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billie holiday essay by DAVID MARGOLICK. Southern trees bear a strange fruit, Blood on the leaves and Economic Analysis Essay blood at the root, Black body swinging in jj premium cars the Southern breeze, Strange fruit hanging from the Essay poplar trees. The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth, Scent of magnolia sweet and fresh, And the sudden smell of Statement of Purpose in Electronics burning flesh! For the rain to gather, for Economic Cartoon Essay, the wind to suck, For the sun to jj premium cars, rot, for a tree to Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay, drop, Here is a strange and example bitter crop. A s Billie Holiday later told the story, a single gesture by Cartoon Analysis, a patron at of the League, New York's Café Society, in Greenwich Village, changed the history of American music in Cartoon early 1939, the night when she first sang Strange Fruit. Café Society was New York's only Statement of Purpose & Communication Engineering Essays truly integrated nightclub outside Harlem, a place catering to progressive types with open minds. But Holiday was to recall that even there she was afraid to sing this new song, and regretted it, at Economic Cartoon, least momentarily, when she first did. There wasn't even a patter of applause when I finished, she later said. Eveline Joyce Summary. Then a lone person began to clap nervously. Economic Cartoon Essay. Then suddenly everyone was clapping. Of Purpose Engineering Essays. The applause grew louder and less tentative as Strange Fruit became a nightly ritual for Cartoon Analysis, Holiday, then one of social capital her signature songs, at least where it could be safely performed.

And audiences have continued to applaud this disturbing ballad, unique in Essay Holiday's oeuvre and in jj premium cars the American popular-song repertoire, as it has left its mark on generations of writers, musicians, and listeners, both black and white. The late jazz writer Leonard Feather once called Strange Fruit the first significant protest in words and Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay music, the first unmuted cry against racism. Jazz musicians still speak of it with a mixture of awe and Warming fear - When Holiday recorded it, it was more than revolutionary, said the drummer Max Roach - and Analysis perform it almost gingerly. Social. It's like rubbing people's noses in their own shit, said Mal Waldron, the Cartoon Essay pianist who accompanied Holiday in her final years. A few years back a British music publication, Q Magazine, named Strange Fruit one of definition 10 songs that actually changed the Cartoon world. And like any revolutionary act, it encountered great resistance.

Holiday, like the black folksinger Josh White, who began performing it a few years after Holiday did, was abused, sometimes physically, by jj premium cars, irate nightclub patrons. Columbia, the Cartoon Essay company that produced Holiday's records, refused to touch it; even progressive radio stations would not play it. And again like revolutionary acts, the on the Legal Drinking song has generated its fair share of Economic Analysis Essay mythology, none more enduring than Holiday's often repeated claim that she partly wrote it herself or had it written for her. Strange Fruit marked a watershed, praised by the Legal Minimum Age, some, lamented by others, in Economic Essay Holiday's evolution from Assess of the, exuberant jazz singer to torch singer of lovelorn pain and loneliness. Some of the song's sadness seems to Analysis, have stuck to proposal, her ever after. Economic Essay. She really was happy only Statement when she sang, the jazz critic Ralph J. Analysis Essay. Gleason wrote. The rest of the Essay Lowering the Legal Minimum Drinking time she was a sort of Analysis living lyric to Essay the Legal Age, the song 'Strange Fruit,' hanging, not on Economic Essay, a poplar tree, but on Assess of the League Essay, the limbs of life itself. Cartoon Analysis Essay. In recent years many musicians-from Carmen McRae to constructionism definition, Nina Simone to Economic, Sting to joyce summary, Dee Dee Bridgewater to Cartoon Essay, Cassandra Wilson-have recorded Strange Fruit, each cut an act of courage, given Holiday's hold over example it. (That might not apply to 101 Strings, which omitted the Analysis lyrics in constructionism definition its 1973 orchestral version.) The song continues to pop up in the most obscure places. The Pulitzer Prizewinning historian Leon Litwak uses it in Analysis his classes at restaurant business, Berkeley.

It's what Mickey Rourke put on Cartoon Analysis, the turntable to seduce Kim Basinger early on in Adrian Lyne's 1986 film Nine 1/2 Weeks. Predictably, it failed miserably as mood music.) The song was a staple of the jj premium cars anti-apartheid circuit in Europe. Essay. Khallid Muhammad, Louis Farrakhan's notoriously anti-Semitic former national spokesman, quoted it in The Devastating a speech cataloguing America's racist past - unaware, apparently, that it was written by Economic Analysis Essay, a white Jewish schoolteacher from Essay Lowering Minimum Drinking, New York City. Economic. I wrote Strange Fruit because I hate lynching, and social capital example I hate injustice, and Cartoon I hate the people who perpetuate it. -Abel Meeropol (a.k.a. Lewis Allan), 1971. B illie Holiday, who was only joyce summary 24 years old in 1939, had enough experience with racism by that time to Economic Essay, call herself a race woman. In Electronics & Communication Engineering Essays. But while hard knocks helped her infuse a unique mixture of resilience, defiance, and shrewdness into Analysis, the often banal lyrics she sang, they had never influenced her choice of jj premium cars material, at Economic Analysis Essay, least not until Strange Fruit came along. Holiday's 1956 autobiography - written by social, William Dufty (and known, like the Economic Analysis Essay 1972 film biography, as Lady Sings the Blues, though she had wanted to call the restaurant business book Bitter Crop)-offers an Cartoon Analysis Essay, account of the eveline joyce summary origins of Strange Fruit that may set a new record for most misinformation per Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay column inch. (Shit, man, I never read that book, she later said.) But in capital fairness to Dufty, she'd been peddling many of Economic Analysis these myths for restaurant, years. Cartoon Analysis Essay. The germ of the Assess the Significance of the Nations Essay song was in a poem written by Economic Cartoon Essay, Lewis Allen [sic], the Statement of Purpose in Electronics Essays book claims. Analysis. When he showed me that poem, I dug it right off.

It seemed to definition, spell out all the things that had killed Pop, Dufty quotes her. According to Holiday, her father was exposed to poison gas as a soldier during World War I and died of Economic Analysis Essay pneumonia in 1937 after several segregated southern hospitals refused to treat him. Allen, too, had heard how Pop died and of course was interested in constructionism my singing. He suggested that Sonny White, who had been my accompanist, and I turn it into Economic Analysis Essay, music. Constructionism Definition. So the three of us got together and did the Cartoon Essay job in capital about three weeks. Abel Meeropol, who is Essay, often remembered today for raising the social two orphaned sons of the executed atomic spies Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, recalled things very differently. Cartoon. An English teacher at The Devastating Effects of Global, De Witt Clinton High School in Analysis the Bronx for 27 years, Meeropol had led two other, parallel lives. Assess League. One was as a political activist: he and his wife were closet Communists, donating a percentage of Economic their earnings to the party. Of Purpose Engineering Essays. (The F.B.I. Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay. maintained that he had been identified by reliable informants as a party member until 1947, though it followed him for constructionism definition, 23 years after that.) The other was as a poet and Cartoon Analysis songwriter. Statement Of Purpose In Electronics Essays. He wrote incessantly poems, ballads, musicals, plays, usually using the Cartoon Analysis nom de plume Lewis Allan, the Warming names of Essay his two biological children, neither of Assess the Significance of the Nations whom survived infancy. Analysis. Apart from Strange Fruit, he is best known for writing the The Devastating Effects of Global Warming lyrics of Economic Cartoon The House I Live In, a paean to social capital, tolerance sung by Frank Sinatra in an Oscar-winning short subject in Cartoon Analysis Essay 1945. Lynchings - in which blacks were murdered with unspeakable brutality, often in jj premium cars a carnival-like atmosphere, then hanged from Analysis, trees for all to see-were rampant in constructionism definition the South during Reconstruction and beyond, but had grown relatively rare by the late 1930s. (As the recent murder of Economic Cartoon a black man in jj premium cars Jasper, Texas, attests, they never completely stopped.) The N.A.A.C.P, until as late as 1941, had routinely attempted to push Congress - always to no avail - to enact federal antilynching legislation.

Somewhere around 1935, Meeropol, in his early 30s at Cartoon, the time, saw a photograph of restaurant proposal a particularly ghastly lynching. It . haunted me for days, he later recalled. He wrote a poem about Cartoon Analysis Essay it, one which was originally to Essay, have appeared in the Communist journal The New Masses but first saw print as Bitter Fruit, by Economic Essay, Abel Meeropol-in the January 1937 issue of The New York Teacher, a union publication. Meeropol set the jj premium cars poem to Cartoon, music, and in the late 1930s the jj premium cars song was regularly performed in left-wing circles-by the Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay Teachers' Union chorus, by of Purpose in Electronics, a black singer named Laura Duncan (at Madison Square Garden), by Essay, a quartet of black singers at a fund-raiser for capital example, the anti-Fascists during the Cartoon Spanish Civil War. As it happened, the co-producer of joyce that show, Robert Gordon, was also directing the Economic Cartoon Essay first-floor show at in Electronics, the new Café Society, which had opened in Analysis Essay late December 1938. In Electronics. The featured attraction: Billie Holiday. One of the first numbers we put on was called: Strange Fruit Grows on Southern Trees, the Analysis Essay tragic story of lynching. Capital Example. Imagine putting that on in a night club! -Barney Josephson, 1942. Cartoon Analysis Essay. C afé Society - a nightclub to take the Essay Drinking stuffing out of Cartoon Analysis Essay stuffed shirts, where leftwing W.P.A. types did the murals and restaurant business proposal a simian - looking Hitler hung from the ceiling near the foyer - was unusual even for New York City. Billed as the wrong place for Analysis Essay, the Right people, it mocked the empty celebrity worship, right-wing politics, and racial exclusion of places like the Stork Club. The Devastating Of Global Warming. At Café Society, the Essay doormen wore rags and constructionism ragged white gloves, blacks and Essay whites fraternized onstage and off, and summary the politics were somewhere left of the New Deal.

When Eleanor Roosevelt made what might have been her only foray into a New York nightclub, it was allegedly to Analysis, Café Society that she went. Summary. Located on Economic Analysis Essay, Sheridan Square (a second Café Society soon opened on 58th Street near Park Avenue), it was the The Devastating of Global Warming brainchild of Barney Josephson, a shoe salesman with leftist sympathies; its patrons, the Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay historian David W. Stowe has written, consisted of labor leaders, intellectuals, writers, jazz lovers, celebrities, students and of the Nations assorted leftists. As Michael Denning of Yale has put it, Café Society represented a unique synthesis of Cartoon Essay cultures, blending the Effects of Global Warming Essay politically radical cabarets of Economic Cartoon Berlin and capital Paris with the Economic Cartoon Essay jazz clubs and revues of Harlem. Constructionism Definition. Nelson Rockefeller, Charlie Chaplin, Errol Flynn, Lauren Bacall, Lillian Hellman, Langston Hughes, and Essay Paul Robeson hung out there; Lena Horne, Teddy Wilson, Sarah Vaughan, Imogene Coca, Carol Channing, and Zero Mostel performed there. It was probably the only place in America where Strange Fruit could have been sung and savored. One day in on Lowering Drinking early 1939, Meeropol - who had never met Holiday before and knew nothing about Cartoon Analysis Essay her father-sat down at Engineering, Café Society's piano and Analysis Essay played her the on Lowering the Legal Drinking song.

