtler task of actually separating original notes from the strata in which they lie embedded, 2 upon the hypothesis that, whilst the authors direct aim was to punch instruct and move the church of his own day and not to preserve literary relics, he was able to Essay on You Be A Comedy use certain Pauline notes in the composition of 2 Tim. at least and paper punch uk, even Titus. The preservation of such letters is far from incredible. 3 Paul was the first 'man of letters' in early Christianity, and the extant canonical collection represents only a part of his actual correspondence. In the doc holi, nature of paper uk, things, private notes would be more likely to remain overlooked than others, unless, like the letter of recommendation to Phoebe (Rom. 16:1-20), they were attached by doc holi late editors to some larger epistle.

In addition to this, the pastorals have suffered accretion as church documents, and thus three stages of their composition must be distinguished: (i.) the paper uk, primitive notes from Paul's lifetime, (ii.) the incorporation of these by sejarah the author of the pastorals in paper punch uk his epistles, substantially composed about forty years after Paul's death, and (iii. Theories Of Exchange Rate Essay! ) glosses added to these epistles by subsequent copyists to render them more suitable than ever for paper, the needs of the second century. The last-named process naturally ceased by the time that the letters passed into the canon. Whether the letters are substantially Pauline and only interpolated by some editor, 4 or whether - as is highly probable, in the case of i Tim. at any rate - the Pauline element, such as it is, has been submerged in later work, cannot be decided till each letter has been separately examined upon the principles of literary morphology. As the amount of doc holi, presumably authentic material is obviously largest in punch uk 2 Tim. and least in 1 Tim., it will be advisable to discuss the epistles in that provisional order. 1 1 Tim. 1:3-4 might be developed from the hint in Philem. 22 (the Asiatic locus being shown in the failure to use the doc holi, companion allusion in Phil.

2:24 to a return visit to paper Macedonia). The personal matter here is principally meant to furnish a suitable setting for an epistle dealing with general questions of church life and work in doc holi the Asiatic provinces, and reflecting that cardinal importance of Ephesus as a centre of punch uk, early Christianity to which Lisco has rightly but extravagantly called attention (Roma Peregrina, 1901). Cp Harnack, Ausbreitung, 333, 462, 482. 2 Perhaps 2 Pet. also contains material worked up from earlier sources ; certainly it has incorporated parts of Jude. And the canonical 2 Cor. is Essay on You Might Be A Redneck: The Inspiration, a compilation of two separate letters in reverse order. But even were the pastorals, as compilations, without any analogy in the NT literature (cp, further, JAMES [EPISTLE], 5), this would not of itself discredit the analytic hypothesis. Tlie pastorals present quite unique features, and it is paper, only reasonable that the complexity of their structure should demand somewhat unique and restaurant proposal, exceptional methods of treatment. 3 E.g., the paper uk, correspondence of c.wright mills, Cicero and Atticus, the letters of King Agrippa II. (Josephus), etc. Uk! See Peters, Der Brief in der romischen Litteratur (rgoi), 27-28, 78-79, and Wehofer, 'Untersuch. zur altchristliche Epistolographie' (SWAW: phil.-hist.

Klasse, 143, 1901). 4 Menegoz, for Theories of Exchange Rate Determination Essay, example (Le Peche et la Redemption, 5-6), treats them as authentic, but supposes that copyists under the direction of bishops subsequently added glosses; these, however, affected only questions of discipline and order, leaving the genuinely Pauline spirit unimpaired. 5 The insertion of 'mercy' between 'grace' and 'peace' (so 2 Jn. 3) is un-Pauline. Deleting it among other phrases Hausrath (Neutest.

Zeitgeschichte, ET, 1895, 4:160-163) finds a genuine letter to Timothy in 1:1-2, 1:15-18, 4:9-18, Sabatier in punch uk 1:1-18, 4:6-22. Second Timothy. - Although the business, address of 2 Tim. (1:1-2) is fairly 5 Pauline, the strange emphasis on the fact and purpose or standard of Paul's apostolate ('according to the promise' [/car 1 eTrayyeXiai [kat epaggelian]]) in a letter to one who could hardly have doubted it, at once reveals the real genius of the writing and corroborates the general evidence afforded by all three epistles, especially by 1 Tim. and Titus. They are not private letters at all, not even semi-private, and paper uk, the very form of a private letter is not strictly preserved. On You Might The Inspiration Of Blue Collar Comedy! They resemble rather 'pastorals' in the modern sense of the term , and find their real audience among people (primarily teachers and officials, it may be) 1 inclined to doubt the validity and misunderstand or misapply the tenets of the Pauline gospel. As even Liddon admits (Explan.

Analysis of paper punch, 1 Tim., 1897, ad loc.), of Paul's apostolic authority 'Timothy did not require to be reminded ; St. Paul has other readers of the agama buddha, epistle - perhaps false teachers 2 - in view'. Behind 1:3c-6a lies a tradition of Timothy's temporary absence (Phil. 2:19-20) from Paul during his last captivity ; but neither here nor elsewhere is it feasible in 1:3-14 to disentangle any written source. On the other hand, 1:15-18 is perhaps a displaced (after 4:10 M Giffert, 4:13 Knoke), 3 and at any rate a genuine, fragment, probably written from Paul's Roman captivity.

So most editors and critics (Lemme, 4 Hesse, 5 and Krenkel 6 omitting rather needlessly 1:15b and 1:18a). Again, 2-3 hardly seems homogeneous (cp 2:16, 3:13 with 3:9); 2:2 [or 2:22] seems a gloss (om. Hesse, Hilg. ZWT, 1897, pp. Paper Uk! 1-86); 2:14-15 is awkwardly introduced, and doc holi, the thoroughly un-Pauline passage 3:1-9 may well be a later insertion, due to the process of accretion. 3:10-12, however, is an interpolated genuine fragment ; its isolated position and contents mark it off from the surrounding context. Furthermore, the bulk, if not the whole, of 4:(6)9-22 is generally allowed to have come directly from paper uk Paul's own hand (4:9-18a, except 'having loved this present world' [a.ya-n-qa-a.^Tbvv uva.i^va [agapesas ton nyn aloona]] 4:10, 4:11b, Bahnsen ; 4:9-15, 4:19-22, Ewald ; 4:9-18, Immer ; 4:9-21, Pfleid.). But it is not homogeneous ; evidently 4:11a and 4:21b, like 4:6-8 and 4:9-15, reflect different situations in Paul's life, and the whole passage offers an admirable proof of the sejarah, composite character of even the directly Pauline strata in the pastoral epistles. Following the paper uk, various dates and sejarah buddha, moods, one can detect approximately in 1:15-18 4:6-12, 14:6-19 a note (or part of a note) written after Philippians ; the paper punch, situation has become more grim, and Paul pines in doc holi loneliness for his younger ally.

Again, 4:13-15, 4:21-22a go back to a still earlier period, when Paul had left Troas on paper, some journey; 4:20 (cp Acts 21:29) seems to belong to Acts 18:18-19, though the historicity of Acts 21:29 is not above suspicion (cp ACTS, 11, TROPHIMUS ; with J. Weiss, Ueber die Absicht u. d. literar. Charakter der Ap.-gesch. 39-40 [1897]). A dual analysis of 2 Tim. has been carried through by several critics from Credner onwards. Hesse, e.g. (pp. 170-180), regards it as the compilation of a genuine brief letter of recall (1:3c-4, 1:16-17, 1:18b-c, 4:9-22a) with a later pseudonymous letter (1:1-3b, 1:5-10, 2:3-8a, 2:14-26, 3:1-8, 3:13b-17, 4:1-5). Lemme's reconstruction of the genuine letter underlying 2 Tim. is even more intricate (see O. Holtzmann's critique, ZWT, 1883, pp. 45-72) and less convincing (=1:1-9 except 'pity' [eAeos [eleos]] 1:2, 1:3b, 1:6b, and 'a sound mind' [cat crujcJpoi ij7xoG [. sophronismou]] 1:7, 'in Christ Jesus before the world began' [ef . . Sejarah Agama Buddha! . nioji ioji [. aioonioon] 1:9, 1:10, except 'but is punch, now made manifest by the appearing' [la.i epu6(iTa.v, . . . nri^opctaf [ranerootheisan . C.wright Mills! epithaneias]], 1:11 except 'and a teacher' [ai i .Sa.TKaos [kai didaskalos]], 12 except 'against that day' [ets . Punch! . Doc Holi! . rmtpav [eis . emeran]], 14 except 'that good thing which was committed' [TTJI . . . Paper! jv. [ten . oul.]], 1:15a, 1:16-17, 1:18b-c, 2:1, 2:3-5, 2:8a, 2:9b, except 'with eternal glory' [ju.era 56f) aitaviov [meta doxes aiooniou]], 4:6+ except iv ec. r. Proposal! 17.[en ek. t. e.], 4:9-22), while Hilgenfeld's analysis of the epistle into two sub-Pauline notes is quite in paper punch the air (A = 1:1-2, except 'according to the promise of social, life which is in Christ Jesus' [KO.T . . . IrjaoO . iesou], 1:3a, 1:5-10, except 'before the world began; but is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death and hath brought life and immortality to light' [irpb poviav . . . afflapaiav [pro chronoon . aphtharsian]], 1:11-12a, 1:16-18a, 2:1, 2:3-8a, 2:9-12, 2:19-26, 3:1-4, 3:10-12, 3:14-15, 4:1-2, 4:6-8, 4:19-22; B = 1:1b, 1:3b-4, 1:9c-10, 1:12b015, 1:18b, 2:2, 2:8b 2:13-18, 3:5-9, 3:13, 3:16017, 4:3-5, 4:9-18). More is to be said for McGiffert's hypothesis that the epistle is a redacted version of one written by Paul towards the paper punch uk, close of his Roman imprisonment (1:1-12, 2:1-13, 4:1-2, 4:5-8, 4:16-19, 4:21b, 4:10, 1:15-18) (so Clemen for 1:15-18; from Rome 61 A.D.), whilst 2 Tim. 4:9, 4:11-18, 4:20-21a represents an Essay on You Be A of Blue Comedy, earlier note written from Macedonia before 2 Cor. which was composed (1:1) after Timothy had obeyed his summons. Similarly Bacon places 4:9, 4:11-18, 4:20-21a, 4:22b in the period immediately previous to 2 Cor.

2:12-13, when Paul was in Macedonia, whilst von Soden takes 1:15-18, 4:9-19, 4:21b-22a as a note written after Philippians from Paul's Roman captivity. Hitzig had already found a letter of Paul written about 58 A.D. from Caesarea in 1:15, 4:13-16, 4:20-22 (so Clemen : 4:9-18, about 60 A.D. ?), and another letter written from Rome about 63 A.D. in 4:6-12, 4:19, 1:16-18, 4:22b ; whilst Kartlet recently has distinguished (in 4:9-13, 4:21-22a) a note written between Ephesians and Philippians, the rest of 2 Tim. being the punch uk, swan-song of the apostle. Essay On You Might The Inspiration Collar Comedy! Less probably Clemen puts 4:19-21 into 57 A.D. Paper Uk! (from Jerusalem, previous to Theories of Exchange his imprisonment), dating the epistle as a whole slightly earlier than Titus (circa 100 A.D.), which again preceded 1 Tim. (100- 110 A.D. Asia Minor) and uk, the author's interpolations in 2 Tim. (1:13-14, 2:14-26, 4:1-8) and psychology, Titus (1:7-11, 3:1-11). 1 'Les communautes vaudront ce que valent leurs conducteur? ; voila l'idee generale qui se degage de ses instructions' (J.

Reville). 2 Cp Ascension Isaiah 3:20-21 (before 100 A.D.) for the contemporary feeling that an apostasy would precede the latter days, when the disciples of punch uk, Jesus would desert 'the prophecy of his twelve apostles and their faith (cp 1 Tim. 1:19, etc.) and love and purity (1 Tim. 4:19), and there shall be many sects', etc. (rrji/ npo^Tfiav TWV StaSfxa. C.wright Mills! ajroo-ToAoii/ avroO ai -rrv rriemv [cp 1 Tim. 1:19, etc.] (cai TIV ayaTriji O.VTMV, icai -rr]v ayveiav aiiTtav [1 Tim. 4:19] Kai eVoi Tcu aipeVet; TroAAai K.T.A.). 3 Praktisch-theol. Comm. zu den Past.

1887-1889. 4 Das echte Ermahnungsschreiben des Ap. Paulus an Tim., 1882. 5 Die Entsteh. Punch! der NT Hirtenbriefe, 1889. 6 Heitr. zur Aufhellung der Gesch. Of Exchange Determination Essay! und der Briefe des Ap. Paulus, 395-408 [1890].

7 Chap. 2 contains two passages paralleled in uk Epictetus (Diss. Essay On You Might Be A The Inspiration Collar! 3:10, 'God saith to thee, Prove to me whether thou hast contested according to requirement' [et POjiu /uios TJyAT)ras [ei nomimoos ethlesas]] = 2 Tim. 2:3 ['good soldier']; and 3:22 where, as the Cynic is in an army arrayed for battle, it is urged that he should not be 'entangled' [e/u.7re7rAeyju.eVoi [empeplegmenon]] but wholly devoted to paper punch God's service - cp 2 Tim. 2:4 ['entangleth himself', efiirAefceTat [empleketai]] - and free from distraction; aTrepio-TraoTios [aperispastoos], 1 Cor. 7:35). Five parallels to the pastorals in Seneca are cited by Lightfoot, Philippians, 290. 8 Upon the c.wright mills, difficulties of geography in v. 10, see CRESCENS, DALMATIA, GALATIA 32. Punch Uk! The figurative expression in v. Doc Holi! 17 is paralleled by an old proverb that one should 'visit the poor in his affliction and speak of paper punch, him in the Sultan's presence and do one's diligence to psychology save him from the mouth of the lion' (Rendel Harris, Story of Ahikar, p. 67). The conjecture 'Melita' [MeAiVn [melite]] for 'Miletus' [VIiAtJTto [miletoo]] is neither probable nor helpful.

9 II. Timothcus (1876). 10 Sieben Sendschreiben (1870). 11 Theologie des NT, 399 (1877). 12 These 'commissions and cautions' at least are 'unlike a dying man ; the writer is in a hurry for Timothy to paper punch uk come simply because he is old and lonely', not because he fears his friend will be too late (G. A. Simcox, Expos. T 10430-432, finding in Heb. Theories Essay! 13 also two commendatory letters). Titus. - The attempts to find in Tit. 1:1-4 a genuine address interpolated by paper some redactor are not convincing.

But, even when the epistle as a whole is taken as sub-Pauline, 1:7-9 certainly appears a further g]oss (so O. Ritschl, TLZ, '85, 609; Knoke ; Harnack, Chron. 710-711; Clemen, and McGiffert). C.wright Mills! The sudden transition from presbyters to episcopi, and the general contents of the passage, mark it off as the insertion of paper, some later editor who was interested in promoting the psychology examples, monarchical episcopate. Hesse and uk, Clemen carry the gloss on to the end of 1:11; but, although 1:10 connects with 1:9 (which partly explains the insertion of the gloss at this point), 1:12 would be abrupt after 1:6, for naica. 0. [kaka th.] are not an antithesis to dwir. [anup.], nor 'slow bellies' (yaartpes dpyai [gasteres argai]) to 'riot' (duwrias [asootias]), much less 'liars' (^ePcrrat [pseustai]) to 'faithful' (TTicrrd [pista] which here = believing, not reliable or trustworthy). The passage 1:7-9, then, was inserted, perhaps from the Might Collar, margin, in the original text which ran : 'unruly, for there are many unruly' (avvTroraKra. Fjlfflv yap TroXXot dvvir6Ta.KTOt, K.T.. [anupotakta Eisin gar polloi anupotaktoi, k.t.l.]). No man could discharge a presbyter's duties effectively, if the members of his own family were tainted with the local disease of uk, insubordination and profligacy.

2:1-14 and 2:15-87 are somewhat parallel (cp 2:5 and 3:2, 2:14 and 3:1) ; but no analysis of the passage into a Pauline and a later source is Comedy, plausible. Paper Uk! The 'genuinely Pauline ring' of much in 3:1-7 (McGiffert) is not very audible, though Sabatier detects genuine material in it and 3:12-15. The latter passage certainly, 3:12-13 [3:12-14], 3:15b, contains an authentic fragment, as is restaurant business, admitted upon almost all hands (e.g. , Weisse, 1 Ewald, Krenkel, Knoke, Hesse, von Soden, Clemen, M'Giffert). Hesse (pp. 150-151) finds further in Titus (1:1-2, 1:4-6, 1:12-13a, 1:16, 3:1-6, 3:12-13, 3:15) a complete letter of Paul, written shortly after he left Crete; it has been expanded by the addition of passages which, although rising out of the original text (with the possible exception of 2), are intended as a proviso against heresy. Similarly McGiffert regards the canonical epistle as a redacted version of some letter (1:1-6 partly, 3:1-7, 3:12-13) written to Titus before Paul reached Corinth in Acts 20:2. The alternative to these dual hypotheses is to reconstruct (with Krenkel) out of 2 Timothy and Titus three letters of Paul; (a) one written to Titus at Crete, perhaps from Illyricum during Paul's second journey to Corinth (Acts 20:1-3) = Tit. 3:12, 2 Tim. 4:20, Tit.

3:13; (b) another, from his Caesarean imprisonment, to Timothy at or near Troas = 2 Tim. 4:9-18, subsequent to Colossians and Philemon; (c) a third = 2 Tim. 4:19, 1:16-17, 1:18b, 4:21, written from his Roman imprisonment to Timothy at Ephesus. The Caesarean date of paper punch uk, Colossians, however, is social psychology examples, untenable; and otherwise this ingenious resetting of the fragments fails to punch uk explain satisfactorily how such notes came into Might Be A Redneck: of Blue Collar, their present curious position. 1 Philosoph. Dogmatik, 1:146. First Timothy. Paper Punch Uk! - In spite of its unwieldy anacoluthon (cp Rom. 1:1-7), 1 Tim. 1 is probably a unity as it stands, modelled on Pauline letters and tradition, though vv. 12-17 resemble in part something more definite. Certainly 1:13-11 and 1:18-20 hang together.

After 1:1-2 a thanksgiving would naturally follow, in the Pauline manner; but when the thanksgiving does come (v. 12-17) it is occasioned not by the person addressed but by Paul himself. Even the 'therefore' (o$v [oun]) of restaurant business proposal, 2:1, resuming either 1:3-11 or 1:12-17 or 1:18-20, forms a loose transition; but it illustrates the zigzag course of the epistle rather than any phenomena of compilation. Similarly with subsequent passages like 2:6b-7, which has a poor connection with its context and only repeats the protestation of 1:12-17 (so Holtzm., Hesse, Hilg. ), 2:9-10 (the odd juxtaposition of paper punch uk, rules for c.wright mills, prayer with a sumptuary regulation for paper, women) 4:1-8 which would readily part from its context, and 5 which has suffered accretion towards the close. No fragment of the epistle can be referred, however, to the apostle himself with much confidence. Restaurant Proposal! The incidental allusions to Paul's personality (3:14-15, 4:13) merely betray the writer's consciousness that there was a certain awkwardness in such elaborate commissions and punch, instructions upon the commonplace regulations of a Christian community being addressed to one who was not merely himself in c.wright mills mature life but ex hypothesi separated from his superintendent only for a short time. In such touches we feel the author's literary conscience and his tactful attempt to preserve the vraisemblance of the situation or to justify the paper punch uk, existence and point of such an epistle. As it stands, in fact, 1 Timothy is a free composition; it consists of a sub-Pauline letter which has been subsequently enlarged by interpolations, especially in chap. 6. 6:17-21 is plainly an addition (Harn.), in thought and on You Might Be A, diction perhaps the least Pauline paragraph in all the pastorals ; its contents and context are against it as an integral part of the letter. The 'antitheses' of 6:20 are not the casuistic subtleties of dialectic in the Halacha, but the tabulated passages from the OT and punch uk, the gospel arranged by Marcion to prove the diversity of the two dispensations and the superiority of the later. Such arguments are dismissed as secular and verbose and pseudo-scientific.

See 2 Tim. 3:16, 'every scripture', etc. Doc Holi! , and the significant collocation of an OT sentence and an evangelic saying in 1 Tim. 5:18. Another un-Pauline element is of course the connection between eternal life and almsgiving (vv. 17-19) as already between salvation and religious work or personal conduct (2:15, 3:13). Hence, like Tit. 1:7-9 and some other passages in 1 Tim. (3:1-13, 5:17-20 ?) or even 2 Tim. (2:20-26 ?), 6;17-21 shows the process of paper punch uk, accretion familiar in documents bearing on church organisation and discipline. 1 The motive of this section is to psychology examples throw the glorious gospel into relief against the unworthiness and weakness of its original bearers, as in Harn. 5:9: 'he chose for the preaching of his gospel his own apostles ovra; vnep ira.a av a/uapriai/ ai-o/uiorepovs [ontas hyper pasan amartian anomooterous], that he might show he had not come to call the paper uk, righteous but sinners'. See Wrede, Das Messiasgeheimnis (1901), 107-108.

Here again Hesse, admitting (like Schleiermacher) the irregular course of the epistle, attempts acutius quam verius to disentangle an original letter of commission (1:1-10, 1:18-20, 4:1-16, 6:3-16, 6:20-21) containing the duties and rights of an episcopus at psychology examples, Ephesus. This is conjectured to have been enlarged by the addition of independent pieces bearing on the work of the episcopate: e.g., 1:11-17 (justifying the apostolate to the Gentiles), arrangements for the worship (2:6b-7, so Hilg., and 2:9b-10, glosses) and the officials of the church (3:14-15a, a further insertion to justify the paper uk, author dilating on such topics; 3:15b-16, to connect with 4:1-2), a general mandate for bishops (5:5, 5:23, however, being genuinely Pauline), and extracts (6:1-3, 6:17-19) from a table of ethical duties. Knoke pushes the epistle much nearer Paul by his hypothesis of two letters from Paul's pen, one - an instruction (n-apayyeAta [paraggelia]) written to Essay Might of Blue Comedy Timothy from Corinth (1:3-4, 1:18-20, 2:1-10, 4:12, 5:1-3, 5:4c-6, 5:11-15, 5:19-23, 5:24-25 ?), another - more doctrinal in character - composed in his Caesarean imprisonment (1:12-17, 3:14-16, 4:1-11, 4:13-16, 2:12-15, 5:7-8, 6:17-19, 1:5-11, 6:2c-16, 6:20-21 ?). These have been combined with an un-Pauline church-directory (3:1-10, 3:12-13, 2:11, 5:9-10, 5:16, 5:4a-b, 5:17, 6:1-2), whilst passages like 3:11 and 5:18 are to be regarded as marginal glosses. It is not easy, however, to see adequate psychological motives for this sort of extensive compilation, and the criteria of style are by no means equal to the inferences drawn from them. Hypothetical and contradictory as such conjectures may appear to be, however, a not inconsiderable agreement prevails even amid the most independent analyses of these epistles. All partition-theories presuppose an editorial function which certainly is unexampled in previous early Christian literature, even in Acts and the Apocalypse. But this is punch, not an doc holi, insuperable objection; and whilst it is idle to dogmatise upon punch, the particular and original setting of verses, or at every point to distinguish precisely between redactor, author, and source, the composite nature of these epistles and (within general limits) the doc holi, main strata of their contents have been substantially proved. Such analytic criticism is upon the right lines, and as a working hypothesis it is historically superior to uk the conjectures which attribute the writings en bloc to c.wright mills Paul or as unpromisingly set down the Pauline element to paper punch vague tradition or the Essay on You Redneck: of Blue Collar, inventiveness of a literary artist. As the titles formed no part of the original autographs, the early church naturally argued from the internal evidence that 2 Tim., with its reflection of a climax and rich individual references, represented the last phase of the apostle's life, and that 1 Tim. was earlier. But the comparative study of the epistles suggests that 2 Tim. is the earliest, and 1 Tim. the latest production of the author.

3. The relative amount of hapax legomena (46 in paper punch uk 2 Tim., 28 in restaurant business Tit., 74 in 1 Tim.), the increasingly sub-apostolic colour of 'faith' (TTICTTIS [pistis]) and 'saviour' ((rwrjjp [sooter]), the diminution of punch uk, freshness and intimate feeling in the allusions to Paul, the predominance of Be A The Inspiration of Blue Collar, ecclesiastical interests and punch uk, church organisation in social psychology examples Tit. and 1 Tim., 1 the paper punch uk, gradual shifting of emphasis from the personality to the sheer authority of the apostle, the gradual increase of severity towards errorists, evident as the epistles proceed - these and other traces form a cumulative and sufficient argument for this order of composition. When the author wrote 2 Tim. he had considerable Pauline material at his disposal. Even in the epistle to Titus, he falls back on genuine tradition, and Pauline material preponderates though to a less degree. But in 1 Tim. the situation has become more advanced ; he writes more freely and less under the influence of his master, confutes errorists with greater sharpness, assigns more dictatorial powers to the officers of the doc holi, church, and elaborates the paper punch uk, various ecclesiastical canons with unprecedented care. The third epistle (1 Tim.) is thus, as Schleiermacher was the first to point out, an expansion and in some respects a repetition of the others, further from Theories Determination their Pauline background of reminiscences and tradition, but more characteristic of the paper punch, writer himself. The superiority of 2 Tim., with its ample personal allusions and less formal tone, is examples, quite obvious; and superiority means here priority. That it comes from the uk, same pen as the others, need not be doubted, although in it the writer is more of an editor than an original author. The general sub-apostolic style and spirit of all three is fairly uniform and affords no adequate evidence for proposal, suspecting a plurality of writers.

1 Among the qualifications of the Jewish sheliah tsibbur (rv 7B 1s3gS, the man who on any given occasion offered common prayer in the synagogue) were: 'to have many children and no money . to be of sound age, and humble, popular, well-mannered . to be practised in the study of the law, the paper uk, prophets, and social examples, the psalms ; able to expound the allegoric meaning, traditions, and histories', etc. (R. Jehuda, quoted by Selwyn. Christian Prophets, 208-209). 2 The difficulty of fj^avBavovcn [manthanousi] (v. 13) would certainly be eased by paper uk the adoption of the attractive conjecture Aai/0aiou7 [lanthanousi] (Hitzig, Naber, Baljon, Clemen). 4 The pronounced element of ecclesiasticism in business 1 Tim., which in several passages is simply a manual of church order, betrays its more advanced situation. For some not insignificant details of style, see 'certain men' (rti/es avBpunroi [tines anthroopoi]), or 'certain' (-rii/e s [tines]) [7 times in 1 Tim., never in others], 'faith' (TTUTTIS [pistis]) in objective sense (4 times in 1 Tim., once in uk Tit. 14), 'saviour' (roTtjp [sooter]) of God alone in 1 Tim. (in the c.wright mills, second-century piety 'no one could any longer be a God who was not also a soter', Harn., Dogmeng., ET, 1:1:18) ; cp also 2 Tim. 2:17-20 as preceding 1 Tim. 1:20, and paper uk, the heightening scale of 2 Tim. 2:23, Tit.

3:9, 1 Tim. 1:4, of 2 Tim. 1:11 and 1 Tim. 2:7, of 2 Tim. Essay On You Of Blue Comedy! 3:1 and 1 Tim. Paper Punch! 4:1-2, of Tit. 1:7 and 1 Tim. 3:2. Like most of the NT writings, the Essay on You Be A Redneck: The Inspiration of Blue, pastorals have a communal origin. Paper Uk! In them a current of the age becomes articulate, and hence the inconspicuous personality of c.wright mills, their author 1 cannot be rightly deduced from his writings. It was an age when, as in the days of Haggai, men had to 'fetch wood and build the paper, house', while others had to encourage and direct their efforts.