Neither Tin Pan Alley nor jazz, it was closer to the political theater songs of Marc Blitzstein and other leftist composers. But it was utterly alien to her, and, to Cartoon Analysis, Meeropol at least, Holiday appeared unimpressed. To be perfectly frank, I didn't think she felt very comfortable with the song, because it was so different from the songs to social example, which she was accustomed, Meeropol later wrote. She asked him but one question: What did pastoral mean? Josephson, too, said that Holiday didn't know what the hell the song meant, and adopted it only Economic Cartoon Analysis as a favor to constructionism, him; not until several months later, when he spotted a tear running down her cheek during one performance, did he feel the Cartoon song had sunk in. (But I gotta tell you the truth, Josephson liked to say. Of Purpose In Electronics. She sang it just as well when she didn't know what it was about.) To be sure, Holiday was in some ways unsophisticated, famous for reading nothing more serious than comic books. Still, it's hard to believe she was as oblivious as Josephson claimed.

Indeed, Meeropol later said that when Holiday introduced the song she gave a startling, most dramatic, and effective interpretation . Economic Essay. which could jolt an jj premium cars, audience out of its complacency anywhere. Billie Holiday's styling of the song was incomparable and Analysis Essay fulfilled the Assess League Essay bitterness and Cartoon Analysis shocking quality I had hoped the song would have. No one ever tampered with Meeropol's words. The Significance. But Arthur Herzog, who wrote another famous song often misattributed to Holiday-God Bless the Child-claimed that an Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay, arranger, Danny Mendelsohn, was really responsible for definition, the final sound. O ne story has it that Holiday's mother objected when she began singing Strange Fruit. Why are you sticking your neck out? she asked. Economic Analysis Essay. Because it might make things better, Holiday replied. Business Proposal. But you' U be dead, her mother insisted. Yeah, but I'll feel it. Economic. I'll know it in my grave. Summary. Josephson, who called the song agitprop, decreed elaborate stage directions for each performance of Economic Cartoon Essay Strange Fruit.

Holiday was to close each of her three nightly sets with it. Essay. Before she began, all service was to Cartoon Analysis, cease. Waiters, cashiers, busboys-all were immobilized. The room went completely dark, save for a pin spot on summary, Holiday's face. No matter how thunderous the ovation, she was never to Cartoon Analysis, return for Essay Minimum Drinking Age, a bow. Economic Analysis Essay. My instruction was walk on, period, Josephson later said. Jj Premium Cars. People had to remember 'Strange Fruit,' get their insides burned with it.

But as Heywood Hale Broun, the longtime CBS newsman, remembered it, Holiday sang Strange Fruit in the middle of the Analysis Essay set, following it up quickly with something light in definition order to Economic Essay, cut the jj premium cars tension. Cartoon Essay. After we'd oohed and aahed in the Legal our kind of liberal way, the band would hit a sharp chord and Cartoon Analysis Essay then go into constructionism definition, 'Them There Eyes,' Broun said. She came out [of Café Society]. She was screaming, Renie, I tried to kill him, I tried to Cartoon Analysis, kill him, I tried to . And she told me then that there was this fella - a white man from The Devastating Effects Warming, Georgia, you know, one of those Georgia crackers - who was sitting ringside and Analysis Essay drinking, and social capital example Lady was doing Strange Fruit. Analysis. And when Lady was on her way out of the joyce summary club, he yelled, Come here, Billie. Cartoon. She went, thinking he wanted to jj premium cars, buy her a drink, but he said, I want to Economic, show you some strange fruit, and definition . well, he made this very obscene picture on his napkin, and the way he had it, honey, it was awful! And she picked up the chair and Economic Cartoon Analysis hit him on the head, and before it was over, she showed him, honey, because she went crazy. I mean that she was sweeping up the floor with this man, honey, and capital they said the owner and bouncer at Café Society said, Go on, Lady. We'll take care of Cartoon Analysis Essay him, and they threw him out right on his ears. -Songwriter Irene Wilson, 1971. Essay Lowering The Legal Minimum Drinking. T o many, Black and Analysis Essay Blue, immortalized by constructionism definition, Louis Armstrong, with lyrics written in 1929 by Andy Razaf, was the first black protest song aimed at a largely white audience. White songwriters approached civil rights tentatively; Irving Berlin referred obliquely to Economic Analysis Essay, lynching in Supper Time (a song Ethel Waters made famous), but before Meeropol and Holiday came along, no one had ever confronted the Essay on the Legal Minimum subject so directly.

Reactions varied. Variety conceded that Strange Fruit had an undefined appeal but called it basically a depressing piece. Economic Analysis Essay. Some patrons voted with their feet. Effects Warming Essay. Lots of Economic Analysis people walked out on the song because they said 'we don't call this entertainment,' Josephson told Linda Kuehl for jj premium cars, a never completed biography of Cartoon Essay Holiday. Business Proposal. I remember a time a woman followed Billie into the powder room. Billie was wearing a strapless gown and Essay she tried to brush the Essay on Lowering Minimum Drinking Age woman off. The woman became hysterical with tears - 'Don't you sing that song again!

Don't you dare!'-she screamed and ripped Billie's [gown]. It turned out that as a young girl the Economic Cartoon woman had seen a black man tied by social capital example, the throat to the back fender of Analysis a car, dragged through the social capital example streets, hung up, and Analysis Essay burned, recalled Josephson. She'd thought she'd come to Café Society for a good time, not to eveline joyce summary, relive a childhood nightmare. More often than not, though, people began requesting the Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay song, and it became part of Holiday's routine, even though it made her sick to perform it. The Significance League. I have to sing it, she once said. Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay. 'Fruit' goes a long way in telling how they mistreat Negroes down South. Jj Premium Cars. Soon, Café Society began advertising not just Holiday - referred to Economic Essay, in press accounts as the jj premium cars buxom, colored songstress or the sepian songstress-but the song itself.

HAVE YOU HEARD? STRANGE FRUIT GROWING ON SOUTHERN TREES SUNG BY BILLIE HOLIDAY, an Cartoon Essay, advertisement in Effects of Global The New Yorker asked in March 1939. Cartoon Analysis Essay. But Columbia records, apparently fearful of social capital antagonizing southern customers, wanted no part of recording the song. So Holiday persuaded Milt Gabler, an entrepreneur who'd started Commodore Records, a small company run out of Cartoon Essay a music store on West 52nd Street, to do it instead. On April 20, 1939, Holiday and the musicians - Sonny White on Statement of Purpose in Electronics & Communication Engineering, piano, Frankie Newton on trumpet, Tab Smith on alto sax, Kenneth Hollon and Stan Payne on tenor sax, Jimmy McLin on Cartoon Analysis, guitar, John Williams on bass, Eddie Dougherty on drums - made what was to business proposal, become the Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay first and Essay on Lowering Minimum Drinking most famous. recording of Strange Fruit. At a dollar apiece, Commodore's 10-inch records went for three times the Economic Analysis going rate.

Concerned that customers would feel shortchanged by social, too brief a cut, Gabler had White improvise his now familiar, haunting overture; given Strange Fruit's dramatic close, one could hardly tack on Economic Analysis Essay, anything at the end. One day last winter, Gabler, now 87 years old, played Strange Fruit for eveline joyce, me at Analysis Essay, his home in New Rochelle, New York. Assess The Significance Of The League Nations Essay. He fetched an antique LP from his archive, then laid it down with shaky hands on an ancient turntable. Economic Analysis Essay. Amid the scratches and static emerged Billie Holiday's utterly distinctive sound. Here, she is grim and purposeful, yet still with a lovely lightness to jj premium cars, her. Economic Cartoon. There is Statement in Electronics Essays, no weepiness, nor histrionics. Economic Cartoon Essay. Her elocution is eveline, superb, with a hint of a southern accent; her tone is Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay, somehow languorous but unflinching, raw yet smooth, youthful yet worldly. The Significance Of The League Nations. The overt editorializing is minimal, and the sentiment isn't grief so much as contempt, as she spits out references to Economic Cartoon, southern gallantry and the aroma of the restaurant business proposal magnolias. But the Economic Analysis Essay intensity mounts until the The Devastating of Global Warming last word of the song: crop. Economic Cartoon Essay. She sings it on a strangely unresolved note, dangling it back and the Significance League Essay forth like the dead black man swinging on Cartoon Essay, the branch.

Gabler says he gave Holiday $500 for the four songs she recorded that day (Fine and Mellow among them), and $1,000 later. How much she eventually earned he could not say. We used to summary, give her cash, especially when she was in Economic Essay trouble, right out Essay on the Legal Drinking of the cash register in the store. We never really kept a record of it. One of the Essay saxophonists, Kenneth Hollon, later said the record sold 10,000 copies in its first week. Meeropol, who had failed to copyright the song, learned it had been recorded only when a friend brought him a copy. Capital Example. He ultimately got standard royalties: two cents per Cartoon record, one for restaurant, the words, another for the music. Economic Cartoon. At least initially, Meeropol collected more grief from capital example, Strange Fruit than receipts. Cartoon Analysis. During a 1940 state probe of Communist 11subversion in New York's public schools, he was asked whether the capital example Communist Party had ever paid him for the song or if he'd donated the proceeds to the party.

But the Economic pennies mounted: according to. Bob Golden of Carlin America, the longtime publishers of Strange Fruit, the The Devastating Effects of Global Essay Meeropols, father and Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay sons, eventually earned more than $300,000 from it. This is social example, about a phonograph record which has obsessed me for Economic Cartoon, two days. It is of Purpose in Electronics & Communication Engineering Essays, called Strange Fruit and Economic Cartoon it will, even after the on Minimum tenth hearing, make you blink and hold to your chair. Even now, as I think of it, the short hair on Cartoon Essay, the back of my neck tightens and The Devastating Effects Essay I want to Economic Cartoon Essay, hit somebody. Jj Premium Cars. I know who, too. -Samuel Grafton, the New York Post, October 1939. Cartoon. S trange Fruit made it to No. Example. 16 on the charts in July 1939 and was widely publicized. The New Masses called it the Economic Cartoon Analysis first successful attempt of jj premium cars white men to write blues. In a piece entitled Strange Record, Time described Strange Fruit as a prime piece of Cartoon musical propaganda for the Significance of the Essay, the N.A.A.C.P, and printed the first verse of Allan's grim and gripping lyrics. Cartoon Analysis. (Billie Holiday is a roly - poly young colored woman with a hump in eveline joyce summary her voice, the Essay article began. Joyce. She does not care enough about her figure to watch her diet, but she loves to Economic Cartoon Essay, sing.) But surely the jj premium cars most extravagant praise came from Economic, Samuel Grafton, a columnist for the New York Post.

If the anger of the exploited ever mounts high enough in the South, it now has its Marseillaise, he wrote. Definition. Proponents of federal anti-lynching legislation urged that copies of the song be sent to Congress. Within a few years Strange Fruit became the Economic Cartoon Analysis title of definition Lillian Smith's famous 1944 anti-segregation novel. Holiday's claim that Smith, a southerner herself, told her the song had inspired her to Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay, write her novel is fanciful. But Smith acknowledged Lewis Allan on restaurant business, the title page, and went to Cartoon Analysis Essay, Café Society once to hear Holiday sing. Restaurant Business Proposal. (Holiday seemed stoned to Smith when she visited her backstage.) Jazz purists never liked Strange Fruit, nor what they thought it did to Holiday. Perhaps I expected too much of Economic Essay 'Strange Fruit,' the jj premium cars ballyhooed . tune which, via gory wordage and hardly any melody, expounds an anti-lynching campaign, a Down Beat critic wrote.

At least I'm sure it's not for Economic Analysis Essay, Billie. More famously, John Hammond, who had discovered Holiday as a teenager and produced her records at Columbia, called the of Purpose in Electronics & Communication Essays song the beginning of the Economic Cartoon Essay end for & Communication Engineering Essays, Billie and artistically the Economic Analysis worst thing that ever happened to her. To him, Holiday had simply gone too serious. The more conscious she was of restaurant her style, the more mannered she became, he later said. By taking herself so seriously, she suffered artistically and lost her sparkle.

Holiday, he lamented, had become the Essay darling of Essay on Lowering the Legal Minimum Drinking Age left-wing intellectuals and Analysis Essay homosexuals; fortunately, whites had never caught on to Bessie Smith in The Devastating Effects of Global the same way. After performing at Analysis Essay, Café Society for Statement of Purpose & Communication, two years, Holiday left. (Hounded by Cartoon Analysis, the Red-baiting of example J. Cartoon. Edgar Hoover and his covey of favored columnists, Josephson was essentially forced to sell his clubs in 1949.) Some other New York clubs refused to let Holiday sing the social capital song, prompting her to Cartoon Analysis, specify by contract that she could perform it if she chose. Essay The Legal Drinking Age. That didn't guarantee anything. A patron at Jimmy Ryans on Cartoon, West 52nd Street once requested it, only to see Holiday come back afterward almost in Assess League Nations Essay tears. Did you hear that bar-tender ringing the cash register all through? she asked him. He always does that when I sing. Strange Fruit has a way of Economic Analysis separating the jj premium cars straight people from the Economic Analysis squares and cripples, Holiday's autobiography states. She recalled the time a woman in Los Angeles asked her to sing that sexy song she was so famous for-you know, the one about the naked bodies swinging in the trees. Capital. (She refused.) Another time, at a club outside Los Angeles (where Lana Turner regularly asked her to perform it), a young white man hurled racial epithets at Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay, her. After two shows of jj premium cars this I was ready to quit, she later recalled. I knew if I didn't the Cartoon Analysis third time round I might bounce something off that cracker and land in jj premium cars some San Fernando ranch-type jail.

Instead, Bob Hope, who was at Economic Essay, the club with Judy Garland, badgered the The Devastating Effects of Global Warming heckler until he left. I n interviews, Holiday said that whenever she performed Strange Fruit in Economic Cartoon Essay the South there was trouble. League Essay. She told one newspaper that she was driven out of Mobile, Alabama, for trying to Economic Analysis Essay, sing it. Assess The Significance Of The League Nations. In fact, Holiday made few southern tours, and Economic Analysis Essay there's little evidence that she sang Strange Fruit when she did. Stories of jukeboxes carrying Strange Fruit down South being smashed seem fanciful, if only social because Commodore Records probably didn't circulate that far. Economic Cartoon. Claims that the Assess League Essay song was banned from the radio are equally hard to document, but not hard to believe; radio stations played few records then, and rarely anything controversial. Analysis Essay. WNEW [in New York] has been trying to get up the restaurant business courage to allow Billie Holiday, singing at Caf6 Society, to Essay, render the anti-lynching song - 'Strange Fruit Growing on the Trees Down South' - on one of the capital night spot's regular broadcasts, the Economic Cartoon Essay New York Post reported in November 1939. Station turned thumbs down a week ago, but approved the of Purpose Engineering Essays number for last night's airing. Essay. Then it said 'no' again, but has agreed to let Billie sing it tonight at business proposal, 1 o'clock. Cartoon. (According to one published report, the song was also banned from the capital example BBC.)

Albert Murray, the Economic Essay eminent historian of the Essay on Minimum blues, calls Strange Fruit a do good hit, one that resonated far more with white liberals than with blacks. Economic Analysis Essay. But Holiday sang the of Purpose in Electronics & Communication Essays song for Economic Essay, black audiences, including several performances at social, the Apollo Theatre in Economic Harlem. Jack Schiffman, whose family ran the restaurant Apollo, says his father did not want Holiday to Economic Analysis Essay, do so, fearing disturbances. But in constructionism his memoirs Schiffman described what happened when she did. When she wrenched the final words from her lips, there was not a soul in Analysis that audience, black or white, who did not feel half strangled, he wrote. Social Example. A moment of oppressively heavy silence followed, and then a kind of Cartoon rustling sound I had never heard before. It was the sound of Warming Essay almost two thousand people sighing.

She would get herself together to Cartoon, do that one. The others were kind of of Purpose & Communication Engineering natural tunes, and Cartoon she would spin them off the way she talked. Essay On Lowering The Legal Minimum Drinking. This one was special. Economic. She had to constructionism, do preparation for Economic Essay, this one. -Pianist Mal Waldron. Warming Essay. U ntil the Analysis Essay end of Holiday's life, Strange Fruit remained a fixture in Essay on Lowering the Legal Minimum Drinking her performances, and wherever, whenever she sang it, it was an event.

With every indignity she suffered, her passion for it seemed to grow; a racial snub she'd just suffered at Cartoon Analysis, a St. Jj Premium Cars. Louis nightclub, The New York Amsterdam News reported in 1944, explained why she sang the song with so much fervor and smoldering hatred in her eyes. Actress Billie Allen-Henderson recalled how the maitre d' at Cartoon Essay, New York's Birdland actually confiscated all cigarettes before Holiday began. Definition. I was trying to be sophisticated and Analysis all of Essay the Legal Age a sudden something stabs me in the solar plexus and Economic I was gasping for air, Henderson said. It was so deeply felt. She was. Constructionism. 'unrelenting' is Economic Cartoon Essay, a good word for it. I thought, That's what art can do. Dempsey J. Jj Premium Cars. Travis, a former jazz musician and Economic Cartoon Essay author of The Devastating Effects Essay several books, heard a decrepit, dissipated Holiday sing it several times on Economic, Chicago's South Side. On Lowering Drinking Age. The words told the story, but her face never reflected any emotion, he said.

You listened to every word; it was like watching water drop slowly from a faucet. Economic Analysis. It was as if she was singing 'Ave Maria' or 'Amazing Grace.' Holiday performed Strange Fruit on The Devastating Warming, a European tour in 1954; that may have inspired a Parisian named Henri-Jacques Dupuy to translate it into French. Cartoon. But Strange Fruit proved just as unsettling abroad. Capital. With all the Economic Cartoon troubles the Warming French are currently having with coloured people in Indochina and Economic Cartoon Essay North Africa, I do not think it will be possible to get a major recording of eveline joyce summary Mr. Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay. Dupuy's version, Rudi Révil, a French song publisher, wrote Meeropol. Holiday's autobiography, with all of its mistakes, appeared in the Significance Essay 1956. Cartoon Analysis Essay. Meeropol, while conceding that her tragic life may have led to some lapses into fancy, claimed he won a pledge from the publisher, Doubleday, to delete all misinformation about Strange Fruit from subsequent editions of the book. Definition. (They nonetheless live on Cartoon Analysis, in the summary most recent paperback edition, published by Cartoon Analysis, Penguin in 1992.) One can only the Significance of the imagine how Meeropol reacted to the movie Lady Sings the Essay Blues, for the Legal, its fictions were far more egregious than anything Holiday ever cooked up.

The film shows Diana Ross as Holiday encountering a lynching while touring the Economic Analysis South; stricken by what she sees, she adopts a laserlike, knowing look-the look, presumably, of Effects Essay lyrics taking shape. The chords of Strange Fruit then sound, and Economic Cartoon Analysis Ross sings a bowdlerized version of the song, shorn of all of restaurant its most powerful images. The filmmakers paid $4,500 for Cartoon Analysis, the right to rape the lyrics. Meeropol developed Alzheimer's disease in joyce summary the late 1970s; his elder son played Strange Fruit for him in Essay the nursing home, and social capital when the record got too scratchy, he sang it to Economic, him. Even after the joyce old man stopped recognizing anyone, he seemed to Analysis Essay, recognize it, and perked up when he did. When Meeropol died in 1986, it was sung at social, the memorial service. I n The Heart of Economic Analysis a Woman , Maya Angelou recounts how, during a visit to restaurant, Los Angeles in 1958, in a hoarse and raspy voice, Holiday sang Strange Fruit as a bedtime song for her son, Guy. Economic Cartoon. What's a pastoral scene, Miss Holiday? the young boy interjected. Warming Essay. Billie looked up slowly and studied Guy for a second, Angelou writes.

Her face became cruel, and when she spoke her voice was scornful. 'It means when the Economic Analysis Essay crackers are killing the capital example niggers. It means when they take a little nigger like you and Economic Cartoon Analysis snatch off his nuts and shove them down his goddam throat. Jj Premium Cars. That's what it means. That's what they do. That's a goddam pastoral scene.' Within a year, Holiday was dead.

To some, the song remained uniquely hers. Economic Essay. Frankly, I don't think anybody but Billie should do it, said Dan Morgenstern, director of the Institute of Jazz Studies at eveline joyce, Rutgers. I don't think anybody can improve on Cartoon, it. But the jj premium cars song's power and appeal to Economic, a younger generation of performers only grew with the civil-rights movement, and as lynching became a metaphor for the American black experience rather than a direct threat. Eveline Joyce. Abbey Lincoln, who tackled Strange Fruit on Cartoon Analysis Essay, her 1987 album, Abbey Sings Billie, said she had no trouble singing the Assess of the Essay song. Economic Cartoon Essay. Slavery's over and so is lynching, she said; her goal was not to jj premium cars, dwell on Cartoon Analysis, black victimhood but to social example, pay homage to Cartoon Analysis, Holiday herself. Restaurant Business. For Cassandra Wilson and Dee Dee Bridgewater, however, Strange Fruit has proved considerably more difficult. Wilson, Down Beat's Female Vocalist of the Year two years ago, said that when she first heard Strange Fruit, in Analysis Essay her native Jackson, Mississippi, in The Devastating Effects Warming Essay the late 1970s, it made my skin crawl.

Many years had to Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay, pass before she felt she had the social example wisdom, the Cartoon experience, and jj premium cars the courage to perform it. Cartoon Analysis Essay. That was a song that I always felt I had to social, get to, she said. Cartoon Essay. One approaches it, she said, not by trying to jj premium cars, outdo or enhance Holiday-a fool's errand by any definition-but by stripping the song bare. Holiday sometimes performed Strange Fruit almost punitively, to chastise an inattentive or unappreciative audience. Wilson, by Analysis Essay, contrast, said that because the song is of Purpose Engineering Essays, so emotionally taxing for her she does it to Economic Cartoon, reward audiences with whom she has established a special rapport. Constructionism Definition. Like Wilson, Dee Dee Bridgewater, whose album Dear Ella won two Grammy's this year, first heard Strange Fruit while in her 20s. She, too, was profoundly moved by it; she, too, balked at singing it herself. But when she portrayed Holiday in a one-woman show in Cartoon Analysis Essay the mid-1980s, she had no choice. She subsequently included Strange Fruit in her concert repertoire, but only on Lowering Minimum Drinking Age when she felt she had a sufficiently sensitive pianist-namely, a blind Dutchman named Bert van den Brink-accompanying her. Together, they performed it eight or nine times, always in Economic Essay Europe. Often, she cried as she sang it; sometimes, she choked on the ending.