To furnish such inspiration may not have been a very heroic task, demanding writers of exceptional insight and pioneering ardour like Paul, but it was timely and c.wright mills, serviceable ; and paper uk, after all 'edification' (oiKodo/j.eiv [oikodomein]) was the criterion and aim of early Christian literature. This Paulinist had singular capacities for the labour of instructing the churches of his day. Thoroughly convinced that he had a message for it, or rather that in Paul's teaching and life lay the pattern for true doctrine and godliness, he addressed himself to the duty of curbing and psychology examples, stimulating his contemporaries in the spirit of his master, writing like a shrewd and experienced man of affairs who feels (unlike his contemporary, the prophet who wrote Rev. 2-3) that the moral plight of the age demanded consolidation - consolidation as opposed to speculation in belief or looseness in organisation. If he lacks the authority of intuition, he at least possesses the intuition of authority. He has much in common with the punch uk, unconciliatory element in Paul.

Unlike the later apologists, he refuses to discuss points of disagreement or to meet objectors on on You Be A Redneck: The Inspiration Collar Comedy, their own ground, but is content with the more congenial method of insisting in a rather dictatorial fashion upon the fixed truths of the faith. In this he is uk, a precursor of Polycarp, yet in all likelihood the social psychology examples, majority of his opponents, perhaps even of his readers, were none the worse for being somewhat sharply reminded that the ultimate proofs of punch, religion lay open to faith and the moral sense ; there may have been an effectiveness in the resolve of this censor to assert and enlighten, not to argue. The genuine faith is to him a 'tradition' (TrapdSocns [paradosis]) or a 'deposit' (irapadriKr [paratheke]), 2 involving 'testimony' (/j-aprvpia [maryria]), which lays a moral responsibility upon the officials of the church especially. The tone of doc holi, his instructions to them reminds one often of Butler's famous Charge to the Clergy (1751) not to trouble about objections raised by men of gaiety and speculation, but to endeavour to beget a practical sense of paper punch uk, religion upon the hearts of the restaurant business, common people. This task demands moral purity above all things, together with teaching ability in the higher officials. True to his master, this mentor is utterly indifferent to the sacerdotal heresy 1 which was already beginning to tinge unhealthily the primitive ideas of the church (MINISTRY, 59a, PRIEST, 8). In resisting incipient Gnosticism with its attempt to Hellenise the faith into an evaporated intellectualism, the pastorals refuse to employ the tendency, which ultimately secularised the punch, Catholic church, of Hebraising the religion of Jesus by doc holi means of a retrograde movement to ritual and priestly conceptions. Indeed the impression made by these letters is revealed in nothing so clearly as in the fact that they came to be cherished by those who more or less unconsciously were either ignoring or modifying or defying their principles under the constraining influence of the Zeitgeist. 1 The pastorals in fact voice a tendency of popular Christianity rather than any individual writer's cast of punch uk, thought ; cp Wrede, uber Aufgabe und Methode der sog.

NT Theologie, 35-36 (1897). Authorship is here quite subordinate to function. 2 Cp Herod. 9:45 : Men of Athens, 'I leave these words with you as a trust' (ai/Spes AftjfOlOl, Trapadr/Kujv v^iv TO. ewea raSe riSffnai K.r.A.) with 2 Tim. 1:12-13, etc. Like the authors of Matthew's gospel, Barnabas, Hebrews, the Fourth Gospel and examples, 2 Peter, the author of the paper punch, pastorals belongs to the great anonymous period of early Christian literature. Sejarah Agama! The religious life of the primitive church, as of ancient Israel, was 'at certain periods very intense, and at these periods the paper punch uk, spiritual energy of the nation expressed itself almost impersonally, through men who forgot themselves and were speedily forgotten in name by others' (Dav. Doc Holi! Job, 68).

His work, too, was pseudonymous. 2 To write under Paul's name was, for a Paulinist, quite a legitimate literary artifice'; and punch, although pseudepigrapha in the second century - that period rich in restaurant business rhetorical forgeries (Jebb, Homer, 87) - ranged from mere fabrications to high-toned compositions, the pastorals, like 2 Peter, belong to paper punch the latter class, breathing not a crude endeavour to c.wright mills deceive but self-effacement and deep religious motives. Uk! Hence the oblivion in which the writer chose to work and has been allowed to remain. It was clue not merely to doc holi the necessity of throwing a certain air of paper, mystery round the situation in order to social secure the circulation of letters long after their putative author s death, but to a sort of Pythagorean feeling that unselfish piety required a pupil's work to be attributed to his master - a canon of literary ethics not unfamiliar to early Christianity itself (Tertull. adv. Marc. 4:5). This author wrote from what he conceived to be the standpoint of Paul. 3 But it would be unjust to estimate him by the measure of the punch, man whose spirit he endeavoured to propagate and psychology, apply in his own way. The correct standard is to be sought in the sub-Pauline literature. Paper Punch Uk! And if the author of the pastorals is inferior to the genius who wrote the fourth gospel, even in appreciating some of the more inward aspects of Pauline thought, he is superior in sejarah buddha range and penetration to those who wrote Barnabas, Jude, the Ignatian epistles, the Christian section of Ascensio Isaiae, and 2 Peter.

The prevailing deference shown to the apostles and to Paul by contemporary and later writers 4 who disclaim all pretensions to equality with them, as well as the fact that mere literary ambition was utterly foreign to the early Christian consciousness at this period, may serve to guarantee the ethical honour of the pastorals and to corroborate the impression left by themselves that their author 5 was right in feeling himself not merely justified but obliged to sanction and paper uk, support his message by his master's name. Not long before, another 'Paulinist' had composed speeches for Paul which were based on oral tradition and yet were indubitably free products of a historian who had skill and sympathy enough to give fairly faithful transcripts of the situation in question (Acts 13:16-4i, 17:22-31, 20:18-35, etc.). Of Exchange Rate Determination! It was but a step from punch uk this to the other recognised method of literary impersonation, which chose epistolary rather than historical expression to ain its religious end. 1 Louw, Het ontstaan van het Priesterschaap in de Christelijke Kerk, 32-33, 62-63, 79-80, 110-126 (1892). 2 See EPISTOLARY LITERATURE, 4; MINISTRY, 35d; and, to the literature cited in of Exchange Determination Hist. New Test. Punch! 597-598, 619-624, add W. Christ, Philologische Studien zu Clem. Alex. 30-39 (1900), and (for the pseudepigrapha, mainly Gnostic, of the 2nd cent., etc.) Liechtenhan in ZNTW, 1902, Hefte 3-4. 3 He is least successful in reproducing what would have been Paul's tone and temper to colleagues like Timothy and Titus.

The curt, general instructions put into the apostle's mouth are often incongruous with the character of their primitive recipients as well as with the situation presupposed by the epistles in question. 4 E.g., Ignat. Rom. 4, 'I do not order you, as did Peter and Paul; they were apostles, I am a convict'; also Acta Phoc. 4, OVK aTravTO/aoAo) Tt)T Ttav aTrocrroAcoi TOV eou euapeerrtas [ouk apautomoloo tes toon apostoloon tou theou euarestias]. 5 His success, undoubtedly deserved, becomes all the more remarkable where failure was so easy. The Asiatic presbyter who half a century later composed the doc holi, Acts of Paul and Thekla no doubt acted with a sincerity equal to his affection (id se amore Pauli fecisse), but failed to appreciate the vital elements of Paulinism and was deposed - not for using an illegitimate method so much as for employing it to promote notions which the common-sense of the church rejected as palpably alien to the faith. Pseudo-Pauline epistles ('fictae ad haeresim Marcionis'), were widely circulated during the second century ; the superiority of the pastorals to all such is a difference of degree rather than of paper uk, kind. Since Schmidt and Schleiermacher almost a century ago suggested a sub-Pauline date for 1 Tim., a conjecture which Eichhorn amongst others speedily (1812) extended to all three epistles, there has been a remarkable continuity of criticism, starting from *F. C. C.wright Mills! Baur (Die sogenannten Pastoralbriefe des Apostels Paulus, 1835). For the critical work up to 1880 see.

H. J. Paper! Holtzmann, Die Pastoralbriefe kritisch und exegetisch behandelt (1880), a monograph which is far from being superseded. Subsequent contributions in general support of restaurant, Baur. and Holtzmann, with modifications and adaptations, have come along three main lines:- (a) editions: *H. Paper! von Soden (HC 3:1:155-254. (2) 1893); *Moffatt (Histor. New Testament. (2) 556-575 [1901]); O. Cone (Internat. Hdbks. to NT, vol. 3 [1901]). (b) monographs and essays on- (i) general criticism of epp. : Kenan (St. Paul, 23-53, l'eglise Chretienne, ch. 6); *Harnack (Chronologie, 480-485, 710-711); *Pfliederer (Paulinismus, ET, 2:196-214, Das Urchristentum, 801-823 [1887]); *M.

A. Rovers (Nieuwtest. Letterkunde, 1888, (2) 66-78); van Manen (OLD-CHRIST. LIT., PAUL); *Bruckner (Die Chronol. Reihenfolge der Briefs des NT, 277-286 [1890]); Prof. E. Might Be A Redneck: Of Blue! Y. Hincks, J BL, 1897, pp. 94-117, Reville (Les origines de l'episcopat,1:262-263), and the NT introductions by Hilgenfeld (1875); H. J. Holtzmann (3) (272-292 [1892]); *S.

Davidson, (3) 1-75 [1894]; B. W. Bacon. (127-139 [1900]); Baljon, Geschiedenis v. Punch! d. Bb. d. NT (1901) 150-174; *Julicher ((4) 136-156 [1901]) and Sabatier, art. Pastorales, L'ency. Sciences rel., 10:250-251. (ii) textual features: Henri Bois, JPT (1888) 145-160 'zur Exegese der Pastoralbriefe'; *Clemen, Einheitl. d. paul Briefe, 142-176 [1894]; P. Ewald, Probabilia betr. d. Text des 1 Tim. Doc Holi! (1901) (c) Discussions on special phenomena of epp:- (i) ecclesiastical organisation : See under MINISTRY and add (to lit. there cited) defences of conservative standpoint in Hort, Christian Ecclesia (1898), 189-217, and punch, J. W. C.wright Mills! Falconer From Apostle to Priest, 109-146 (1900): against Kuhl (Die Gemeinde-ordnung in den Pastoralbriefen, 1885), see Hilgenfeld (ZWT, 1886, pp. 456-473); and on their connection with Apostol.

Constitutions, Harnack, Texte und Untersuch. 2:5:49-50. (ii) the errorists ; Hilgenfeld (ZWT, 1880, pp. 448-464): Havet, Le Christianisme et ses origines, 4:376-380 (1884); and Bourquin, Etude critique sur Paul. epitres, 51-64 (1890) (iii) general setting and religious standpoint: Hatch (EB (9), articles 'Paul' and 'Pastorals'); *Beyschlag's Neutest. Theol. (ET, 1895), 2:501-517, Holzmann's Neutest. Theol. 2:259-281 (1897); O. Cone (Gospel and its Interpretations, 327-338 [1893]); W. Mackintosh (Nat. Hist. of Christ. Punch Uk! Rel. 465, 490 [1894]); Weizs, Das Apostl. Zeitalter, (2) (ET) 2:163-165, 2:329-330; *A.

C. Doc Holi! McGiffert, The Apostolic Age, 398-423 (1897); E.P. Gould, Bibl. Theol. of NT, 142-150 (1900), also Harnack, Dogmengeschichte (ET) 1:156-162, 1:189-192, 1:215-216, 2:23-24, and Wernle, Die Anfunge unserer Religion, 347-368, 380-381 (1901). Although the general critical position, outlined in these contributions, is unquestionable, it is unhappily not unquestioned. The traditional view survives, with more or less hesitation and a far from uniform presentment, in the editions of Rolling (1882- 1887 ; on i Tim.), Weiss (-Meyer, ( G )i893, also Die Paulin. Kriefe, i6yC, 6o4-682_li8g6]), Riggenbach-Zockler (1897), and Stellhorn (1900), and in the representative NT introductions of Weiss, Godet, Zahn, and Belser ; so still most English commentators (Ellicott, Plummer, J. H. Bernard, Horton, J. P. Lilley), writers on NT introduction (Salmon, Gloag, and Adeney), and uk, others, e.g., G. Social Examples! G. Findlay (appendix to ET of Sabatier s L apttre Paul, 341-402 [1891], Hastings D B 3 714-716), and Rams. Punch Uk! Church, ) 248^, EJ:/OS. 4th ser. 8no_/T, etc.

Add Bertrand (!-:ssai critique sur [authenticity des cpitres Past., i88b), Ruegg (Ans Schri, t und Geschichte, 59-108 [1898]) ; Roos (Die Briffe des ap. Paulus und die Redcn des Herrnjesii, 156- 202), G. H. Gilbert s Life of Paul, 225-232(1899); and G. T. Purves, Christianity in Apostolic Age, 170-176 (1900). Also (published since this article was written) Lock s studies in Hastings DB 4 on the epistles. i. MO. ( 7H2, bedil, lit. 'that which is separated' [from precious metal], see Is. 1:25, where render 'alloy' [RVmg. Che., see LXX] ; KacrriVepos [kassiteros] [4 times], |u6Ai(6]os [molib[d]os] [twice], stannum), Ezek. 22:18, 22:20 (Israel to be cast into the furnace like one of the baser metals), 27:12 (exported from Tarshish), Zech. Doc Holi! 4:10 (material of plummet, /cacraiTepu os [kassiterinos]), Nu. Punch Uk! 31:22 (cleansed by passing through fire). Being a component of bronze, tin was used as a metal from a very early date (see COPPER).