At least once, she couldn't finish. The Devastating Essay. Then there was Bridgewater's performance in Turin, Italy. There was just dead silence, then this amazing roar, she recalled. Cartoon. In that deadness, I just broke down. I was sobbing. Jj Premium Cars. I had to Analysis Essay, leave the The Devastating Effects of Global Warming stage. Economic Cartoon Analysis. Shortly after that, she decided never to sing it again. I just can't do it anymore, she said.

I just don't want to go there. By: DAVID MARGOLIK, as published in Vanity Fair - September 1998.

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How to write a great cover letter for a scientific manuscript. You have worked hard to Essay prepare your manuscript for submission to a journal you have chosen carefully. Now, introduce your manuscript with a great cover letter . Although many authors hastily compose this document, the cover letter can make or break your chances of publication : it can make the difference between being granted a peer review and Assess the Significance of the Nations being rejected outright. Follow the guidelines below to make your cover letter and manuscript stand out. Feel free to use this template to construct your cover letter, and Analysis Essay modify it according to your needs.

The basic elements of the cover letter include a heading/salutation, the body, and the closing: The heading includes the name and Effects of Global Essay title of the Editor-in-Chief or handling editor, the Cartoon, name of the journal, and jj premium cars the date. See a sample heading here. The salutation is a standard greeting (e.g., Dear Dr xxx:) addressed to the Editor-in-Chief or handling editor. If you cannot find the name of the appropriate editor, you can write Dear Editor: The body is the Cartoon, heart of the cover letter; this is The Devastating of Global Warming, where you will make the case for Economic Essay why your paper should be granted a peer review. Begin with a concise opening statement announcing that you are submitting a manuscript entitled [ your title ] for consideration as a Research Article, Letter, Brief Communication, Note, or other format tailored to the journal. Eveline? See a sample opening statement here.

Next, provide a brief but compelling description or summary of the most important or interesting findings addressed by your manuscript. Economic Analysis Essay? If you have previous publications that provide the context for your study, you can briefly mention them here with the supporting citations. This summary will help to determine whether the editor will consider your paper further . The summary should be limited to just a few sentences. Consider the eveline joyce summary, following points to help you craft your summary: Why is your study important? What are your most interesting findings? What are the implications and broader significance of the findings? What gaps in the research does your study fill? After the description of your study, provide a brief statement of how or why the work is Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay, relevant to eveline summary the scope of the target journal and of interest to Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay its readership.

This should be based on the stated Aims and Scope of the journal and on The Devastating Effects Warming Essay your knowledge of the journals content . A strong statement says more than that you believe your findings are relevant and of interest. How does your work relate to the journals focus and other research published in it? This section should show that you have made a well-informed choice when selecting the target journal for your manuscript. See a sample summary and Economic Cartoon Analysis statement of relevance here. The final paragraph of the body covers a few formalities (see example here). This paragraph should confirm that: The research is original. The manuscript has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by any other journal. All the authors have approved of the submission of the manuscript to Assess the Significance of the League this journal. There are no conflicts of interest. Informed consent was provided (humans), and appropriate ethical standards were followed (humans and Economic Analysis animals)if relevant.

Suggested reviewers: Many journals invite or require authors to list recommended peer reviewers for their manuscript and to mention any individuals they would strongly prefer NOT to review the manuscript (e.g., because of a conflict of interest). Select these individuals carefully, and keep these statements polite. The final sentence should simply express appreciation for the editors consideration. Effects Warming? For example, Thank you for your consideration of our manuscript. I look forward to hearing from you. An appropriate and common closing is Sincerely. The closing is followed by Economic Cartoon, your signature and typed name, institutional affiliation and address, and Statement of Purpose in Electronics & Communication contact information (see a sample closing here). Editors want to know that you have selected their journal based on your familiarity with its focus and content and the appropriateness of your work to Cartoon its scope and readership. It is advantageous to you to help the Editor-in-Chief to understand how your paper complements other research published in Statement in Electronics & Communication, the journal. Doing this does not guarantee that your manuscript will receive a peer review, but failing to do this may reduce the chances that your work will stand out and be taken seriously. The cover letter should be concise. Editors read many cover letters each day and may simply skim over letters that are longer than a few short paragraphs.

Clearly emphasize why the research is Economic Cartoon Analysis, important, novel, or interesting. Avoid presenting numeric details and other highly specific results unless they are essential to your conclusion. Capital Example? Some journals have specific requirements for cover letters. Analysis Essay? Read the eveline joyce, journals Instructions for authors carefully, and make sure that all required contents are included. If your study builds on previous work that you have published, or directly relates to Economic Essay other papers published in the target journal, it is appropriate to mention that and to cite these studies in the letter. The cover letter must be well written and of Purpose & Communication Essays free of spelling and grammar errors . If there are glaring errors in this important document, the Cartoon, Editor-in-Chief may assume that your manuscript will also be sloppy. At best, the constructionism, editor is likely to have low expectations for your manuscript if the cover letter is Economic Cartoon, poorly written. Always run a spelling and of the grammar check, and have a colleague review your cover letter before you send it. Do you have questions or insights about writing cover letters? Please leave your comments and questions below. Like this article?

Share it with your colleagues. I am deeply thankful to you and appreciate your esteemed efforts to guide the junior and young researchers. I have learned a lot from your guide lines on Economic the subject. Thank you for your kind comment. I am very glad this post was helpful! Thank you very much for eveline summary the very helpful tips!! Youre very welcome! Im glad the information was helpful. Thank you for your comment!

Many thanks for Economic Analysis Essay this helpful guidelines on how to write a cover letter. I really appreciate. Youre welcome Im glad the guidelines were helpful! And thank you for your comment. Your guidelines on how to write a cover letter are very helpful.

Thank you very much for these great tips and instructions! I am currently writing a cover letter and I would like to include a citation. Could you comment on the style of the citation? In the template it says to provide the citation in parentheses. Is the full (bibliographic) required? Could you give an example?

Any comment from you on this subject would be much appreciated. Thank you for your comment. Im glad this post has been helpful to you. Thank you also for your question about citations in cover letters. There are no hard-and-fast rules about including citations in cover letters, but here are some pointers: 1. Social Capital Example? Include only the most relevant citations. Every piece of information in a cover letter should support the goal of your letter, which well assume is to convince an Essay, editor of the value and relevance of your manuscript. 2. In keeping with point #1, keep the number of citations to Statement of Purpose a minimum the cover letter is an introduction to you and Economic Cartoon Analysis your current work, not an in-depth piece of literature. 3. Including citations that relate directly to constructionism definition the work you are submitting can show that you have a track record and history of research in the subject area. Economic Cartoon? I would recommend using the Statement of Purpose & Communication Engineering, journals citation style in your letter.

Simply look at a recent issue to see how citations are formatted in the text and in the reference section. 4. Authors sometimes cite other researchers work in their cover letter, when it is directly relevant to and supportive of their submission. This is more common in responses to Economic Cartoon Essay reviewers, however. In general, work cited in the cover letter should be your own. Here is an example of an introductory paragraph with a citation: We are pleased to jj premium cars submit the Cartoon Essay, attached research article entitled Herbaceous wetlands: a critical and threatened carbon sink for consideration for publication as a Report in Ecology . The Devastating Of Global? We previously showed that herbaceous wetlands continue to Analysis Essay be lost at an alarming rate despite protections offered by the Clean Water Act (Altor et al., 2015). Here, we expand on that work to discuss carbon storage in social capital, emergent wetlands and the important role these ecosystems play in the context of climatic change.

You would include the full citation(s) as it would appear in Analysis Essay, your References section at the end of the cover letter, after the closing. I hope this is helpful. Best wishes with your submission, and feel free to eveline summary reply with any additional questions! Thanks for your guidelines in this matter. Do you could provide to me and Analysis Essay example about how to mention that the current work is Effects of Global, a continuation and extension of Economic Analysis, a previous published work?.

And how to cite it?. Thanks in advance. Thank you for your question. It is important (and advantageous) to let the editor know when the work you are submitting is capital, a continuation of previous work or builds on earlier findings. This shows that you have a publication history and track record in that area of research.

You can mention this very simply, such as in this example: We are pleased to Economic Essay submit the attached research article entitled Mycorrhizae in tidal wetlands: key players in capital, nutrient cycling for consideration for Analysis Essay publication as a Report in Statement in Electronics Engineering Essays, Biogeochemistry . We previously showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are more common in tidal salt marshes than was previously thought and that these mutualistic relationships improved the photosynthetic capacity of Spartina patens over plants that were not colonized by mycorrhizal fungi (Figueroa Millan et al., 2015). Here, we expand on Economic Analysis that work to discuss our findings that extensive networks of AMF play a significant role in phosphorus and nitrogen cycling by improving the survival of colonized plants in salt-affected systems. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of climate change and rising sea levels. Then, at the end of your cover letter (after the closing), you would include the full citation(s) as it would appear in the References section of Statement, your paper, formatted according to the style used by the target journal. I hope this is helpful. Best wishes with your research and writing!

thanks v much, it is informative. Thank you Hiwa! Im glad the post was useful to you. I am grateful for Economic Analysis your detailed well-organised article. I just have a question, if the journal doesnt require cover letter, may I use similar but more concise form in the comment for editor section? If no, please tell me what is the best to mention in this section. Thank you in social, advance, Thank you for your question. If a journal does not require a formal cover letter, it is still in your interest to take this opportunity to let the editor know why you have selected his or her journal for your paper and to Economic Cartoon Essay make a case for considering your manuscript. Make the comments for the editor as concise as possible so that your statement is constructionism, easy to read and Analysis Essay remember. Jj Premium Cars? Focus on Analysis Essay the points discussed in the Body section of this blog post.

If you have answered questions in eveline summary, other parts of the submission process about the research being original and not under consideration for publication elsewhere, do not restate these points here. Close your comments with a simple, brief statement of your appreciation for the editors consideration. I hope this is helpful. Best wishes with your manuscripts, and feel free to post any other questions! Thank you for a very useful blog. It is insightful. I am submitting a second article to the same journal. The present one is a follow up investigation of our previous report.

I am thinking to request the Editor to Cartoon Analysis Essay send the article to summary the same reviewers who evaluated our previous study. I feel they can evaluate better as they are aware of the subject. Do you think such a request makes sense. Cartoon Essay? Any suggestion would you give on how better i can frame the request in capital example, the cover letter. Thank you for your comment and question. I so not see any harm in requesting the same reviewers; however, the Economic, Editor may or may not grant your request, and keep in mind that those reviewers might not currently be available. Statement Of Purpose Engineering? I would not place strong emphasis on your request for the same reviewers, because that could give the Cartoon Essay, impression that you are not confident that other researchers would also give your work a favorable review. You could consider wording your request like this: The researchers who provided anonymous peer reviews of our previous paper (citation here) showed a good understanding of our work and provided constructive feedback.

Because our current manuscript describes a follow-up study, we suggest that those reviewers be considered for this paper. Other suggested peer reviewers include and social then provide the Essay, names and contact information for a couple other researchers who you think would give a fair and of the League Nations Essay competent review. Such wording should make your request known without giving the impression that you lack confidence in the peer-review process. I hope this is helpful. Best wishes with your manuscript! Dear Anne Altor. Thanks for this useful stuff. I will use it definitely.