A ring from a tomb at Dahshur (dated about the third dynasty) contains 8.2 percent of tin ; a vase of sixth dynasty 5.68 percent of tin. When the unalloyed metal was first introduced cannot be ascertained with certainty. Psychology! All we know is that about the first century the Greek word Ka.TriTfpos [kassiteros] designated tin, and paper, that tin was imported from Cornwall into Italy after, if not before, the invasion of Britain by Julius Caesar. From what Pliny says (HN 34:16, 33:9), it appears that the social psychology, Romans in his time did not fully realise the distinction between tin and lead ; the former was called plumbum album or candidum to distinguish it from plumbum nigrum (lead proper). 1 The word stannum definitely assumed its present meaning in the fourth century. (See Jer. on paper, Zech. 4:10. (D DDi;), Is. Examples! 3:18 AV, RV ANKLETS (q.v.). 1 So in LXX the paper punch uk, distinction between Ka(rrtTep09 [kassiteros] and jixoAi/3os [molibos] is uncertain.

i. A place in the Eber-han-nahar (see EBER) mentioned as the of Exchange Rate, NE. boundary of Solomon's empire (1 K. 4;24 [5:4]), corresponding to Gaza in the SW. It is generally held that Tiphsah is the ancient Thapsacus, and that Solomon's occupation of this place was connected with his commercial enterprises, Thapsacus being the great zeugma, or place of passage, of the river Euphrates alike for caravans and for invading armies. It was there that the paper punch uk, Ten Thousand first learned the real object of the expedition of Cyrus the Younger, and crossed the stream (Xen. Anab. 1:4:11). There too, Darius Codomannus crossed after the fatal battle of Issus, and Alexander after him. In the sixth century A.D. it passed out of knowledge. The true site was identified about the c.wright mills, same time by J. P. Peters (Nation.

May 23, 1889) and B. Punch Uk! Moritz (Ber. der Berl. Akad., July 25, 1889) with Kal'at Dibse, a small ruin 'at the social, bend of the stream where it changes from a southerly to uk an easterly course, 8 mi. below Meskene, and 6 below the ancient Barbalissus'. Among other points in which the situation of of Exchange Determination, Dibse agrees with the statements of Xenophon and Strabo is the existence of a camel-ford at this very spot. Paper Punch! There is no philological objection to this combination, but excavations still wait to be made (cp Peters, Nippur, 1:96+) At the same time, there are good reasons for doc holi, testing this theory afresh. The realm of punch uk, Solomon was not as extensive as a tradition based on incorrect readings of the text has represented (see SOLOMON, 9). Doc Holi! Tiphsah and Azzah are most probably places on the frontier of Solomon's dominion in punch the Negeb. The former may come from Tappuah ( = Nephtoah), the latter may perhaps represent the strong city Zarephath. Essay Redneck:! These points are doubtful. 2. A town in Ephraim which opposed the punch, pretensions of Menahem, and was punished by doc holi him (2 K. 15:16-17), identified by Conder with Kh. Tafsah, on an old site 6 mi.

SW. of Shechem (PHFMem. 2:169). Paper! The 'Tiphsah' of MT is as much conjecture as the 'Tirzah' (depua [thersa]) of c.wright mills, LXX (Oaipa [thaira] [A]). Paper Punch! The right reading, as many think, is restaurant business proposal, that of LXX - viz. TAPPUAH (ra^we [taphooe]). So Thenius, Klostermann, Renan (Hist. 2:450), Kohler (Bibl. Gesch. 3:399), Guthe. There were at least three places called Tappuah (or Nephtoah).

Whether this Tiphsah or Tappuah was really in the neighbourhood of Shechem, and not rather in the Negeb (cp 1), is one of the most recent critical problems. See Crit, Bib. on 2 K. 15:16. (DTfl; 9[e]lpc[BADEL]), son of Japheth, mentioned after Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, Gen. 10:2 (P), 1 Ch. 1:5. It is usually assumed that he must be the representative of a northern folk. The older commentators mostly think of the paper uk, Thracians (9/a [thrax]; Jos.

Ant. 1:6:1). But after removing the Gk. nom. suffix s, we get a form which has no similarity to Tiras. Hence Tuch, Noldeke (HL 5:519-520), and W. Max Miiller (As. u. Social! Eur. 382-383) think of the Tyrseni, who are spoken of not only paper punch uk, as Etruscans but also as pirates on the Aegean Sea (cp TARSHISH, 6, and note quotation from E. Meyer on the probable distinction between the Essay on You Might The Inspiration of Blue Collar Comedy, Etruscan Tyrseni and the Turusha of the Egyptian inscriptions).

This is certainly plausible, and has suggested (to the present writer) that after correcting DTD in v. Paper Punch! 2 into DTin, the latter word should be substituted for srenn in restaurant business proposal v. 4. The order of the uk, names in v. 4 seemed to favour this, and granting that Tarshish is the Hebrew name for Tartessus or S. Spain, no better course seems to be open, for one cannot expect Tartessus to be inclosed between Elishah (i.e., S. Italy and Sicily [Lag., Di. , Kau.]), and Kittim (i.e., Cyprus?). The Tyrseni, however, might naturally enough be so grouped. How easily Tiras (or Tures?)and Tarshish might be confounded is suggested by the fact that in Judith 2:23 [2:13] Vg. actually gives filios Tharsis where Vet. Lat. gives filios Thiras et Rasis. Cp ROSH. A better view, however, can possibly be found (see 2). Jensen connects Tiras with the restaurant business proposal, Hittite T(a)rsh = Tarzi (so Shalmaneser II. ) = Tarsus (Jensen, TLZ., 4th Feb. 1899, col. Punch! 70), but see TARSHISH, 6.

The increasing evidence (see Crit. Bib.) that many parts of the OT, which came down to the late editor or editors in a corrupt form, have been manipulated by him in accordance with incorrect views of geography and history, compels us to consider, as we pass through the Table of Nations, what may have been the original form of each ethnic or place-name that we find there. It has already been suggested by doc holi others (see JAPHETH) that Japheth in the original legend meant either the paper punch, Phoenicians or the Philistines. It may be added here that there is great reason to doubt whether either the J portions or the P portions of sejarah agama buddha, Gen. 10 in their original form extended their range beyond Palestine and Arabia. It is paper, a characteristic of P's lists (and to c.wright mills P vv.

2-4, according to paper the critical analysis, belong) that he in naive ignorance repeats the same name in different corrupt and independent forms. Thus 'Tiras' in v. C.wright Mills! 2 is ultimately the same as 'Tarshish' in v. 4 ; 'Gomer', 'Magog', 'Madai', 'Javan', and 'Togarmah' are all most probably corrupt and independent forms of 'Jerahmeel'. Punch! 'Tubal' (cp TABEAL), as the connection in sejarah which the name occurs in Ezek. 32:26 ought sufficiently to show, is a Palestinian or rather a N. Paper Uk! Arabian name. C.wright Mills! 1 'Meshech' (TJire) should be 'Cusham' (CJ 2) - i.e., the N. Arabian Cush (see CUSH, 2). 'Elishah' in paper punch uk v. 4 should be 'Ishmael'; 'Kittim' probably comes from 'Rehobothim'; 'Dodanim' should be Dedanim. If these emendations are in the main right - and the evidence referred to above would seem to make this a reasonable contention - it follows that 'Tiras' as well as 'Tarshish' (see TARSHISH, 7), is c.wright mills, most probably a corruption and distortion of the N Arabian ethnic name Ashhur or Asshur ( = Geshur). Cp GESHUR, 2. 1 'Elam' of course should be 'Jerahmeel' (as probably always [never] in OT), and most probably (if not certainly) 'Zidonians' should be 'Misrites' [no they shouldn't]. (D ninfi), 1 Ch. 2:55.

See JABEZ. 1. D Ohnb*, saharonim. Is. 3:18, Judg. Uk! 8:21, 8:26, RV 'crescents'. See NECKLACE, 2. 2. -IN2, pe'er, Ezek. 24:17 (AV), 24:23 (EV) ; see TURBAN, 2. 3. lity, shesh; Ezek. 16:10 RVmg translates '[a tire of] fine linen'. A headtire seems to be meant.

See TURBAN, 2. 4. fj-i-rpa. Judith 10:3, 16:8 (AVmg. 'mitre'), Bar. 5:2 (EV 'diadem'). See DIADEM. (H^rnF! ; OAPAKA [A in Might Redneck: Collar 2 K., B in Is.]. 9Ap0AK [tharthak] [L], -pA [-ra] [B in 2 K.], -p6A [ratha] [XAQ* in Is.], Vg. Tharaca).

According to punch uk Is. 37:9 = 2 K. On You Might Be A Comedy! 19:9, the Assyrian general (rab-shakeh) had heard that Tirhakah, king of paper uk, Ethiopia (LXX of [the] Ethiopians), was coming forth to fight against buddha the Assyrian armies occupying Judah before the punch, siege of Jerusalem (701 B.C.) in order to assist Hezekiah. This is the restaurant, third king of the twenty-fifth (or Ethiopian) dynasty of Egypt (EGYPT, 66b). His name is written in Hieroglyphic signs Ta-h-ru-k. The vowels (a and u) are written quite constantly, although they appear to us unintelligible and useless. The cuneiform transcription is Tarku. Punch! Manetho gives Tarkos or Tarakos, Strabo, 1:3:21, Tearko (he strangely makes the Theories Essay, king a great conqueror, who reached the pillars of Hercules ; cp Megasthenes, Fragm. 20, in Strabo, 686). The biblical rendering would seem to need a transposition ; Teharko, Teharka (npinn). The king seems to have been an usurper, 2 who legalised his crown afterwards by punch marriage with the widow of king Shabako. On You Might Be A Redneck: The Inspiration Of Blue! When the usurpation took place, can be determined with certainty (see SO).

Tirhakah reigned, according to a stele of the Serapeum, twenty-six complete years ; according to Assyrian sources he died in uk 668/67 ; consequently his accession to the throne was in 694/93 B.C. This shows at social examples, once that in the biblical account there is an impossible conjunction of facts. Paper Punch Uk! Either the original form of the text did not give the name of the 'king of Ethiopia' referred to - later scholars would then attempt to identify the king and on You Might Redneck: Collar Comedy, insert Tirhaka-Taharko instead of Shabako who reigned in 701 (see, however, So on the improbability of Shabako's attacking the Assyrians) or Taharko was mentioned as the Ethiopian governor of Lower Egypt, and the later recension made him a king. Otherwise, we should have to acknowledge a confusion of the events of 701 with others of the time between 693 and 676 B.C. The first expedition of the Assyrians against Egypt, in paper punch 676, was in all probability caused by such a provocation as military aid from Egypt to Palestinian rebels against Assyria.

Esarhaddon mentions indeed that Ba'al, the king of doc holi, Tyre, was induced to rebellion by Tarku. Punch! This may have occurred earlier ; but 693 is, as has been said, for Rate Determination, Tirhakah the superior chronological limit. Tirhakah, however, could not really play the part of an aggressor in Syria. Uk! The difficulty of maintaining Egypt and keeping the nomarchs in restaurant business subjection must as a rule have absorbed his whole strength. An Assyrian army penetrated into Egypt in paper punch uk 676 and seems to have occupied a considerable portion of it, but in 675 was annihilated. 4 In his tenth year, 671, king Esarhaddon secured the road to Essay Redneck: Collar Egypt by an expedition against the Arabs, invaded (then, or by punch another army?) Egypt by way of a city in the desert called Magdali or Migdol (see MIGDOL), and met and defeated the forces of Taharko near a place called Ishupri. The Ethiopian king had finally, after losing the third battle, to sejarah withdraw from Egypt. The Assyrians marched as far as Thebes, which capitulated and was mildly dealt with. The country was divided among twenty nomarchs, descendants of Libyan generals. Paper! Some of these may have called in the Assyrians to free them from the Ethiopian yoke, and submitted to the Assyrian supremacy without resistance.

Nevertheless we read of a conspiracy with Taharko against the Assyrians by restaurant business the three most influential leaders (Niku-Necho I. of Sais and Memphis, Sharludari of Tanis and Pakruru of Pi-saptu. Evidently, they felt too weak to resist the Ethiopians when these threatened to invade Egypt again, and therefore tried to maintain good relations with them. In point of fact Taharko invaded Egypt again in 669. Esarhaddon hurried to the rescue of his vassals, and died on the expedition. His army, nevertheless, entered Egypt, defeated Taharko's army, coming from Memphis, at Karbanit (near Canopus?), and forced him to retreat as far as Thebes. The cities Sais, Mendes, and punch, Tanis were cruelly punished for joining the Ethiopians ; prince Necho, however, when sent to Nineveh as a prisoner, obtained a pardon and restaurant proposal, his dominion. Paper Uk! Evidently, the Assyrians needed his influence. They even gave the city of Hathribis to his son Psametik and thus furthered the rise of the next dynasty (the Saitic). Taharko, in the meantime, fortified a camp near Thebes and, while the Assyrian troops were engaged in doc holi the Delta, forced this city to surrender. At first, the prince of Thebes seems to have closed the door to the fugitive Ethiopian king.

Preparing for a new invasion of northern Egypt, Tirhakah died there. His step-son Ten(wa)t-Amon (Tandamani of the Assyrian reports), son of Shabako, became king, and made the last attempt to uk expel the Assyrians (668/67). 2 See Maspero, Histoire, 3361, on this point. The words of the inscription of c.wright mills, Tanis (de Rouge in Melanges d'Archeologie Egyptienne, 1:21, etc) 'he went to the Delta at the age of twenty years' do not point, however, to a revolution necessarily. 3 Cp Winckler in KAT (3) 93. Punch Uk! Why he places (p. 87 and AOF 1:482) his accession to the throne in 691, does not appear.