Thank you for your comment. Im glad you found the information useful. Thank you so much, specially for template file. Youre very welcome! Im glad you found the template useful. Dear Anne. Thank you for your tips. If I am the only author of the article, can I use I instead of We in the cover letter?

Thanks for your comment and question. You can certainly use I instead of We if you are the only author, and in my opinion it makes more sense to do so. However, if a research group performed the work you are describing, you might want to Economic Cartoon Analysis use We. The Devastating? That is not generally the case though for Cartoon Essay single-author papers. Good luck! Thank you very much for your guide lines which have been posted on the website. recently I have submitted a manuscript in a reputed journal, but unfortunately rejected. The editor said there are many mistakes throughout the manuscript and jj premium cars advised me to Economic Essay take help from professional writer . However, before submitting the same, I have checked the manuscripts in different softwares for better expression. Now, I dont know, what to do. Please suggest me some advice to improve my english language. Im sorry that your manuscript was rejected, but the fact that it was rejected for language problems rather than technical content is positive, in my opinion. I commend all researchers whose first language is not English but who nevertheless must publish their papers in English, because the process takes significant extra effort.

Many native English speakers have trouble writing clearly as well. Jj Premium Cars? Using software to help with language issues may be a good first step. Economic Cartoon Essay? May I ask what programs you used? However, software cannot capture the nuances of constructionism definition, meaning and Cartoon Analysis Essay expression used in writing. I recommend that you find a colleague who you trust and in Electronics Engineering kindly ask him or her if s/he is available to read and critique your paper. However, it might not be fair or appropriate to Essay ask a colleague to edit the paper for you, because that could take more time than they can afford.

You could also seek the help of a professional editor with expertise in Assess the Significance of the League Nations, your field. I provide editing services, as do many other individuals and Cartoon agencies. You could upload your paper and request a free estimate for the work. Many researchers find that professional editing is very helpful and improves the probability that the Statement, paper will go through the peer-review process. Thank you for Cartoon Analysis sharing your insights with us. I have revised my manuscript and want to re-submit it, but I am not sure if the cover letter should to Statement of Purpose in Electronics & Communication Engineering Essays written to Economic Cartoon Analysis editor-in-chief or handling editor. The decision about the paper was sent by editor-in-chief to me and in this letter he introduced the of Purpose, handling editor. Economic Cartoon? The letter included the handling editors comments as well. Thank you for your advice in advance!

Thank you for your comment and question. Based on the details youve provided, I would recommend that you send your revisions and responses to both the editor-in-chief and the handling editor. It is important to provide direct responses to social capital example all comments made by each of them and by any any other reviewers. Both people are involved in reviewing your paper and both will want to know that their questions or concerns have been addressed. Best wishes with your paper! p.s.

You might also want to check out my blog post on responses to reviewers. Dear Dr. Anne Altor. I am writing my first cover letter and this web site was very useful. I have learned a lot from your guide lines on the subject. Thank you very much in advance.

Thank you for your comment. Im glad the Economic Essay, guidelines were helpful to you. Best wishes with your paper! First of all, Happy New Year! May this 2017 be charged with great things for jj premium cars you. As well as many of the previous comments, I would like to thank you for your post, since I am writing my first cover letter and I found it really helpful. On the other hand I have a question regarding citations: In the Cartoon, statement, is it appropriate to cite articles from the same journal? Im writing a methodology article and based my writing style in these. Maria Gabriela Pastor Jimenez. Happy New Year to you too! Thank you for your comment, and good luck with your cover letter and manuscript.

You asked, is it appropriate to cite articles from the same journal? Yes it is. In general, it is a good idea to definition cite a variety of sources, but it is okay if some of your important sources occur in the same journal. Economic Analysis? Does this answer your question? Dear Dr. Anne Altor, Thank you very much for wonderful insight how to write submission letter for publication. The Devastating Effects? I used this wonderful formatting skill to submit my first PhD article to journal. I benefited much from your contribution as junior researcher. Thank you again for your support again. Dear Dr. Anne Altor,

Thank you very much for wonderful insight how to write submission letter for publication. I used this wonderful formatting skill to submit my first PhD article to Economic Essay journal. I benefited much from your contribution as junior researcher. Thank you again for your support again. Thank you for your kind comment. I am glad you found the article helpful! Best wishes with your manuscript. Dear Dr. Anne Altor. I would like to thank you a lot for this very informative and interesting guideline . In fact I made use of it to social capital example write a cover letter for my article and I made a summary of it in my notebook to be used in future. Dear Dr.

Kompani, You are very welcome. Im glad the guidelines were helpful! Dear Dr. Anne Altor, Thank you very much for your guidelines on how to write a great cover letter. It is very helpful. I appreciate your endeavor to support the junior and young researchers. I am currently preparing a cover letter. I would like to Economic Analysis Essay use your guidelines and ask you simple questions.

They are as follows: 1. The Significance Essay? According to Economic Essay your template to construct a cover letter, it seems okay, e.g., Dr Michael Blatt. I wonder if Dr. Michael Blatt is not correct in a cover letter. Eveline Joyce Summary? I would like to know which is the precise form, Dr Michael Blatt or Dr. Michael Blatt in Analysis, a cover letter. 2. Jj Premium Cars? Similarly, as per Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay, your template to capital example construct a cover letter, it seems okay, e.g., Dear Dr Blatt:. I wonder if Dear Dr. Blatt, is not appropriate in a cover letter. I would like to know which is the precise form, Dear Dr Blatt: or Dear Dr. Blatt, in a cover letter.

Thank you for your assistance and patience. I look forward to your excellent answers to my questions. Thank you for Analysis Essay your comment and for your question about whether to use a period (full stop) after the abbreviation for Doctor. The answer depends on whether you are writing in American or UK (British) English. Constructionism? If you are writing in American English, you use a period: Dr. If you are writing in UK English, you do not use a period: Dr. In my opinion, while it is important that your manuscript be formatted in Cartoon Analysis Essay, the correct language style, your cover letter can be in constructionism, the style most natural to you (American or UK). However, if you want to be completely consistent, then you can prepare the cover letter in the style required by Economic Cartoon, the journal. As to your question about whether to joyce use the Economic Analysis Essay, first name, it is capital, fine to use it or to not use it, so either Dr Michael Blatt or Dr Blatt is ok. Use of the first name can help make sure the letter goes to Analysis the correct person in joyce summary, cases where there is Economic Analysis, more than one person with the same last name. However, that scenario is unlikely when you include the persons title (e.g., Editor in Chief). I hope this helps!

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David Foster Wallace on 9/11, as Seen from the Midwest. Suddenly everybody has flags out Analysis big flags, small flags, regular flag-size flags. This essay, by the late novelist David Foster Wallace, appeared in Effects of Global Warming the October 25, 2001 issue of Rolling Stone. Cartoon Analysis Essay. We reprint it here to mark the anniversary of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Location: Bloomington, IL. Dates: 11-13 Sept. 2001. Caveat: Written very fast and in what probably qualifies as shock.

In true Midwest fashion, Bloomingtonians aren't unfriendly but do tend to be reserved. A stranger will smile warmly at you, but there normally won't be any of that strangerly chitchat in waiting areas or checkout lines. Jj Premium Cars. But now there's something to Economic Cartoon Analysis talk about eveline summary, that outweighs all reserve, like we were somehow all standing right there and just saw the same traffic accident. E.g., overheard in the checkout line at Burwell's (which is Analysis, sort of the capital example Neiman Marcus of gas station/convenience store plazas #x2013; centrally located athwart both one-way main drags, and with the best tobacco prices in town, it's a municipal treasure) between a lady in an Osco cashier's smock and a man in a dungaree jacket cut off at the shoulders to make a sort of homemade vest: With my boys they thought it was all some movie like that Independence Day til then after a while they started to notice it was the same movie on all the channels. (The lady didn't say how old her boys were.) Jann S. Wenner, writing in September 2001, considered what lay in Economic Cartoon store for America. Everybody has flags out. Homes, businesses. Jj Premium Cars. It's odd: You never see anybody putting out a flag, but by Wednesday morning there they all are. Big flags, small flags, regular flag-size flags.

A lot of home-owners here have those special angled flag-holders by their front door, the kind whose brace takes four Phillips screws. And thousands of those little hand-held flags-on-a-stick you normally see at parades #x2013; some yards have dozens all over as if they'd somehow sprouted overnight. Rural-road people attach the little flags to Essay their mailboxes out by the street. Some cars have them wedged in their grille or duct-taped to the antenna. Some upscale people have actual poles; their flags are at half-mast. More than a few large homes around Franklin Park or out on the east side even have enormous multistory flags hanging gonfalon-style down over their facades. Assess The Significance. It's a total mystery where people get flags this big or how they got them up there. My own next-door neighbor, a retired CPA and vet whose home- and Economic Essay lawn-care are nothing short of phenomenal, has a regulation-size anodized flagpole secured in 18 of the Significance Essay reinforced cement that none of the other neighbors like very much because they think it draws lightning. He says there's a very particular etiquette to having your flag at Cartoon, half-mast: You're supposed to first run it all the way up to the top and then bring it halfway down.

Otherwise it's an insult or something. His flag is out straight and popping smartly in capital the wind. It's far and away the Economic Cartoon biggest flag on The Devastating of Global Warming Essay our street. You can also hear the Economic Cartoon wind in the cornfields just south; it sounds the way light surf sounds when you're two dunes back from it. Mr. N#x2013;'s flag's halyard has metal elements that clank loudly against the pole when it's windy, which is something else the jj premium cars other neighbors don't care for. His driveway and mine are almost side by Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay side, and he's out here on jj premium cars a stepladder polishing his pole with some kind of ointment and a chamois cloth #x2013; I shit you not #x2013; and in fairness it's true that his metal pole does shine like God's own wrath. Hell of a nice flag and display apparatus, Mr. N#x2013;. Ought to Essay be. Cost enough.

Seen all the other flags out everywhere this morning? This gets him to look down and smile, if a bit grimly. Something isn't it? Mr. N#x2013; is social capital, not what you'd call the Cartoon friendliest next-door neighbor. I really only know him because his church and mine are in of Global Essay the same softball league, for which he serves with immense precision as his team's statistician. We are not close. He's nevertheless the first one I ask: Say Mr. Economic Cartoon. N#x2013;, suppose somebody like a foreign person or TV reporter were to come by and ask you to say what the purpose of all these flags everywhere after the Horror and everything yesterday was, exactly #x2013; what do you think you'd say?

Why (after a brief interval of giving me the definition same sort of look he usually gives my lawn) to show our support and empathy in terms of what's going on, as Americans.* The point being that on Wednesday here there's a weird accretive pressure to have a flag out. If the purpose of a flag is to Economic Analysis Essay make a statement, it seems like at a certain point of Statement of Purpose & Communication Essays density of flags you're making more of a statement if you don't have one out. It's not totally clear what statement this would be. What if you just don't happen to have a flag? Where has everyone gotten these flags, especially the little ones you can put on Economic your mailbox? Are they all from July 4th and people just save them, like Christmas ornaments? How do they know to of Purpose in Electronics & Communication do this? Even a sort of Cartoon Analysis Essay half-collapsed house down the street that everybody though was unoccupied has a flag in the ground by the driveway. Legendary newspaper columnist Jimmy Breslin was on Liberty Street, just two blocks from the WTC, when Tower One collapsed.

The Yellow Pages have nothing under Flag . There's actual interior tension: Nobody walks by Assess the Significance Nations Essay or stops their car and says, Hey, your house doesn't have a flag, but it gets easier and easier to imagine people thinking it. None of the grocery stores in town turn out to stock any flags. Economic Analysis Essay. The novelty shop downtown has nothing but Halloween stuff. Only a few businesses are open, but even the closed ones are displaying some sort of flag. It's almost surreal. Example. The VFW hall is a good bet, but it can't open til noon if at all (it has a bar).

The lady at Burwell's references a certain hideous Qik-n-EZ store out by 1-74 at Analysis, which she was under the impression she'd seen some little plastic flags back in the racks with all the bandannas and Nascar caps, but by the time I get there they turn out to be gone, snapped up by parties unknown. The reality is that there is constructionism definition, not a flag to be had in this town. Stealing one out of somebody's yard is clearly out of the Economic Analysis Essay question. Jj Premium Cars. I'm standing in a Qik-n-EZ afraid to go home. All those people dead, and I'm sent to the edge by Cartoon Analysis a plastic flag. It doesn't get really bad until people ask if I'm OK and I have to lie and say it's a Benadryl reaction (which in fact can happen).

Until in one more of the example Horror's weird twists of Economic Cartoon Analysis fate and constructionism circumstance it's the Economic Analysis Qik-n-EZ proprietor himself (a Pakistani, by the way) who offers solace and a shoulder and a strange kind of unspoken understanding, and who lets me go back and sit in the stock room amid every conceivable petty vice and indulgence America has to offer and constructionism compose myself, and who only slightly later, over Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay, styrofoam cups of a strange kind of tea with a great deal of milk in jj premium cars it, suggests, gently, construction paper and Magical Markers, which explains my now-beloved homemade flag. * Plus selected other responses from various times during the Cartoon Essay day's flag- and Magic-Marker-hunts when circumstances allowed the question to be asked without one seeming like a smart-ass or loon: To show we're Americans and jj premium cars not going to Cartoon Analysis Essay bow down to anybody. The flag is a pseudo-archetype, a reflexive semion designed to pre-empt and negate the critical function (grad student). What they do is in Electronics Engineering, symbolize unity and that we're all together behind the victims in this war. That they've fucked with the wrong people this time. Bloomington is a City of 65,000 in the central part of a state that is extremely flat, so that you can see the Economic town's salients from very far away. Three major interstates converge here, and several rail lines. The town's almost exactly halfway between Chicago and St.

Louis, and its origins involve being a big train depot. It has a smaller twin city, Normal, that's built around a university and a slightly different story. Both towns together are like 110,000. As Midwest cities go, the Assess the Significance League Nations Essay only remarkable thing about Bloomington is its prosperity. It's recession-proof. Some of Analysis Essay this is due to constructionism definition the county's land, which is world-class fertile and Economic Cartoon Analysis so expensive you can't even find out how much it costs. But Bloomington is also the national HQ for Assess the Significance of the, State Farm, which is the great dark god of consumer insurance and for all practical purposes owns the town, and Cartoon Analysis Essay because of jj premium cars which Bloomington's east side is all smoked-glass complexes and Build-To-Suit developments and a six-lane beltway of malls and franchises that's killing the Economic Analysis Essay old downtown, plus a large and ever-wider split between the town's two basic classes and cultures, so well and truly symbolized by joyce the SUV and pickup truck,* respectively. Winter here is a pitiless bitch, but in the warm months Bloomington's a little like a seaside community except the ocean here is corn, which grows steroidically and stretches to the earth's curve in all directions. The town itself in Cartoon summer is example, intensely green #x2013; streets bathed in tree-shade and homes' explosive gardens and area-code-size parks and golf courses you almost need eye-protection to look at, and row upon row of broad weedless fertilized lawns all lined up flush to the sidewalk with special edging tools. (People here are deeply into lawn-care; my neighbors tend to Cartoon Essay mow about as often as they shave.) To be honest, it can be a little creepy, especially in high summer when nobody's out and all that green just sits in the heat and example seethes.

Like many Midwest towns, B-N is Economic Analysis Essay, lousy with churches: four full pages in capital example the phone book. Cartoon Essay. Everything from Unitarian to bug-eyed Pentecostal. Jj Premium Cars. There's even a church for agnostics. Except for church #x2013; plus I suppose your basic parades, fireworks and a couple corn festivals #x2013; there isn't much public community. Everybody pretty much has his family and neighbors and tight little circle of friends. By New York standards folks keep to themselves.** They play golf and grill out and go to mainstream movies . He got the Economic Essay carnage he hoped for.

Now it's time to end the wars he provoked. . And they watch massive, staggering amounts of social capital TV. I'm not just talking about the kids. Cartoon. Something that's obvious but still crucial to keep in mind re: Bloomington and the Horror is that reality #x2013; any really felt sense of a larger world #x2013; is televisual. New York's skyline, for instance, is as recognizable here as anyplace else, but what it's recognizable from of Purpose in Electronics & Communication Engineering Essays is TV. Cartoon Essay. TV's also more social here than on joyce the East Coast, where in my experience people are almost constantly leaving home to go meet other people face-to-face in public places. Economic Analysis Essay. There don't tend to be parties or mixers per se here; what you do in Bloomington is all get together at somebody's house and watch something. Here, therefore, to have a home without a TV is to Assess of the Nations Essay become a kind of constant and Economic Analysis Essay Kramer-like presence in others' homes, a perpetual guest of folks who can't understand why you would choose not to have a TV but are completely respectful of your need to watch TV and offer you access to their TV in the same instinctive way they'd bend to social capital example lend a hand if you tripped in the street. This is especially true of Cartoon Analysis some kind of must-see, Crisis-type situation like the 2000 election snafu or this week's Horror.

All you have to joyce do is call somebody you know and say you don't have a TV: Well shoot, boy, get over here. * Despite some people's impression, the native accent isn't Southern simply rural, whereas corporate transplants have no accent at all (in Mrs. Bracero's phrase, State Farm people sound like the folks on Cartoon Analysis Essay TV). ** The native term for a conversation is visit . There are maybe ten days a year when it's gorgeous here, and this is one of them. It's clear and temperate and wonderfully dry after several straight weeks of what felt like living in somebody's armpit. It's just before serious harvesting starts, when the pollen's at Statement in Electronics & Communication, its worst; a good percentage of the Economic Essay city is stoned on Benadryl, which as you probably know tends to give the jj premium cars early morning a kind of dreamy, underwater quality. Economic. Timewise, we're an hour behind the East Coast. By 8:00 everybody with a job is at it, and just about everybody else is home drinking coffee and blowing their nose and watching Today or one of the other A.M. shows that broadcast (it goes without saying) from New York.

At 8:00 I personally was in the shower trying to constructionism definition listen to Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay a Bears postmortem on Statement in Electronics Essays WSCR sports radio in Chicago. The church I belong to is on Essay the south side of Bloomington, near where I live. Most of the people I know well enough to ask if I can come over Statement of Purpose in Electronics Engineering, and watch their TV are members of my church. It's not one of those Protestant churches where people throw Jesus's name around or talk about the End Times, which is to say that it's not loony or vulgar, but it's fairly serious, and people in the congregation get to know each other well and to be pretty tight. Most of the congregants are working-class or retirees; there are some small-business owners. A fair number are veterans or have kids in the military or #x2013; especially #x2013; the various Reserves, because for many of these families that's simply what you you do to pay for college. The house I end up sitting with clots of dried shampoo in my hair watching most of the actual unfolding Horror at belongs to Mrs. Thompson,#x2020; who is Economic Essay, one of the world's cooler 74-year-olds and exactly the kind of person who in an emergency even if her phone is busy you know you can just come on over. Her house is about a mile away, on the other side of a mobile home park. The streets are not crowded but they're not yet as empty as they're going to Assess of the League Nations get.

Mrs. Thompson's is a tiny immaculate one-story home that on the West Coast would be called a bungalow and on the south side of Bloomington is simply called a house. Economic Cartoon Essay. Mrs. Thompson is a longtime church member and a leader in the congregation, and eveline joyce summary her living room tends to be kind of a gathering place. She's also the mom of one of Economic Analysis my best friends here, F#x2013;, who was a Ranger in the Significance of the Vietnam and Cartoon Essay got shot in eveline joyce the knee and Economic Analysis Essay now works kind of unhappily for a contractor installing Victoria's Secret franchises in malls. He's in the middle of a divorce (long story) and living with Mrs. T. while the court decides on the disposition of his house. F#x2013; is one of those for-real combat veterans who doesn't talk about the war or even belong to the VFW but is eveline joyce, sometimes somber in a haunted way, and always goes quietly off to camp by himself over Cartoon Essay, Memorial Day weekend, and social you can tell that he carries some very heavy shit in Cartoon Analysis his head. Like most construction guys he has to definition get to his job site early and was long gone by the time I got to his mom's, which was just after the second plane hit the Cartoon South Tower, meaning probably around 8:10. In retrospect, the first sign of shock was the fact that I didn't ring the bell but just came on in, which normally here one would never do.

Thanks to social capital example her son's trade connections, Mrs. T. has a 42 flat-panel Philips TV on which Dan Rather appears for a second in shirtsleeves with his hair slightly mussed. (People in Bloomington seem overwhelmingly to prefer CBS News; it's unclear why.) Several other ladies from church are already over here, but I don't know if I exchanged greetings with anyone because I remember when I came in Essay everybody was staring in transfixed horror at capital, one of the very few pieces of Analysis Essay video CBS never reran, which was a distant wide-angle shot of the North Tower and its top floors' exposed steel lattice in flames and of dots detaching from the building and moving through smoke down the screen, which then that jerky tightening of the The Devastating Warming Essay shot revealed to be actual people in coats and ties and skirts with their shoes falling off as they fell, some hanging onto ledges or girders and then letting go, upside-down or writhing as they fell and one couple almost seeming (unverifiable) to be hugging each other as they fell all those stories and shrank back to Economic Cartoon Analysis dots as the in Electronics Engineering camera then all of a sudden pulled back to Cartoon Analysis Essay the long view #x2013; I have no idea how long the clip took #x2013; after which Rather's mouth seemed to move for a second before any sound emerged, and constructionism everyone in the room sat back and looked at one another with expressions that seemed somehow both childlike and horribly old. Economic Essay. I think one or two people made some sort of sound. It's not clear what else to say. It seems grotesque to talk about being traumatized by a video when the people in the video were dying. Something about the shoes also falling made it worse.

I think the older ladies took it better than I did. Assess The Significance League Essay. Then the hideous beauty of the rerun clip of the second plane hitting the tower, the blue and silver and black and Economic Analysis spectacular orange of it, as more little moving dots fell. Mrs. Thompson was in her chair, which is a rocker with floral cushions. The living room has two other chairs, and a huge corduroy sofa that F#x2013; and I had had to take the front door off its hinges to get in the house. All the of Purpose in Electronics Essays seats were occupied, meaning five or six other people, most women, all over fifty, and there were more voices in the kitchen, one of Analysis which was very upset-sounding and eveline joyce belonged to the psychologically delicate Mrs. R#x2013;, who I don't know very well but is said to have once been a beauty of great local repute. Many of the people are Mrs.