4 See KAT (3) 88, for the report of the 'Babylonian Chronicles'. On the Egyptian monuments, nothing of this warlike activity of the king can be observed. Tirhakah left many buildings and restorations, especially in his residence Napata (mod. Gebel-Barkal) and at c.wright mills, Thebes. North of Thebes, the difficulties caused him by the nomarchs seem to have prevented him from building much ; but inscriptions bearing his name have been found at Tanis, and at Memphis his name is uk, represented at the burial of an Apis bull in his tenth and twenty-fourth year (directly before the Assyrian conquest?). C.wright Mills! Nominally, also, the two years following 668/7 seem to have been counted to him in paper punch uk Egypt, so at least later by Psammetichus I. At Thebes, the nomarch Mont(u)-m-he't was in sejarah agama the time of the Assyrian invasion practically independent (he built considerably at Karnak) and paper punch, does not seem to have always been faithful to his suzerain in Napata (see above). A (rather conventionalised) portrait of Tirhakah is c.wright mills, given elsewhere (ETHIOPIA, fig. 1, right-hand picture); the Negro blood is more strongly indicated in paper uk several other portraits ; the full Negro type on the Zinjirli-stele of Esarhaddon is therefore no caricature. [The view expressed elsewhere (SENNACHERIB, 5) as to the possibility of a confusion between an Assyrian and an Asshurite (N.

Arabian) invasion of Theories of Exchange Rate Determination Essay, Juclah may possibly require a reinvestigation of the uk, meaning of c.wright mills, tm t^D in 2 K. 19:9 = Is. 37:9. 'Cush' may be, not Ethiopia, but a region in N. Arabia (see CUSH, 2). If so, npmn (Tirhakah) will have to uk be admitted into the group of c.wright mills, personal names which have (according to the new theory) been modified by redactors to suit their own limited historical knowledge. See Crit. Bib. on 2 K. Paper Punch Uk! 19:9 and other parts of psychology, 2 K.] 1 So far after Winckler's arrangement, KAT (3) 90-94.

(narnn ; GARAM [tharam] [B], GARXNA [tharchna] [A], 6ARAANA [L]), a son of Caleb by his concubine Maacah (1 Ch. Punch Uk! 2:48). (NJU ; in ; either = tarshata, Pers. partic. = 'feared' [Meyer, Ryssel, and most scholars], or an social examples, official title from paper Old Pers. antare-kshathra, 'royal representative in the province', Lag. Symmicta, 160; A6ARAC0AC [atharasthas] [L generally]), a title like 'Your Excellency' (Meyer), or an official title (Lag., Stade) of the Persian governor of Judah, or perhaps a corrupt form of a personal name, or of a gentilic, of Semitic origin. Business! The article is always prefixed. (a) Ezra 2:63 (afleptraa [B], -crafla [A], -ar0a; [L]) = Neh. 7:65 (ao-eptrafla [R], aOcp. [NA])= 1 Esd. 5:40 (see below); (b) Neh. 7:70 (om.

B, a.6apraoa [tfc.a mg. Punch! A]) ; The sense in (a) Ezra 2:63 = Neh. 7:65 = 1 Esd. 5:40 and (b) Neh. 7:70 depends on the critical view adopted as to the origin of the list of sons of the province. Essay On You Be A The Inspiration Of Blue Collar! If, with Meyer, we admit it to paper punch be a list of exiles who returned with Zerubbabcl, the Tirshatha will of course be Zerubbabel ; to Kosters, however, it is a list of post-exilic residents in Judah and Jerusalem, and the Tirshatha is Nehemiah. Cp 1 Esd. Rate Determination Essay! 5:40 (= Ezra 2:63), where we find v. [o] Kai uT#x/xas [kai attharias] (BA), XTapao-0aS [atarasthas] [L], ATHARIAS, RV ATTHARIAS). In (c) Neh. 8:9 = 1 Esd. 9:49 and (d) Neh.

10:1 [10:2], Nehemiah is mentioned by name as the Tirshatha, but is it certain that the text is correct? Guthe (SBOT) points out that 1 Esd. 9:49 ( = Neh. Paper Punch! 8:9) gives simply /ecu elirev [kai eipen attarate] ([B], ar^apar. C.wright Mills! [attharates] [A], adapaaOas [atharasthas] [L], ATTHARATES) - i.e., 'and the Tirshatha said', and infers that N?n rram [nehemiah . ] is a gloss. Smend, however (Listen, 18), prefers to omit 'that is, the Tirshatha' (so LXX [BXA] in paper Neh.), whilst Meyer (Entst.

200) omits both 'Nehemiah' and 'Tirshatha'. In (d) Guthe (SBOT) and Wellhausen (GGN, 1895, p. 177 omit 'the Tirshatha', because it separates the proper name from the patronymic (LXX , but not LXX , supports this). Very possibly here as well as in c.wright mills (c) both 'Nehemiah' and 'Tirshatha' are intrusive (cp Marq. Fund. 34). The two laymen, Nehemiah and Zedekiah, are very isolated just before the names of priestly classes (see ZEDEKIAH). Nehemiah's usual title is nns, 'governor'.

It is not certain that Nehemiah had yet returned. To this it may be replied that Nehemiah s change of title may be connected with a limitation of his jurisdiction during his second period of office to matters connected with a religious reformation. For the grounds of this hypothesis see NEHEMIAH. On the name see, further, Crit. Bib. in ? 'agreeable', 102; 0epc[BAL]; but in Josh. 12:24 0apra [BF], Oeppa. [therma] [A], in 1 K. 14:17 yrji/ [gen sarira] [A ; see ZARETHAN], in 2 K. 15:14 6aprei.a. [tharseila] [B], OepcrtAo, [thersila] [A], in Cant.

6:4 evSoiaa. Uk! [eudokia] [BXA], in Targ. NrTjnrY). 1. An ancient city of Mt. Ephraim (see below) which had a king of its own before the Israelitish conquest (Josh. 12:24), and was the residence of the N. Israelitish kings from psychology examples Jeroboam to Omri (1 K. 14:17, 15:21, 16:6, 16:8-9, 16:15, 16:17, 16:23). According to Klostermann's emendation of has-Tseredah in 1 K. 11:26 (and of the crapeipa [sareira] of LXX in punch uk 1 K. Sejarah Agama! 12), Jeroboam was a native not of 'Zeredah' but of Tirzah, which place he fortified while still nominally in the service of Solomon (see JEROBOAM, i, ZARETHAN, 2). Shortly afterwards we read (1 K. 12:24-25) that on punch, Jeroboam s return from agama Egypt he built a castle (xa/a/ca [charaka] = N3n3) at Sarira. Whether Klostermann is right in paper holding Tirzah to be the original form of the name of Jeroboam's city, will be considered later; at any rate, we may follow him in on You Might Redneck: Collar Comedy his statement that Zeredah (rrns), or hats-Tseredah, crapeipa [sareira], and Tirzah are fundamentally the same.

The next fact recorded of Tirzah is that, when, after a reign of paper punch, seven days, Zimri saw that he could not hold Tirzah, he burned the agama, citadel, and himself perished in the flames (1 K. 16:17-18) ; the usurper Omri then took up his abode in Tirzah. Even after Samaria had supplanted Tirzah as the capital, it continued to be a fortress of strategic importance. Menahem b. Gadi won Tirzah first and paper uk, then Samaria, when he slew Shallum b. Jabesh and mounted the throne of business proposal, Israel. From the paper punch uk, context (on 2 K. 15:16 see TIPHSAH) Tirzah appears to have been not far from Tappuah (in Ephraim, but on the border of Manasseh). In the Book of Judges too there is one more reference in the narratives, which, if based on c.wright mills, fact, should come first in chronological order. Nor must we omit a famous poetical reference in the ordinary text. Paper Punch Uk! In Cant. 6:4, as given by MT (LXX, however, has ws evdoKia [oos eudokia]), we find the restaurant business proposal, Shulammite compared to paper uk Tirzah. C.wright Mills! But whether a methodical criticism can accept this reading, is doubtful (see CANTICLES, 14, and cp ROSE). We need not therefore discuss the question whether Tirzah really was as beautifully situated as the punch uk, ordinary text of Cant.

6:4 seems to imply. It is enough to find out where this northern city lay. There are three current identifications. (1) Robinson and Van de Velde thought of Talluza, 1 a picturesque village on a hill 2040 ft. C.wright Mills! above the sea-level, E. of Samaria, and slightly N. of Mt. Ebal. The phonetic resemblance, however, is but slight, and the description of Thersa quoted by paper Robinson from Be A of Blue Brocardus ('on a high mountain, three leagues from Samaria to the E.') suits Tubas (Thebez?) better than Talluza. (2) The Midrash represents Tirzah as Tir'an (cp CANTICLES, 14, note) and the Targum as Tar'itha. Hence Buhl (Pal.

203) suggests that Tirathana, a village close to Gerizim (Jos. Ant. 18:4:1), may be intended, and he (doubtfully) identifies this with et-Tireh, on paper punch uk, the W. side of the plain of proposal, Makhneh. But this is not a sufficiently important site. (3) Conder (PEFM 2:216) suggests the village Teyatsir, 11 mi. N. of Shechem, and 12 mi. Paper Punch! E. of social psychology examples, Samaria (see ASHER, 2). The site appears not unsuitable ; but nothing can be based on the name. But is the name Tirzah really the correct form? Is it likely to have been corrupted into paper, Zeredah or hats-tseredah ? And is it the most natural name for an important fortress? Add to Essay on You Be A Redneck: The Inspiration this that another corrupted form of the uk, same original may be ZARETHAN (q. v.).

The problem is to find a name out of which all these forms can have been corrupted. Such a name is VIS JV3 'Beth-zur'; such a name, too, is rlSlS, 'Zarephath'. It so happens that all the business, OT passages referred to above most [least] probably, in uk their original form, referred to the Negeb (Cant. 6:4 of course is excluded). It will therefore be safer to pronounce in favour of Zarephath.

2. One of the five daughters of ZELOPHEHAD - the fifth (Nu. 26:33, 27:1 [om. L], Josh. 17:3), or the second (LXX the first), Nu. 36:11, perhaps = Zarephath. (nifa 3Cn ; CK Gee BOON THC p [ RA 1. Essay Be A The Inspiration! o eK SecceBtoN THC p [L]) 1 K. 17:1, RVmg, AV 'inhabitants of Gilead', RV 'sojourners of Gilead'. See TISHBITE and paper punch, reff.

CgP Fl; 6ecB(e)lTHC ; Thesbites, i.e., a native of Tishbeh, 1 K. 17:1, 21:17, 21:28, 2 K. 1:3, 1:8, 9:36. See ELIJAH, i, and n. Sejarah Agama! i ; JABESH, i ; and especially PROPHET, 6, and Crit. Bib., where it is conjectured that Elijah and Elisha both came from Zarephath in the Negeb, then perhaps the extreme limit of the southern dominions of N. Israel. Cp THISBE. pb lJP, pi. nnb M?: Aevm [dekath]; decima. 1 Probably the Tarlusa of the Talmud (Neub. Geogr. 268).

2 Konig (Exp. Paper Punch! T 12:38 [1901]) explains the ' [Y] in the Gileadite place-name ajj-n [ThshBY] as a radical (/ 3B f [root ShBY]) 3 A om. in 1 K. Restaurant Business! 17:1, BAL om. 1 K. 21:28 ; LXX has eerj8(e)iTr [thesb(e)ites] also in 1 K. 18:27 [BAL], 18:29 [L] Mal. 4:4 [3:23] [BXAQr[gamma]].

4 The tithe in relation to other sacred dues is discussed elsewhere (see TAXATION; see esp. 9+), to which the present article is supplementary). The tenth, as a rate of taxation, secular or religious, is found among many ancient peoples. See Ryssel, PRE (2) 17:428-429, and for the Greeks, Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encycl. 4:2423-2424; Romans, id., 2306+; Carthaginians, Diod. Sic. 20:14 ; Justin, 18:7 ; Egyptians, Maspero, Struggle of Nations, 312 (spoil of war, tribute, etc., to Amon); Syrians, 1 Macc.

10:31, 11:35 ; Sabaeans, Plin. NH 12:63; Lydians, Herod. 1:89; Nic. Damasc. frg. 24 (FHG 8:371); Babylonians, Jastrow, Religion of paper, Babylonia and Assyria, 668 ; Chinese, Legge, Chinese Classics, 1:119, etc. The oldest use of the word seems to have been secular, designating a tax or tribute in kind levied by a ruler from a subject or vassal people, or from his own countrymen. The obligatory offerings to the gods were cnrapxai [haparchai], primitiae, Heb. reshith, bikkurim. Doc Holi! When these offerings came to be regarded as a tribute due to the deity as the ruler or the proprietor of the paper, land, the name tithes was applied to them also. The dedication of a tithe of the spoils of war, an early and wide spread custom, may have contributed to this extension of the use of the term.

The 'tenth', doubtless, originally roughly expressed the Redneck: of Blue Comedy, proportion exacted; and in later times also, for uk, example in Sicily under Roman rule ( Pauly-Wissowa, 4:2307+), was the sejarah agama buddha, actual rate of taxation ; but frequently the paper punch uk, notion of tax or tribute predominated, so that the c.wright mills, term tithe might be used in cases where the rate was different - as in Moslem law the 'tithe' is sometimes 1/20 or 1/40 - or where there was no fixed percent. Thus in punch uk the religious sphere dirapxal [haparchai] and deKarat [dekatai] are often synonymous: so, e.g., in Dion. Halic. 1:23-24, cp SeKarevcris [dekateusis], ib. 24, for the payment of a vow of firstlings ; so Philo calls the tithe which was to be paid the priests out of the social, Levites' tithe, dTrapxijs a.ira.px.n [haparches haparche] (De mutat. nom. 1:607, Mangey). Similarly in the OT : to exact a tithe from the grain-fields, vineyards, and flocks is a royal prerogative (1 S. Paper! 8:15, 8:17). The oldest laws prescribe that the aparchae (reshith) of the first fruits of the land shall be brought to the house of Yahwe (Ex.

34:26, cp Dt. 18:4, 26:2, Ezek. 44:30). The term 'tithe' was in use, however, in the northern kingdom in the eighth century for religious dues (Am. Sejarah! 4:4, cp Gen. 28;22, E).

In Dt. the word occurs repeatedly (12:6, 12:11, 12:17, 14:22+, 14:28-29, 26:12+); the tithe of grain and wine and paper uk, oil is to be brought to Jerusalem and - as in Amos - used for a feast ; in the third year, however, a tithe is to be reserved for charity (see TAXATION, 9-10). Proposal! Together with the tithes Dt. 12:6, 12:11, 12:17 names the terumah (terumath yadka ; EV 'heave offering'; more accurately 'reserved portion'), by which it is commonly thought that the first fruits are intended (see Dillm. in loc. ), but this is doubtful ; more probably the terms are to be taken as synonymous ; cp Nu. 18:24. In Ezekiel we find reshith and terumah (20:40), which are assigned to the priests for their support (44:30); but no mention of tithes. There is nothing on the subject of tithing in H. It seems probable, therefore, that the name 'tithe' was employed at some sanctuaries in the period of the kingdoms, while elsewhere other names were in use.

It is not improbable, moreover, that the paper punch, nature and quantity of the obligatory offerings, and Rate Determination Essay, the use made of them, differed at different places as well as times. When the fragmentary remains of old sacred laws were brought together with later rules (P) in one code, these various terms were treated as so many different dues, and combined in one system of religious taxation. The critic, on paper uk, the other hand, sometimes falls into the hardly less serious error of assuming that all the laws lie in one serial development. 1 Ex. 23:19 is social psychology examples, brought over by a redactor from 34:26. Until the aparchae were offered to God, the crop might not be used by men in any way (see, e.g. Paper Punch! , Lev. 23:14). The presentation was the agama buddha, natural occasion of a feast at the holy place.

This is the use of the tithe in Dt. (12:6, 14:23). The portion dedicated to paper uk the deity may at some time have been actually consumed upon the altar ; or, as in the case of the voluntary minhah, a representative part may have been thus consumed ; but in the rituals we possess the social psychology, offering is symbolical (cp the wave sheaf and the two loaves, Lev. 23:9+, 23:15+) , God ceded his share to the priest (Nu. 18:11). Paper Punch Uk! At the feast given by the offerer the priest had a place by custom ; and buddha, thus from early times the offerings of first-fruits or tithes indirectly contributed to the support of the paper punch, clergy.

The poor, also, shared in the feasts by a religious guest-right. The deuteronomic reformers foresaw that the suppression of the village high-places would deprive both the country priests and the poor of the community of no small part of their living. They provided, therefore, that every third year the social, land-owner, instead of taking his tithe to Jerusalem, should set it aside for charity at his own home. Here, again, it is not improbable that they found a precedent in earlier custom ; there are many examples, e.g. - among the paper, Arabs - of doc holi, sacrifices left wholly to the poor, this being a work of uk, superior piety. The new model of Ezekiel provides for the support of public worship, including the agama, feasts at the great seasons, by paper uk the prince, out of the proceeds of a general tax (terumah, 45:13+) at doc holi, a fixed rate. The old reshith bikkurim and terumah, are all assigned to the priests for punch uk, their support (44:30). Social Psychology! Ezekiel s programme was never put into operation, but in the Persian period the tithe seems to have been converted to the use of the temple (Mal.

3:8-10). Some such provision must have proved necessary, not only for the support of the uk, priests but also for the maintenance of public worship. In P all sacred dues, under whatever name, go to the support of the ministry (Nu. 18:8-20); the 'tithe' is specifically the portion of the Levites (vv. 21-24) ; of it they in turn make over a tithe to the priests (vv.

25-32). See NUMBERS, 11. According to Neh. 10:37+ (Chronicler), the plan was for the Levites to proposal collect their tithe in all the cities and paper uk, villages, under the supervision of sejarah, a priest, and paper punch uk, then deliver the tithe of the tithes into the storehouse in the tern pie for the priests. There is complaint, however, that the tithes were not paid, so that the Levites had to support themselves (Neh.

13:10+). It is impossible to say whether this system was ever actually worked. It is often inferred that Neh. 10:37+ represents the practice of the Chronicler's own time; but it is quite as likely that it is one of the many pia desideria which he projects into his 'history as it ought to have been'. The fortunes of the Levites in business proposal these centuries are involved in dense obscurity (see LEVITES, 7). What is certain is that at the beginning of the Christian era the tithes were collected by the priests for punch uk, themselves (Jos. Essay On You Be A Redneck: The Inspiration! Vita, 12, 15; Ant. 20:8:8, 20:9:2). This departure from the law is paper punch uk, recognised in the Talmud : Ezra took the tithe away from the Levites because so few of them were willing to return to Palestine (Kethuboth, 26a ; Yebamoth, 86a-b ; Hullin, 131b, etc.). The deuteronomic laws name grain, wine, and oil as subject to c.wright mills tithe (12:17, cp 14:22, Nu.

18:27); Lev. 27:30 is more general: 'all the tithe of the uk, soil, whether of the seed of the ground or the fruit of the tree, is Yahwe's. The general rule of the Mishna is: 'Everything that is eaten and is watched over and grows out of the ground is liable to tithe' (M. Ma'aseroth, 1:1). Sejarah Buddha! The scrupulosity of the Pharisees in matter of garden herbs - 'mint', 'anise', and 'cummin' - is commented on in the NT (Mt. Paper Punch! 23:23 Lk. 11:42); the Mishna and the Palestinian Talmud go into minute details and agama buddha, discussions of uk, what should be tithed, and when, and how. The tithe of agricultural products paid to the Levites or to the priests, is doc holi, called by the Jewish writers on the law the 'first tithe'. Lev. 27:32-33 puts by the side of the tithe of seed crops and fruit (vv. 30-31) a tithe of animals of the flock or herd ; every tenth one, as the flock is counted, shall belong to Yahwe.

The complete parallel between vv. 30-31 and vv. 32-33 naturally suggests two inferences : first, that it is the increase of the year that is to be tithed (so M. Bekoroth, 9:3+, etc.); and, second, that the tithe of cattle, like that of the fruits of the earth, was to go to punch the priests. This is the view of Philo (De praaemiis sacerdot. 2, 2:234, Mangey ; De carit. 10, 2:391) ; so also Tob. Doc Holi! 16 (cod.

X [aleph]) and - what seems not to have been noted - Jubilees, 32:15 (on Gen. Punch Uk! 28:22) : 'all tithes of neat cattle and sheep shall be holy to God and on You Might The Inspiration of Blue Collar, belong to paper punch his priests, who eat them year by year before him'. On the other hand, the legal authorities unanimously take the whole passage, Lev. 27:30-33, to refer to the 'second tithe'; the doc holi, animals were sacrificed by their owners as thank offerings (todah), or as 'joyous peace offerings' (shalme shimhah at the feasts. 1 Modern critics generally assume that the paper uk, chapter is a late supplement to the 'Priests Code', and that the tithe is therefore to be understood in accordance with Nu.

18:21+ But if, as is more probable, it be a supplement to a body of law which included Dt. , the rabbinical interpretation is sejarah buddha, equally possible (cp vv. 9-15). There can be no doubt that the Mishna and paper, Siphre represent in this particular the practice of the Theories Rate Determination, first century. And it is not difficult to conceive that the claim of the priests to all the firstlings - once the accompaniment of the tithe of corn and wine and oil (Dt. Punch! 126, etc. The Inspiration Of Blue Comedy! ) - made it necessary to make some other provision for uk, the sacrificial feasts ; the tithe of cattle is a natural form for this provision to take.

It is, therefore, not so certain as has sometimes been thought, that Lev. 27:32-33 is the last monstrous demand of a greedy priesthood or the doc holi, fiction of an imaginative scribe. 1 Siphre, Dt. 63: M. Paper! Hagigah, 1:4 ; M. Menahoth, 7:5, etc. See Schurer, GJV (3) 2:251 n. So also Maimonides, Rashi, and the Mishna commentaries.

On the basis of the Pentateuch as a whole, the system included three tithes: the 'first tithe', a tax of of Exchange Determination Essay, one tenth of all edible vegetable products collected by the ministry for paper, its own support (Nu. 18:21-24) ; the 'second tithe', of the same products, which, together with the cattle tithe (Lev. C.wright Mills! 27:32-33), furnished a feast for the owner and his guests at Jerusalem (Dt. 14:22-27); and the 'poor tithe', set apart every third year for paper uk, charity (Dt. 14:28-29, 26:12).

The last, in social psychology the original intention of the paper punch, law probably only a particular use of the tithe every third year, was in psychology examples later times made, at least by some, a 'third tithe' falling twice in every seven years, in the third and sixth years of the Sabbatical cycle (Tobit, 1:7-8; Jos. Ant. 4:8:22; Trg. Jer. Dt. 26:12-13); see Geiger, Urschrift, 176+; Schurer, GJV (3) 2;252.

Spencer, De legibus ritualibus, lib. 3, diss. 1, cap. 10 ; Selden, History of Tithes; Reland, Antiquitates sacrae, lib. 3, cap.

9, reprinted with extensive notes by the editor in Ugolini Thesaurus, 2:1031+; J. C. Hottinger, De decimis Hebraeorum, also in Ugolini Thesaurus, 20:283-490 (valuable for its Rabbinical erudition); Riehm, HIVR, art. Paper! 'Zehnten'; Ryssel, 'Zehnten bei den Hebraern', PREP) 17:428+, lit. ib. 17:444); A. Be A Redneck: The Inspiration Collar Comedy! S. Peake, 'Tithe' in paper punch uk Hastings' DB 4:780+; W. R. Smith, Rel. Sem. (2) 244+; Nowack and Benzinger, HA ; Schurer, GJV (3) 250+ i. |VV. tsiyyun, 2 K. 23:17 RV 'monument'. See MASSEBAH, 1 (e) 2. rtrXos [titlos], Jn. Agama Buddha! 19:19-20. Punch Uk! See CROSS, 4.

(TITOC : on the accentuation see Winer-Schmiedel Gramm. Business Proposal! Th. i., 6:2) is the name of a rather enigmatic minor figure in the apostolic age, who is known almost entirely from Paul's allusions to him (in Gal. and 2 Cor. ) as a friend and paper, trusty lieutenant. He is restaurant, not associated with Paul in the address of any extant epistle, and nothing is known of his birthplace, age, or nationality, except that he was a pagan by paper uk birth (EXX?/!/ uv [hellen oon]) and apparently a native of Asia Minor (cp Gal. 2:1-5). Later tradition (Tit. 1;4) may be correct in hinting that he was brought over to Christianity by Paul himself.

At any rate he appears at an early stage of the apostle's public career (possibly in 49 A.D. ; cp CHRONOLOGY, 74, PAUL, 16) as a private individual who accompanied Paul and Barnabas (cp Acts 15:2) at the former's request upon their visit to Jerusalem, evidently to represent the success of the Pauline gospel outside Judaism. The burning question at the conference of Jerusalem was the value and sejarah agama, validity of Christian faith if unsupplemented by circumcision, and (as Paul had foreseen) the case of Titus inevitably came up for discussion. Whether it was made a test case or not, it led to bitter feeling between the conservative party and their challengers. Paul and paper punch, Barnabas, however, stood their ground against the orthodox centre and repudiated any compromise involving their companion; 'not even Titus', says Paul triumphantly, 'was obliged to get circumcised' - much less (as the social psychology, Judaising Christians appear to have insisted) Gentile Christians in paper punch general, who were not (like Titus) in direct daily touch with a circumcised Christian. Nothing is said of what Titus himself thought and felt.

His attitude is passive. The natural inference, however, is sejarah agama, that he left himself in paper Paul's hands, sharing, or at least sympathising, with that 'inward impulse' of Paul's spiritual nature, which 'went straight to the results of its principles . C.wright Mills! . . and thus carried him past a form of Christianity which was simply another form of Judaism' (Baur). Cp COUNCIL OF JERUSALEM. 4, 7. The textual problem raised by the omission of o! ovSe [ois oude] (Gal. 2:5) in some western MSS is not serious (cp Lightf. Gal. 121-123, and Klostermann's Probleme im Apostel-texte [1883], 54-55); besides, even were the external evidence more considerable, the internal probabilities of the punch uk, case put the matter beyond doubt, ihe curious silence of Acts upon this notorious controversy (ACTS, 4) is due to the irenical tendency of the author or of the sources which he edited at this point of his story. C.wright Mills! Even if he did not know the Pauline Epistles, Titus must have been familiar to him, as familiar at any rate as several of the minor figures who flit across his pages. But by the time he wrote, the circumcision-question was obsolete, and he probably deemed it prudent to paper punch uk pass by Theories of Exchange Rate Essay allusions which might revive unpleasant memories better left unstirred.

Some such explanation is distinctly preferable to Ramsay's hypothesis that the paper, Antiochian Luke omitted the name of Titus because he was his relative (St. Paul, 389-390). Further, the disinclination to report so discreditable and unedifying an episode as that of the local dispute at Corinth naturally led to the omission of any later reference to Titus, who thus had the business proposal, misfortune to be sacrificed to the special aims and interests of the first historian of the punch uk, early church. Three or four years elapse before Titus reappears, in connection with the Corinthian church. 1 His lack of social psychology examples, circumcision would naturally prevent him from being a suitable companion during Paul's second tour (49-52 A.D.) which embraced as a rule - for so much is visible even under the religious pragmatism of paper punch uk, Acts - an Essay on You The Inspiration of Blue Collar, initial attempt upon the synagogues in almost every city. But, since Titus is found at Paul's disposal in Ephesus, it is possible that the apostle took him from Antioch, after the dispute with Peter (Gal. 2:11-21), upon his third tour through Galatia and paper punch, the Phrygian highlands as far as the Asiatic metropolis - a 'carefully planned stroke of policy', according to Ramsay, which effectually answered the unfair deductions drawn by Judaisers in favour of Judaic Christianity from Timothy s circumcision previous to his promotion. Be that as it may, the keenest interest shown by Titus was in the Achaian Christians, an interest only equalled by that of Paul himself (2 Cor. 8:16), who stamped him as 'my comrade and fellow-worker in your interest' (2 Cor. 8:23), my brother' (2 Cor. 2:13), and a colleague actuated by the same high motives (2 Cor.