T.'s neighbors, some still in robes, and at various times people leave to Essay go home and use the phone and come back, or leave altogether (one younger lady went to go get her children out of school), and other people come. At one point, around the joyce summary time the South Tower was falling so perfectly-seeming down into itself #x2013; I remember thinking it was falling sort of the way an elegant lady faints, but it was Mrs. Bracero's normally pretty much useless and irritating son, Duane, who pointed out Cartoon Analysis that what it really looked like is if you took some film of Essays a NASA liftoff and ran it backward, which now after several reviewings does seem dead-on #x2013; there were at least ten people in the house. The living room was dim because in Cartoon the summer everyone keeps their drapes pulled.* Is it normal not to joyce remember things very well after only a couple days, or at any rate the Economic order of things? I know at some point for a while there was the Assess of the Essay sound of somebody mowing his lawn, which seemed totally bizarre, but I don't remember if anyone said anything.

Sometimes it seems like nobody speaks and sometimes like everybody's talking at once. There's also a lot of telephonic activity. None of these women carry cell phones (Duane has a pager whose point it unclear), so it's just Mrs. T.'s old wallmount in the kitchen. Economic Analysis. Not all the definition calls make rational sense. One side effect of the Economic Cartoon Essay Horror seems to be an overwhelming desire to call everybody you love. It was established early on that you couldn't reach New York; 212 yields only a weird whooping sound. People keep asking Mrs. T.'s permission until she tells them to knock it off and for heaven's sake just use the phone. Some of the ladies reach their husbands, who are apparently all gathered around TVs and radios at their workplaces; for a while bosses are too shocked to think to send people home. Mrs.

T. has coffee on, but another sign of Crisis is that if you want some you have to get it yourself #x2013; usually it just sort of appears. From the door to the kitchen I remember seeing the second tower fall and being confused about whether it was a replay of the first tower falling. Another thing about the hay fever is capital, that you can't ever be totally sure someone's crying, but over the two hours of first-run Horror, with bonus reports of the crash in PA and Bush getting rushed to a secret SAC bunker and a car-bomb that's gone off in Chicago (the latter then retracted), pretty much everybody either cries or not, according to his or her relative abilities. Mrs. Thompson says less than almost anybody. I don't think she cries, but she doesn't rock her chair as usual, either. Her first husband's death was apparently sudden and grisly, and I know at times during the war F#x2013; would be in the field and she wouldn't hear from Economic Cartoon him for weeks at a time and had no idea whether he was even alive. Duane Bracero's main contribution is to capital example keep iterating how much like a movie it is. Duane, who's at least 25 but still lives at home while supposedly studying to be an arc welder, is one of these people who always wear camouflage T-shirts and paratrooper boots but would never dream of actually enlisting (as, to Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay be fair, neither would I).

He has also kept his hat on summary in Mrs. Thompson's house. It always seems to be important to have at least one person to Essay hate. It turns out the cause of the Significance of the Essay poor old tendony Mrs. R#x2013;'s meltdown in the kitchen is that she has a grandniece or something who's doing some kind of internship at Time, Inc. in the Time Life Bldg or whatever it's called, about which Mrs.

R#x2013; and whoever she's managed to call know only that it's a vertiginously tall skyscraper someplace in New York, and she's out of her mind with worry, and Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay two other ladies have been out here the social example whole time holding both her hands and trying to decide whether they should call a doctor (Mrs. R#x2013; has kind of a history), and I end up doing pretty much the only good I do all day by explaining to Mrs. Cartoon Essay. R#x2013; where midtown is. It thereupon emerges that none of the jj premium cars people here I'm watching the Horror with #x2013; not even the Cartoon Analysis Essay few ladies who'd gone to see Cats as part of some group tour thing through the church in 1991 #x2013; have even the vaguest notion of Manhattan's layout and don't know, for example, how far south the financial district and Statue of Liberty are; they have to be shown via pointing out the water in summary the foreground of the skyline they all know so well (from TV). This is the beginning of the vague but progressive feeling of alienation from Economic Analysis Essay these good people that builds throughout the part of the Horror where people flee rubble and dust. These ladies are not stupid, or ignorant. Mrs. Thompson can read both Latin and Spanish, and Ms. Voigtlander is a certified speech therapist who once explained to Statement & Communication me that the strange gulping sound that makes Tom Brokaw so distracting to listen to is an actual speech impediment called a glottal 1. It was one of the ladies out in the kitchen with Mrs. Essay. R#x2013; who'd pointed out that that week was the of Purpose Engineering Essays anniversary of the Camp David Accords, which was news to me.

What the Bloomington ladies are, or start to seem, is innocent. Analysis. There is what would strike many Americans as a bizarre absence of cynicism in the room. It doesn't once occur to anyone here to remark on how it's maybe a little odd that all three network anchors are in & Communication Engineering Essays shirtsleeves, or to consider that it's possible that Rather's hair being mussed is not 100% accidental, or that the relentless rerunning of spectacular footage might not be just in Economic case some viewers were only now tuning in and hadn't seen it yet. No one else seems to notice Bush's weird little lightless eyes seem to constructionism definition get closer and closer together throughout his taped statement, nor that some of his lines sound almost plagiaristically identical to Economic Essay statements made by Bruce Willis (as a right-wing wacko, recall) in The Siege a couple years back. Nor that at capital, least some of the shock of the last two hours has been how closely various shots and scenes have mirrored the plots of everything from Analysis Essay Die Hard I-III and Air Force One to Tom Clancy's Debt of Honor . Nobody's edgy or sophisticated enough to lodge the sick and definition obvious po-mo complaint: We've Seen This Before. Instead what they do is all sit together and feel really bad, and Essay pray. Nobody does anything as nauseous as try to make everybody all pray together of pray aloud or anything, but you can tell what they're doing. Make no mistake: This is mostly a good thing.

It makes you think and do things you probably wouldn't if watching alone, like for one thing to pray, silently and fervently, that you're wrong about Bush, that your view of him is distorted and he's actually far smarter and more substantial than you believe, not just some weird soulless golem or nexus of interests dressed up in a suit, but a statesman of Statement & Communication Engineering courage and probity and . and it's good, this is good to pray this way. It's just a little lonely to have to. Innocent people can be hard to be around. I'm not for a moment claiming that everyone in Bloomington is like this (Mrs. Analysis Essay. T.'s son F#x2013; isn't, though he's an outstanding person).

I'm trying to definition explain the Analysis Essay way part of the horror of the Horror was knowing that whatever America the men in those planes hated so much was far more my own #x2013; mine, and F#x2013;'s, and poor old loathsome Duane's #x2013; than these ladies'. #x2020;Editor's Note: Some names have been changed, and some details have been altered. * Mrs. T.'s living room is eveline summary, prototypical working-class Bloomington too, by the way: double-pane windows, white Sears curtains w/ valence, catalogue clock with a background of mallards, magazine rack with CSM and Reader's Digest, inset bookshelves used for Franklin collectibles and framed photos of relatives and their families, two small tasteful knit samplers w/ the Desiderata and Prayer of Economic St. Francis, antimacassars on every good chair and neutral, wall-to-wall carpeting so thick that you can't see your feet (people take their shoes off at the door; it's basic common courtesy).

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Extraction and Evaporation Recrystallization Essay. 1. To the components of Analysis a simulated pharmaceutical preparation, Panacetin, and identifying the unknown component of the mixture through extraction and constructionism definition, separation methods. 2. To learn how to purify by Essay, recrystallization, how to dry them and how to obtain a melting point. PRECAUTION: ACETANILIDE AND PHENACETIN ARE EYE AND SKIN IRRITANTS. Minimize contact with your unknown compound. In this experiment, Panacetin, a pharmaceutical preparation will be separated from its components by making use of their solubilities and acid-base properties. Constructionism! Panacetin contains aspirin, sucrose and Economic Analysis, an unknown component that may be either acetanilide or phenacetin. Of the three components, only sucrose is eveline insoluble in the organic solvent dichloromethane (CH2Cl2 or methylene chloride). The insoluble sucrose can be filtered out if Panacetin is dissolved completely in dichloromethane by gravity filtration or centrifugation leaving the soluble aspirin, acetanilide and phenacetin in the solution. Although the acetanilide and aspirin are both quite insoluble in water at room temperature, the sodium salt of aspirin is very soluble in water but insoluble in dichloromethane. Economic! Aspirin, which is summary a strong acid can be converted to the salt, sodium acetylsalicylate by extraction with an aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate . This salt will migrate from the dichloromethane layer, in which it is insoluble, to the aqueous layer, in which it is Analysis soluble.

The unknown component will stay behind in Effects of Global Warming the solution and can be isolated by evaporating the Analysis Essay solvent from the dichloromethane solution. Adding HCl to The Devastating Effects, the aqueous solution restores aspirin as an insoluble white solid. In the third experiment, the identity of the unknown component of Panacetin will be purified. Purification is necessary because the separation procedure may be imperfect leaving traces of small quantities in the compound after separation or chemical reactions may occur prior to or during the separation adding new impurities. The unknown component can be purified by recrystallization, in which an impure solid dissolves in a hot (usually boiling) solvent then crystallizes from the cooled solution in Essay a purer form. This experiment was followed from the textbook on pages 52-53 for experiment 2 and 59-60 for experiment 3 excluding the microscale part. First, weigh approximately 3.00 g of Panacetin and transfer it to a clean, dry 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask. The Significance League Nations! Add 50 ml of dichloromethane to the flask , stir the mixture with a stirring rod to Cartoon, break up any lumps. When it appears that no more of the solid will dissolve, filter the mixture by gravity. Jj Premium Cars! Collect the undissolved solid on the filter paper and set it aside to dry. Once it has completely dried, reweigh the Cartoon Essay solid.

This compound separated by gravity filtration is known as sucrose. Next, transfer the filtrate to a separatory funnel and extract it with two 30 ml portions of 5% sodium bicarbonate . For each extraction, use a stirring rod to eveline, stir the liquid layer until any fizzing subsides before a stopper is placed on the funnel and shaken. Dichloromethane will be on the bottom layer and will be drained to a different container. Transfer the dichloromethane layer back into the funnel for the second extraction. The upper layer will be transferred in an Erlenmeyer flask and Economic Essay, will be used for recovery of acetanilide. Combine the two aqueous solutions in the same container and acidify slowly with 6M HCL to bring it to a pH of 2. The Significance Of The League! Cool the mixture to room temperature or below while swirling the flask occasionally in Economic an ice bath.

Collect the aspirin by vacuum filtration. Wash the of Purpose in Electronics Engineering Essays aspirin on Economic Cartoon Analysis the filter with cold distilled water. Dry the sample thoroughly before weighing and leave it in the hood for the next lab schedule. Before proceeding to recrystallization, triturate the joyce compound with 20 ml of hexane. Crush the solid with a stirring rod and filter. Recrystallize the unknown drug component from experiment 2 by boiling it with just enough water to dissolve it completely, then letting it cool to room temperature then to 0 C. Analysis! In order to induce crystallization, it would be helpful to scratch the walls of the eveline joyce flask so that crystals would have a surface to attach to. Economic Analysis! Use vacuum filtration to isolate the sample then dry the product to a constant mass and weigh in a tared vial. Grind a small amount of the dry unknown component to a fine powder on a watch glass using a spatula. Divide the solid into social four equal portions. Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay! Combine portions 1 and 2. Mix portion 3 with an approximately equal amount of finely ground acetanilide and mix portion 4 with an approximately equal amount of finely ground phenacetin. Jj Premium Cars! Obtain the melting point ranges of the Economic Analysis Essay purified unknown (portions 1 and 2), mixture with acetanilide and mixture with phenacetin.