12:18) - an estimate borne out by the record of what transpired during the Corinthian episode, where Titus proved himself a prudent, active, and reliable commissioner of Paul. C.wright Mills! His connection with the paper uk, Achaian Christians appears to have begun upon the occasion of c.wright mills, a visit paid either at the despatch of i Cor. (which he may have carried, as one of 'the brothers' : 1 Cor. 16:11; cp 2 Cor. Paper Punch! 12:18) or shortly afterwards, when he set on c.wright mills, foot arrangements for a local contribution to the great collection (cp Rendall, Expos. (4) 8:321-336, and E. Lombard, Rev. d. Theol. Punch Uk! el Philos. , 1902, p. Essay Be A Redneck: The Inspiration Of Blue Comedy! 113-114) on paper punch, behalf of the on You Be A The Inspiration, Judaean Christians which Paul was negotiating throughout the Gentile churches, partly as a timely act of charity, partly as a tangible evidence of sympathy between the punch, two branches of the church, and partly to show his own belief and interest in their unity. Acquainted with the instructions already given by c.wright mills Paul to the Galatians in this matter of the Xoyia [logia] (1 Cor.

16:1), Titus was well adapted 2 for this financial work, which began in the year previous to that in which 2 Cor. 8:10, 9:2 were written. 1 On the movements of uk, Titus and Timothy at this period see especially and examples, variously Lightfoot (Bibl. Essays, 273-274), Schmiedel (HC 2:1:82-86, 2:1:267-269), Heinrici (Der zweite Brief an paper punch uk, die Kor. [Meyer, 1900], 46-51), and A. Robertson (Hastings ' DB 1:492-497). The scantiness of the doc holi, available data renders any outline rather hypothetical at more than one point; upon the whole the most satisfactory view of the episode in general and of its extant literary evidence seems to lie somewhere among those which are based upon an acceptance of 2 Cor. 10-13 as the 'intermediate letter' (literature in Moffatt's Hist. New Testament (2) 1901, p. Paper Punch! 174-175). 2 In describing the collection of sejarah agama buddha, temple tribute among the Jews, a custom which no doubt suggested to Paul the idea or at least the punch, form of this collection, Philo notices the periodical assignment of the funds in each district 'to men of good standing whose duty it is to convey them to Jerusalem. For this purpose it is sejarah, always men of the highest rank who are chosen, as a kind of punch, guarantee that what forms the hope of c.wright mills, every Israelite may reach the Holy City untampered with' (De monarchia, 3, cited by Schur. Hist.

2:2:289). Evidence for such collections in Egypt is displayed by punch uk Wilcken, Griech. Ostraka (1899), 1:253-254, 6:15-16, See DISPERSION, 16, and Harnack s Ausbreitung, 133-135. As the context implies (2 Cor. 12:15-17), 2 Cor. 12:17-18 (eweove icTTjcra [epleonektesa]) refers to the collection ; neither in c.wright mills person, nor by paper my agents (Paul retorts), did I overreach you. In view of this it seems inadequate to deny (with Zahn, Einl. 1:244-245) that the collection is the topic of 2 Cor. 8:6.

As Titus had previously made a beginning (n-poei^pf arc [proenerxato]) with this bounty, so (Paul urges) let him complete it now in addition to (eai [kai]) the other local tasks - such as that of acting for Paul during the estrangement - which, as 2 Cor. 1-9 implies, he had brought to a happy issue. Then and there he won the esteem of the Corinthians. Along with some other agent, he supported himself as Paul had done, thereby putting his disinterested zeal beyond suspicion ; as Paul s language indicates (2 Cor. 12:18), he was evidently the c.wright mills, last man in the world whom the Corinthians would have dreamed of accusing (cp J. H. Kennedy, The Second and Third Epistles of paper uk, Paul to the Corinthians, 1900, p. 119). The business of the collection prospered famously (2 Cor.

9:1-2). But it was rudely interrupted by the painful, discreditable, and contemptible affair which led to a rupture beween Paul and the Corinthian church. At this outbreak of bad feeling Titus in all likelihood returned to Ephesus, although this is one of several details which are far from luminous or coherent. It is possible that he contented himself with simply reporting the doc holi, crisis. At any rate, he seems to paper punch have borne somewhat later to Corinth from sejarah agama Ephesus the vehement, severe letter (preserved in whole or part in uk 2 Cor. 10-13:10) which Paul precipitately wrote with caustic and passionate indignation, his aim being to test their loyalty and bring them to their senses (2 Cor. 2:13, 7:6-7, 7:13-14). The misgivings and c.wright mills, apprehensions 1 of Titus on this errand proved happily unfounded. He was received and obeyed heartily by the majority, and eventually found himself able to uk rejoin Paul with good news of the Corinthians repentance and affection. Some delay occurred, however, and meantime the outbreak at Ephesus (PAUL, 25) had driven the apostle to Troas.

Dismayed to hear at Corinth of the grief produced by his sharp letter (2 Cor. Doc Holi! 7:8), he felt driven by restless eagerness for further news across to Macedonia. There at last he met his friend returning by land, and in an access of paper, delight and relief at his favourable report composed 2 Cor. Restaurant Business! 1:1-9, 13:11-13, which he concludes by planning to have the collection resumed and completed under charge of Titus accompanied by two anonymous but able subordinates. The former was not only willing but eager to paper uk return to Corinth (2 Cor. 8:16, 8:23), so satisfied had he been with his recent experience of the church's temper (2 Cor. 7:6-7, 7:13-15). Thus Titus disappears from the scene. Theories Determination! He probably returned with the letter to Corinth and reorganised the Xoyia [logia] or voluntary assessment throughout Achaia.

For although no Corinthian deputies are mentioned among those named in Acts 20:4, it is evident from Rom. 15:26 that the long-promised liberality of the punch, Corinthians (2 Cor. 9:5) had not been withheld, and that the financial labours of Titus (2 Cor. 8:6, 9:2) were crowned with success. Curiously enough, among the virtues of the Corinthian church celebrated some forty years later, liberality (ijdiov didovres f) Xo,ufidvovTfs [edion didontes e lambanontes]) is reckoned as one of its leading and traditional characteristics (Clem. Rom. 1:1, 2:1). 1 As a personal friend of Paul and as a Gentile Christian over whom an acrimonious feud had been already waged (Gal. 2:3), Titus cannot have felt comfortable at the prospect of confronting the Jewish Christian intriguers who were busy at c.wright mills, Corinth.

Probably it was dislike of them, if not their active malice, that had driven him away. At the same time his diplomatic qualities, no less than his organising capacity, made him evidently a more capable man than Timothy to deal with a difficult situation of this kind, and Paul's generous confidence in the sterling qualities of the Corinthian church (2 Cor. 7:14), as well as his sagicity in paper punch uk the choice of c.wright mills, a new envoy, must have been amply justified by events. The genuine fragment incorporated in paper uk Tit. Theories Determination Essay! 3:12-13 (cp CHRONOLOGY, 68-69, TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 13) probably belongs to paper punch uk the period after the composition of 2 Cor. 1-9, written either from Macedonia (see NICOPOLIS, 3) when Paul was on his way to Corinth or on his way back (Acts 20:3). How the connection with Crete arose, and doc holi, whether Titus managed to rejoin him or not, it is impossible to say. The only light thrown upon his subsequent movements is uk, afforded by a remark two years later in a genuine Pauline fragment preserved in 2 Tim. 4:10, from which it appears that Titus, who must have turned up during Paul's captivity in Rome, had left (on a mission?) for Collar, DALMATIA (q.v.).

The trustworthiness of this notice need not be doubted, although the phrase 'this present world' (T OV vvv aiiava. [ton nyn aioona], cp 1 Tim. Paper! 6:) is un-Pauline. Nor is a substantial basis to be denied to the tradition (reflected in Tit. 1:5) that links Cretan Christianity to Titus at any rate (whatever may be thought of the allusion to Paul), although the tendency and object of the sub-Pauline author is naturally to social suggest that the anarchic condition of the local Christians 'was one considerable cause of the paper uk, evidently low moral condition to which they had sunk' (Hort, Christian Ecclesia, 176), and examples, characteristically to lay stress upon organisation as a safeguard. Titus has been occasionally, but unconvincingly, regarded as the author of the 'We-journal' in Acts (ACTS, 9b) - e.g., by paper uk Krenkel, Kneucker, Seufert, Jacobsen, O. Holtzmann (ZWT, 1889, p. 409), and Bartlet (Apost. Age, 69, 100 [1900]). C.wright Mills! But all that the curious silence of Acts enables us to adduce in favour of such a conjecture is the wholly inadequate fact that Titus was a companion of paper, Paul, possibly - though only possibly - during part of the time covered by sejarah agama the diary in question. Besides, it is significant that no writing, canonical or extra-canonical, is assigned to him in tradition, which is content to elaborate his connection with Crete and - by a strange shift of fortune, after the Venetian regime - with Venice. The meagre allusion to Crete which happens to occur in the Epistle to Titus, may quite well rest upon a nucleus of historical fact ; but the luxuriant fancy of later generations proceeded among other developments to make him the first bishop appointed by Paul over Crete (Ap. Const.

7:46, Euseb. Paper Punch Uk! HE 34, Theod., Theophylact, Jerome, etc.), dying indeed at Candia, as archbishop of doc holi, Gortyna, in his ninety-fourth year (Fabric. Cod. Apocr. NT 2:831-832). Cp Tozer, Islands of the paper, Aegean, 65-66.

In the Roman legends of the gnostic Trpcif ei5 II av Aou [praxeis paulou], Titus is connected with Paul, and plays along with Luke a role in the Passio sancti Pauli Apostoli and Martyrium Pauli, 114-117 (cp Lips. Acta Apost. Apocryph., 1891, 123-44). Like Timothy he is of course reckoned among the seventy disciples by Chron. Pasch.

420 (ed. Bonn), and, according to Acta Pauli et Theclae, 2-3, he gives information regarding Paul to Onesiphorus at Essay of Blue, Iconium. One of the epistles of the paper uk, pseudo-Dionysius Areopagita is addressed to Titus as bishop of Crete. The rather slight contents of the Acta Titi (see Lips. Agama! Apocr. Uk! Ap.-gesch.

3;401-406) are as legendary as the panegyric on Titus pronounced by Andreas of Crete (ed. Of Exchange Rate Essay! Paris, 1644). Like Timothy, Titus also has had some ado to paper uk preserve his individuality. But it seems needless to do more than chronicle even the doc holi, attempts made to identify him (see Wieseler) with the Titius (TtVov [titou] [XE]) Justus of punch uk, Acts 18:7 or with Silas (Silvanus) ; against Essay on You Be A Redneck: The Inspiration the latter as advocated especially by paper uk Zimmer, see the conclusive statement of Essay Might Redneck: The Inspiration, Julicher, JPT, 1882, pp. 528-552 [, also SILAS, 5-6]. See TIMOTHY AND TITUS (EPISTLES).

(TITIOC loycroc [Ti. WH]), Acts 18:7 RV, AV JUSTUS (q.v., ii.). RV Titus Manius (TITOC MANIOC). 2 Macc. 11:34 . See MANLIUS. rynri; o leAcei [BN], o ecoc^ei [A], o [L] ; ThosaitesVg. , all presupposing the form 'yijnn [HThVTsY]; a gentilic attached to the name JOHA (1 Ch. 11:45). David's warriors were presumably, like himself, [not] from the paper punch uk, Negeb. Shimri, the name of Joha's father, also favours this. If TIRZAH (q.v.) was really a place in social psychology examples the Negeb, we might suppose corruption from -ni^n a Tirzathite. (niPl), 1 Ch.

6:34 [6:19]; in 1 S. 1:1, TOHU. (3112 ; rcoB [BAL]), a region in which Jephthah 'the Gileadite' took refuge (Judg. 11:3, 11:5), and punch, whence the Ammonites obtained allies in c.wright mills their war against David (2 S. 10:68, RV ; cp ISH-TOB). Sayce plausibly identifies it with Tubi, a place conquered by Thotmes III., and mentioned a little before Astiratu - i.e.. Tell Ashtera (RP(2) 545 ; cp Maspero, AZ, 1881, p. 124). This does not, however, suit the original story which underlies Judg. 11:1-33 (see JEPHTHAH); a district of Hauran is paper punch, not to sejarah agama be expected here. Tubihi is much more appropriate (see TIRHATH) ; this very ancient city was probably in the Lebanon district, NW. of Damascus. The identification also suits the mention of Tob in 2 S. 10:68 in connection with ZOBAH (q.v. ). The same region may be meant by the land of TUBIAS (AV TOBIE; LXX Toi /Stoi [toubiou] ) in 1 Macc.

5:13, the people of paper uk, which appear to be called TUBIENI (2 Macc. 12:17 ; see CHARACA) - i.e., the men of Tub or Tob. C.wright Mills! These identifications, however, only suit a fairly conservative view of the MT. If the Gilead originally meant in Judg. 11 and in 1 Macc. 5 be a southern Gilead in the Negeb, and if the Zoba originally meant in 2 S. 10 be Zarephath in the Negeb, we must consider whether 3f0 may not be a mutilated form of ^am (see TUBAL). The n in the Gk. and Syr. forms (roujSeicov? [toubeinous] [A], Tov/3iacous [toubianous] [V], jkl*2aJ) is clearly not radical. See GASm. HG 587, n. Punch Uk! 5, who agrees, it may be added, with Conder (Heth and Moab, 176) in identifying Tob with mod. et-Tayyibeh, NE. of Pella.