Each melting point should be measured on two samples- more than that if melting points are imprecise or accurate. Safety Issues: (all of constructionism definition these are taken from Economic Analysis, Potential Acute Effects: Hazardous in case of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation. Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact. Potential Chronic Health Effects: Hazardous in case of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation. Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant). Eye and skin irritant. Potential Health Effects. Causes irritation to respiratory tract. Has a strong narcotic effect with symptoms of mental confusion, light-headedness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and social example, headache. Causes formation of Essay carbon monoxide in social blood which affects cardiovascular system and central nervous system.

Continued exposure may cause increased light-headedness, staggering, unconsciousness, and even death. Exposure may make the symptoms of angina (chest pains) worse. Ingestion: May cause irritation of the Economic Cartoon Analysis Essay gastrointestinal tract with vomiting. If vomiting results in aspiration, chemical pneumonia could follow.

Absorption through gastrointestinal tract may produce symptoms of central nervous system depression ranging from light headedness to unconsciousness. Causes irritation, redness and pain. Prolonged contact can cause burns. Liquid degreases the skin. May be absorbed through skin. Vapors can cause eye irritation. Contact can produce pain, inflammation and. temporal eye damage. Can cause headache, mental confusion, depression, liver effects, kidney effects, bronchitis, loss of joyce summary appetite, nausea, lack of Cartoon Analysis Essay balance, and visual disturbances. Can cause dermatitis upon prolonged skin contact. Methylene chloride may cause cancer in humans.

Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions: Persons with pre-existing skin disorders, eye problems, impaired liver, kidney, respiratory or cardiovascular function may be more susceptible to the effects of this substance. Moderate Eye Irritation: Signs/symptoms may include redness, swelling, pain, tearing, and blurred or hazy vision. Skin Contact: Moderate Skin Irritation: Signs/symptoms may include localized redness, swelling, itching, and constructionism, dryness. Economic Cartoon Analysis! May be absorbed through skin and cause target organ effects. Inhalation: No health effects are expected.

May be harmful if swallowed. Gastrointestinal Irritation: Signs/symptoms may include abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea and vomiting. Of Global Warming! Repeated ingestion may cause: May be absorbed following ingestion and cause target organ effects. Target Organ Effects:

Prolonged or repeated exposure may cause: Auditory Effects: Signs/symptoms may include hearing impairment, balance dysfunction and ringing in Cartoon Analysis the ears. Clotting Disorders: Signs/symptoms may include increased blood clotting time and internal bleeding (hemorrhage). Liver Effects: Signs/symptoms may include loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, weakness, abdominal tenderness and jaundice. Central Nervous System (CNS) Depression: Signs/symptoms may include headache, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination, nausea, slowed reaction time, slurred speech, giddiness, and unconsciousness.

Kidney Effects: Signs/symptoms may include reduced or absent urine production, increased serum creatinine, lower back pain, increased protein in urine, and increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Pulmonary Edema: Signs/symptoms may include chest discomfort, shortness of breath, significant cough with frothy sputum production, bluish colored skin (cyanosis), increased heart rate, respiratory failure and may be fatal. Single exposure may cause: Immunological Effects: Signs/symptoms may include alterations in the number of circulating immune cells, allergic skin and /or respiratory reaction, and changes in immune function. 5. Sodium Bicarbonate. Warning! May cause respiratory tract irritation.

Causes eye and skin irritation. Target Organs: Blood, kidneys, heart, liver, eyes, skin. Potential Health Effects. Eye: Causes eye irritation. Skin: Causes skin irritation.

May be harmful if absorbed through the skin. Assess The Significance! Ingestion: May be harmful if swallowed. Causes gastrointestinal tract irritation. Inhalation: May cause respiratory tract irritation. May be harmful if inhaled. Chronic: May cause liver and kidney damage. Adverse reproductive effects have been reported in animals. Laboratory experiments have resulted in mutagenic effects. Chronic exposure may cause blood effects. 6. Hydrochloric Acid. POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS:

Inhalation: May cause irritation (possibly severe), chemical burns, and Cartoon Analysis Essay, pulmonary edema. Skin contact: May cause irritation (possibly severe) and chemical burns. Eye contact: May cause irritation (possibly severe), chemical burns, eye damage, and blindness. Ingestion: Not a likely route of exposure. Target Organs Effected: Respiratory System, Skin, Eye. Chronic Effects: Repeated or prolonged exposure to dilute solutions may result in The Devastating of Global Warming dermatitis. Discoloration of the teeth may occur as a result of long term exposure. Interaction with Other Chemicals Which Enhance Toxicity: None known Medical Conditions Aggravated by Analysis, Exposure: None known. In Experiment 2, the extraction of substances from eveline, one another is based on the differences in their physical and chemical properties. Approximately, 3.0029 g of panacetin was weighed and completely dissolved in Economic Cartoon 50 ml of dichloromethane and filtered. The Devastating Effects Of Global! The residue was left to dry and Economic Analysis, weighed (sucrose).

Then 30 ml of Assess of the League Nations Essay NaHCO3 was added to the filtrate. This solution was transferred into a separatory funnel. This formed two layers. Top layer was the organic layer (NaHCO3) described as a clear liquid. Bottom layer was the aqueous layer and was yellow in color. The filtrate was washed twice with NaHCO3. Essay! HCl was added to the aqueous solution until the social capital pH equaled to Cartoon, 2.0.

It was filtered through vacuum filtration and jj premium cars, allowed to dry until the Economic Analysis Essay next weeks lab. This filtrate is constructionism known as aspirin. Cartoon Analysis! Meanwhile, the unknown in the organic layer was also allowed to settle for the next experiment. In experiment 3, before we went to do recrystallization, we first did trituration of the unknown by the Significance of the Nations, adding 20 ml of hexane. We crushed the Economic Cartoon Analysis solid and filtered. Capital! Even with the addition of approximately 27 ml of boiling water into the compound, it started to dissolve.

That was the first clue that we have acetanilide as our unknown. We went ahead and continue heating and swirling the solution over Cartoon Essay, a hot plate. There was the formation of brown oil-like globules. We were then asked to decant the clear liquid from this solution. This clear liquid was allowed to cool to room temperature then to of the League Essay, 0 C. There was formation of white crystals at the edge of the beaker. Through vacuum filtration, we were able to filter the product, weighed and used for melting point measurement of the unknown. The solid was divided into 4 equal parts. First 2 parts were combined, 3rd part was mixed with acetanilide and the last part was mixed with phenacetin. After taking the melting points of all these 3 substances we were able to identify the unknown product to Analysis, be acetanilide.

No big issues encountered during this experiment. Transferring some products as well as the final crystals from watch glass and filter paper and leaving some products were crucial to get the most final product. Joyce! This explains why the percent recovery for the unknown was low. Some crystals fell off or didnt transfer to Economic Cartoon, the filter paper. Jj Premium Cars! Even though the % recovery was relatively low (88.4079%), this experiment still produced a 0.6898 g of product. This experiment was focused on two main objectives. First, the analysis of Economic Essay panacetin to constructionism definition, find out what percentages of sucrose, aspirin and the unknown component it contains. Cartoon Essay! Second, to find out whether the unknown is acetanilide and Assess League Essay, phenacetin.

A big part of the Cartoon Analysis composition of panacetin was made up of the unknown. We were able to determine the composition of sucrose to be 17.95 %, Aspirin 26.93% and the unknown to be 55.12% After following the experiment procedures, we were able to purify through recrystallization the end product to be acetanilide. This is an odorless white crystalline solid substance which has a melting point of 114 C. Our experimental value for acetanilides melting point was 117 which indicates that the result had a very narrow range and eveline joyce, close to the literature value. I would therefore conclude that we had isolated a close to Cartoon, pure product of Effects of Global acetanilide with little impurities present. 1. Cartoon Analysis Essay! a. Definition! Describe any evidence that a chemical reaction occurred when you added 6 M HCl to the solution of sodium acetylsalicylate. A chemical reaction took place upon the addition of 6M HCl to Cartoon Analysis, a solution of sodium acetylsalicylate because a precipitate formed known as aspirin. b. Explain why the changes that you observed took place. The observed change took place as a result of the acid reacting with the salt forming a compound insoluble in water.

2. Describe any explain the possible effect on your results of the following experimental errors or variations. Jj Premium Cars! In each case, specify the component (s) whose percentage(s) would be too high or too low. a. After adding dichloromethane to Panacetin, you didnt stir or shake the mixture long enough. Improper stirring or shaking of the mixture will result in incomplete dissolution of the panacetin mixture. There will be loss of some solid analytes during filtration. The recovered amounts will be lower than they should be leading to a final percentage to be low. b. During the NaHCO3 extraction you failed to mix the Essay aqueous and organic layers thoroughly. If the aqueous and organic layers were not thoroughly mixed the acid would remain in the solution and the extraction would be less efficient resulting to a low percentage yield. c. You mistakenly extracted the dichloromethane solution with 5 % HCl rather. If 5% HCl is used instead of of Purpose in Electronics Essays 5% NaHCO3 that would protonate the aspirin and keep it in the organic solution making the aspirin, acetylsalicyclic acid. d. Instead of using pH paper, you neutralized the sodium bicarbonate solution to pH 7 using litmus paper.

At ph7 the Economic Cartoon Essay bicarbonate wouldnt be able to act as a base and extract a proton because at pH of 7 it would protonate itself so it wouldnt be able to react with aspirin. 5. Write a balanced reaction equations for the reactions involved a. When aspirin dissolves in aqueous NaHCO3. C9H8O4 (aq) + NaHCO3 (aq) C9H7O4Na (aq) + CO2 + H2O Weak acid weak base Strong Base Strong acid. b. When Aspirin is precipitated from a sodium acetylsalicylate solution by HCL. C9H7O4Na + HCl -? C9H8O4 + NaCl Strong Base Strong acid Weak Acid Weak Base. Assuming that both reactions are spontaneous under the standard conditions, label the stronger acid, stronger base, weaker acid and weaker base in each equation.

1. a. What is the social minimum volume of boiling water needed to dissolve 0.200 g of phenacetin? b. About how much phenacetin will remain dissolved when the water is cooled. to room temperature? c. Cartoon Analysis Essay! Calculate the maximum mass of solid (undissolved) phenacetin that can be recovered when the social capital cooled solution is filtered. 0.200 g-0.0125 g (amount soluble in cold water)= 0.1875 g. 2. An unknown compound X is Cartoon one of the four compounds listed in table 3.2. A mixture of X with benzoic acid melts at 89 C, a mixture of X with phenyl succinate melts at 120 C and a mixture of X with m-aminophenol melts at 102 C. Give the identity of capital example X and explain your reasoning. X is Economic Analysis Essay phenyl succinate. When a compound mixes with a different compound, the of Global Warming melting point of the mixture will be lower than the melting points of either of the pure compounds.

Basing from the table, the melting point of Analysis pure benzoic acid is 121 C but when mixed to X, it went down to 89 C. Likewise with O-toluic acid and m-aminophenol. Since the constructionism definition melting point of mixture X with phenyl succinate has a melting point of 120 C, the melting point of pure X must be equal or closer to 121. Mixing X with phenyl succinate did not change the melting point thus X must be phenyl succinate. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 8 May 2016.

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