(Pl3n* 3iO; TU)B6.AcoBei [toobadoobeia] [B], -A IONIA [doonia], [AL]), a Levite temp. Jehoshaphat (2 Ch. 17:8). Note that Pesh. omits the name and that of the preceding Adonijah and Tobijah ; LXX omits the second. If not a corruption (e.g. , for ITHDJ? [ABDYH = Abdiah] or DIN naj;[ABD 'DM] - y [ayin] and 13 [taw] are very similar in Samaritan script) the name should probably be omitted ; a scribe may have begun to rewrite irraia [TVBYHV = tobijah] and then invented the most suitable name he could think of. [But cp Crit. Bib., ad loc. (rVTlD), Ezra 2:60; see TOBIJAH, 2. 1. The son of doc holi, TOBIT (q.v.). 2. The father of HYRCANUS (q.v.). (royBiOY [ A ^ v ]).

1 Macc. 5:13 AV, RV TUBIAS. See TOB. Paper Uk! ,

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Essay: Business ethics ethical business behaviour. This essay aims to analyze the punch uk essential of ethical business behaviour. This essay will focus on the business ethics on employees. After the introduction part, the definition of business ethic and corporate social responsibility will be given in restaurant Chapter 2. In the next Chapter 3, it would describe three basic concept and moral value of ethics which focusing on employees. Furthermore, it will explain the importance of business ethic in a company in paper Chapter 4. In the last Chapter 5, it will use a case study of c.wright mills Foxconn suicide to analyze how unethical business will affect the company. Producing of new trendy products or providing excellent services is not the only reason to attract customers now. Uk. Business ethics is social taking a significant position on it. Punch Uk. Business people are the experts to maximize the profit of a company.

They suppose to be good at different business fields, which included financing, marketing, and business administration. However, the general public are raising awareness of the corporate social responsibility these years, such as environmental issue, labour exploitation and honesty on restaurant business proposal business dealing. Therefore, for profit maximization, business person must have a good vision on operating business ethically. And it would be other criteria for customers or business partner to choose your company instead of others. This essay will divide to three main parts: the punch first part will provide basic idea of business ethic and corporate social responsibility.

The second part will illustrate the concept on business ethics which concerning on employees. The last part will point out the doc holi importance of business ethic with a case study. 2. What is Business ethic. 2.1 Definition of business ethic. Business ethic has various meanings and paper punch, it can be differ in c.wright mills different countries and from industry to paper punch uk, industry. Proposal. It is a set of moral value, standard, code of paper conduct in a business organization, for example honesty, fairness and responsibility, which stipulate as a guideline to a law, regulation in a business organization. According to O.C Ferrell (2011), Business ethics comprises the principles and standards that guide behaviour in the world of business. Investors, employees, customers, interest groups, the legal system, and the community often determine whether a specific action is right or wrong, ethical or unethical.

Although these groups are not necessarily right, their judgments influence societys acceptance or rejection of a business and its activities. (Ferrell,2011). And Kirk O. Hanson (2010) identified that business ethics is the social examples study of the standards of business behaviour which promote human welfare and the good. (Kirk O. Hanson2010).Business ethics is a board topic and its include different perspective, such as the relationship between company and employees, company and customers and environmental issue. Business ethics on relationship between business organization and employees. Will be focus on this essay. 2.2 What is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Corporate social responsibility is a common term which has a close relationship and paper, links with the concept of business ethic. According to Lord Holme and Richard Watts (2000) , corporate social responsibility is the continuing commitment by Comedy business to behave ethically and contribute to paper uk, economic development while improving the business quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large. (Lord Holme and Richard Watts 2000) CSR is not a function of business like accounting or marketing, it is paper a representation of the soul of a business, like values or principles. It gets expressed through the many ways that firms engage their stakeholders, how they treat those around them and how they create a community that wants to support them. , said Joe Lawless(2012).

CSR also are reflected in a corporate policies and behaviours, for example how the restaurant business proposal company treats the stakeholders including employees, customer, supplier, community and environment ethically or in a responsible manner. 3. Business ethic on employees. 3.1 Justice and Fairness. Every company must have encounter of problem that how to motivate their employees. It consistently finds that employees are more motivated when they feel that organizational resources are allocated fairly, that organizational decisions are made in fairways, and that their organization treats them fairly. To determine is the corporation treats employees with fairness; there is two contextual forms to define the punch fairness in an organization, which are distributive fairness and procedural fairness. Distributive fairness is based on the outcome and the perception of individuals assumes they deserve. For example, if inflation rises by 5% and incomes go up by the same margin people will perceive it as a fair outcome (Terry, T., Dienhart, J. #038; Thomas, T. ,2008). Procedural fairness is concerning about the social processes or procedure that create outcomes. Take hiring employees as an example.

They evaluate the fairness in application, interview, and selection processes. Are those processes consistent over time and the same among individuals and groups? Is it in paper punch neutral and of Exchange Rate Determination Essay, transparent situation? Take Primark as an paper punch, example , it expressed their Code of social examples Conduct that any supplier making there items must pay laborers in any event the lowest pay permitted by law, as set by government. They deliberately vet each and paper punch uk, every processing plant, checking wage and on You Be A The Inspiration, working hours records in point of interest and address specialists themselves, in certainty, to paper punch uk, confirm the information. (2015) 3.2 Human rights #038; Labour rights. The United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights claimed that Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of sejarah residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status.

We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible. Paper Uk. Labour rights are the term derived from Human rights, which represent the relation between employees and employers. It can be refer to the employers should respect the rights of all person to life, security of the person and privacy, respect the right of psychology examples their employees to join trade unions and to bargain collectively and develop non discriminatory employees polices , and respect each person freedom of thought, religion, opinion and communication.( Joseph W.Weiss,2014) Labour rights are stipulate under the paper uk labour and employment law. Because of globalization, corporation are concerning more than before on ethical and humane when doing business in recently years. Doc Holi. So the issues of Labour rights such as child labour, setting the minimum wages and labour abuse are raising public awareness on paper uk business ethics factors of employees. In the office website of Primark stated that they are a subsidiary company of Associated British Food.

They advocate that child labour should not be used and they sanction its supplier to Essay, deliver their item when the checking of the manufacturing plant to paper punch uk, guarantee all the labourers are in a lawful working age. C.wright Mills. Furthermore, they attract with suppliers, workers and paper punch, gatherings, serving to ensure that the c.wright mills upsides of adolescents preparation are gotten on. Besides, they advance program that on. raising public awareness of paper punch uk children rights. Doc Holi. (2015) Working conditions contain of the degree of safety, danger, and hygiene of the environment and all circumstances that affect employees physical (health) and psychological in uk the workplace, including job hours, physical aspects, legal rights and responsibilities. It also involved the implementation of doc holi safety training for employees and insurance schemes and safety guideline and paper uk, policies to reduce the risk of of Exchange Rate Determination Essay employee might suffer. Working hours is the important factor of the productivity. However, in order to punch, reach the highest productivity and efficiency, some companies abuse their workers with extremely long working hours. Rate Determination Essay. [Companies should] provide a framework for punch regulated hours of work , daily and weekly rest periods, and annual holidays. These instruments ensure high productivity while safeguarding workers physical and mental health.

Standards on sejarah part-time work have become increasingly important instruments for addressing such issues as job creation and promoting equality between men and women. claimed International labour organization (2014). Working hours can be varying in different countries, culture, gender, or age and other factors. According to punch, International labour organization, table 1 illustrates the legal working hour among five productive countries, such as Bangladesh, China, Germany, India, and United State (International labour organization,2014). To treat employees ethically, maximum working hours must be compliance and concerned by every business corporation. Primark has a strict Code of business proposal Conduct that meets universal guidelines. Suppliers must take after this Code to guarantee items are made in great working conditions, and the individuals making them are dealt with well and paid a reasonable pay. They vet each and every manufacturing plant against paper punch, the Code before they submit a request with a supplier.(2015) Table 1: Legal working hour in Bangladesh, China, Germany, India, United State (based on International Labour Organization, 2013)

Bangladesh China Germany India United State. Daily hours limit(hour) 11 8 8 9 No federal statutory limit on Essay daily working hours identified. Weekly hours limit(hour) 48 40 48 48 40. Last update 4 March 2011 1 April 2011 2012 14 May 2011 July 2012. 4. Importance of business ethic for a company. 4.1 Save money for lawsuit, settlement, theft. Study from Joseph W.Weiss found out that yearly business expense of interior misrepresentation range between the yearly gross domestic profit(GDP) of Bulgaria ($50 billion) and that of Taiwan ($400 billion) . It has likewise been assessed that fraud costs organizations $600 billion USD every year, and that 79% of labourers concede or to consider taking from paper uk, their employers.() From this result, it illustrated that there is a significant portion of business profit annually that attributed to fraud from the workers. Because of that corporation might search for of Exchange Rate Essay legal consultation in order to punch uk, open lawsuit and spend money in settlement.

Furthermore, corporation paid noteworthy penalties under the Might Be A Redneck: Collar Comedy law for punch acting unethically. A loss of public confident can be detrimental to doc holi, the firms and to its investor., said Joseph W.Weiss (Operating with business ethics is essential when cooperating with crucial players with these crucial players. It is common for the profitability of publicly traded companies to paper punch, decline rapidly when they encounter situations where information regarding unethical behaviour is discovered. When a corporation was discovered that they do business unethically, usually they will do lot more advertising and promotion on their business than before in order to hide the problem and sejarah agama buddha, divert the punch uk publics attention, instead of stand in front to apologize and to correct the sejarah problem. However, it kind of paper action is actually ruin their brand imagine when the people do not think the corporation is responsible for the mistakes and the confidence will decrease. Doc Holi. Negative reputation of a company may affect the uk corporation that the Essay Be A of Blue difficulty of recruit new employees and retained valued professionals. 4.3 Investor loyalty.

Business relationship based on mutual trust and uk, ethical principle combined with regulation result in long term economic gains for organizations, shareholder, and stakeholders. , said Joseph W.Weiss (2014). Social Psychology Examples. Investment is the most importance factor that keeps company survives, because it maintains the liquidity of the company and retains company in high share price that protect it from takeover. However, at punch uk, the point when speculator certainty is buddha lost, it can be a hard time for an organization to recover the trust of general society, its financial specialists and its important shareholders. Profitability may take years to develop once more. 4.4 Customer satisfaction. The business can remain on long-term benefits when it has good client connections. To keep up good relationship with clients, the business needs to grow genuine ethical code of conduct. The conduct of the representative towards the clients will have an effect on paper them. They will build up an proposal, impression of the business which will make the clients enhance their trust they have with the organization .The morals of the business will lead the organization to hold the trust its clients. Joseph W.Weiss stated that at the point when organization and partners base their transactions, procurements of administrations and items on good ethical standard and the production-oriented metrics, the greater profit levels of business and fulfilment of the partner increment, and people in generals certainty likewise upgraded. (Joseph W.Weiss ,2014) .It is clear that the profit of the company will definitely increase if all the stakeholders are supporting the business . Punch Uk. And in the worker perspective, they are more productive when they are satisfied with the environment. 5. Case Study: Foxconn Suicide.

Foxonn suicide was a tragedy of unethical business practise that happened in China. Sweat factory Foxconn Technology Group is a Taiwanese multinational company with its main plant operating in Shenzhen, China. Foxconn is hands down the largest manufacturing of electronic, computer and computer components in the world. They employ more than 800,000 workers , in which 500,000 labours manufacture for Apple Inc products, such as Iphone, IPad .Between 2010 and 2013, there is a string of suicide at Foxconn. At least 16 people have jumped from high buildings at the factory so far this year, with 12 deaths and a further 20 people were stopped by the company before they could attempt to kill themselves. According to the newspaper New York Times, Foxconn has a reputation for military-style efficiency that includes mapping out assembly line workers movements in great detail and monitoring tasks with a stopwatch.

A typical worker shares a dormitory room with nine other workers, eats in the campus cafeteria and works 11 to of Exchange Essay, 13 hour shifts. Often they do little more than work and sleep. Some have no friends on campus and do not even know the names of their roommates. Punch. Shortage of warm water in the dorm often meant cold showers, and where even simple pleasures like snacks were forbidden.(2010) . From the above information from the news , it can be seen that Foxconn were not treating their employees ethically regarding the working conditions and fairness. Many worker were working long hours for low pay under heavy pressure. Most of them work 40 extra hours of sejarah agama buddha overtime each week and the monthly wage they got is only 950 RMB ($US140) that employees must work hours of overtime each day to make about 2,000 RMB to meet basic needs. 5.3 Effect on Apple Inc. It was a catastrophe for Apple Inc when the news discovered that their manufacturer treated its employees unethically and inhumanely. Apple Inc share of paper punch stock dropped by on You Be A Comedy 1.5%, which indicated that the stock traders were taking the tragedy seriously.

That was a huge impact on punch Apple Incs profit and social, its brand imagine, because Apple Inc did not monitor its supplier running under the business ethical principles. Moreover, it may affect their customer satisfaction because the products they have bought are from exploitation on uk the workers. This issue has raised the public awareness on ethical business. After that, Apple Inc. and Foxconn putted a lot of doc holi effort for the improvement to enhance their reputation and paper punch uk, the trust from their stakeholders, including customers, shareholders and employees. Theories Of Exchange Rate Essay. For example, Apple Inc set up its own team of suicide prevention experts to work with Foxconn and offer guidance for further improvements. And Apple Inc worked with the Fair Labor Association to ensure its suppliers workers are trained in uk their rights and obligations. Of Exchange Rate Determination. Furthermore, Foxconn has raised their pay to the workers. Foxconn suicide case is an example of unethical business to reveals that the importance of ethical practise on employees and its effect on the whole business operation. This case study is an example of labour exploitation and unethical business practise.

It illustrates the strong relation of punch uk unethical business on employee and business proposal, its impact of the operation. This paper has showed that the business ethic in perspective of employee, such as justice and fairness, human rights and uk, working condition. And the doc holi relationships between business ethics and business operation. For example, save money for punch lawsuit and settlement, reputation, investor loyalty, customer satisfaction and profit. Business ethics are not only a moral concept but also a practical thing that every company should pay attention on and take it seriously.

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