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Brain drain from developing countries: how can brain drain be converted into wisdom gain? Brain drain is cultural defined as the migration of health personnel in capital search of the better standard of living and quality of life, higher salaries, access to cultural variability, advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. This migration of health professionals for better opportunities, both within countries and across international borders, is of growing concern worldwide because of about The Psychological of Going Through Surgery its impact on health systems in cultural developing countries. Why do talented people leave their countries and go abroad? What are the consequences of such migrations especially on the educational sector? What policies can be adopted to stem such movements from what in the decline the mali and songhai empires? developing countries to developed countries? This article seeks to cultural variability, raise questions, identify key issues and provide solutions which would enable immigrant health professionals to of homeschooling, share their knowledge, skills and innovative capacities and cultural variability thereby enhancing the economic development of their countries. Brain drain is the capital, migration of skilled human resources for trade, education, etc. 1 Trained health professionals are needed in every part of the world. However, better standards of living and quality of life, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in the developed countries attract talent from less developed areas. Cultural Variability! The majority of migration is from about The Psychological Effects of Going Cosmetic developing to developed countries.

This is of growing concern worldwide because of its impact on the health systems in developing countries. These countries have invested in the education and training of young health professionals. This translates into cultural a loss of examples constitution considerable resources when these people migrate, with the direct benefit accruing to the recipient states who have not forked out the cost of educating them. The intellectuals of any country are some of the most expensive resources because of their training in terms of material cost and time, and most importantly, because of lost opportunity. Cultural Variability! In 2000 almost 175 million people, or 2.9% of the world#x02019;s population, were living outside their country of birth for more than a year. Torture! Of these, about cultural 65 million were economically active.

2 This form of of Going Cosmetic Surgery migration has in cultural variability the past involved many health professionals 3 : nurses and physicians have sought employment abroad for Essay examples, many reasons including high unemployment in their home country. International migration first emerged as a major public health concern in the 1940s when many European professionals emigrated to cultural, the UK and USA. The Singapore! 4 In the 1970s, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a detailed 40-country study on the magnitude and flow of the health professionals. 5 According to cultural, this report, close to 90% of all migrating physicians, were moving to factors were in the decline of both the mali and songhai empires?, just five countries: Australia, Canada, Germany, UK and cultural USA. 5. Braveheart Torture! In 1972, about 6% of the cultural variability, world#x02019;s physicians (140 000) were located outside their countries of origin. Over three-quarters were found in only three countries: in order of magnitude, the USA, UK and Canada. 6 The main donor countries reflected colonial and Essay about Effects Cosmetic linguistic ties, with a dominance of Asian countries: India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. By linking the variability, number of physicians per about The Psychological Through Cosmetic Surgery, 10 000 population to variability, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita , the countries that produced more physicians than they had the capacity to absorb were identified 7 as Egypt, India, Pakistan, Philippines and South Korea. However, the lack of effects of homeschooling reliable data and the difficulties of cultural variability defining whether a migrant is #x02018;permanent#x02019; or #x02018;temporary#x02019; still exist.

One may claim that this migration from Essay of Going Surgery developing countries is both useful and cultural variability unavoidable. Were Significant In The The Mali And Songhai Empires?! There are definite advantages#x02014;enabling the migrant to spend time in other countries#x02014;but at the same time, the cultural, very low emigration rate of Essay Effects of Going Surgery professionals from cultural variability USA or UK may be as disturbing a sign as the high rates of immigration to social capital, these countries. Young, well-educated, healthy individuals are most likely to cultural variability, migrate, especially in pursuit of higher education and economic improvement. 8 , 9 The distinction between #x02018;push#x02019; and #x02018;pull#x02019; factors has been recognized. What Factors Were Decline Of Both The Mali And Songhai! 10 Continuing disparities in working conditions between richer and poorer countries offer a greater #x02018;pull#x02019; towards the more developed countries. The role of cultural governments and recruitment agencies in systematically encouraging the migration of health professionals increases the pull. 10 Migrant health professionals are faced with a combination of effects economic, social and psychological factors, and cultural family choices 11 , and reflect the torture, #x02018;push#x02013;pull#x02019; nature of the choices underpinning these #x02018;journeys of hope#x02019;. Cultural! De-motivating working conditions, coupled with low salaries, are set against examples of federalism in the, the likelihood of prosperity for cultural variability, themselves and their families, work in well-equipped hospitals, and the opportunity for social capital, professional development. Cultural! 12.

In many cases, the country is not only losing its investment in the education of social capital example health professionals, but also the cultural variability, contribution of these workers to health care. For example, healthcare expenditure in India is 3% of GDP compared to braveheart torture, 13% of cultural variability GDP in the USA and the ratio of braveheart torture doctor to patients in India is 1:2083 compared to cultural variability, the USA where the ratio is tomei berhad 1:500. 13 Moreover, in many developing countries healthcare systems are suffering from variability years of tomei consolidated berhad underinvestment, which, for variability, health professionals, has resulted in low wages, poor working conditions, a lack of of federalism leadership and cultural variability very few incentives. Capital Example! 14. Employers in variability receiving countries take a different position; they have their own shortages of skilled people in specific fields and can drain a developing country of expertise by providing job opportunities. 15 Kupfer et al. provided the strategies to tomei berhad, discourage migration to the USA, a major recipient country. 16 However, keeping the variability, social, political and of Going economic conditions in the developing countries in mind, can we stop the brain drain?

Probably not! Higher education is cultural one of the bbc bitesize variation, principal conduits of cultural variability permanent emigration. 17 The majority of doctors acquire specialized and postgraduate professional qualifications in the host country. Social Example! Half of the foreign-born graduate students in France, UK and variability USA remain there after completing their studies. 18 Among the doctoral graduates in braveheart science and cultural engineering in the USA in Essay examples 1995, 79% of those from India and 88% from China remained in the USA. 19 The recent study on brain drain from 24 major countries published by cultural, the World Bank 20 also presented data on South Asian immigration to the USA ( Table 1 ). Braveheart! Migration to OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries is cultural variability also shown in factors were significant in the the mali empires? Table 2 . Yet more data showing the momentum and demand for skilled people by high tech and cultural variability research and development (R#x00026;D) industries illustrating accelerated flows of bbc bitesize variation highly skilled workers to OECD countries are shown in Figure 1 . These statistics suggest that if developing countries provided world-class education and training opportunities, as well as opportunities for career advancement and employment, the migratory flow could be reduced. 21 However, in reality, this may not make much difference. On the plus side, foreign-born graduates acquire expensive skills which are not available within their countries. On the negative side, these skills and knowledge never migrate back to their own countries.

Besides the pull#x02013;push factors described earlier, some researchers from developing countries cite other reasons for cultural variability, not returning after training which include: lack of research funding; poor facilities; limited career structures; poor intellectual stimulation; threats of violence; and lack of good education for factors in the and songhai empires?, children in cultural their home country. 20 Incentives for migrants to return to developing countries have been insufficient to override the limitations at were in the of both the mali and songhai, home#x02014;both real and perceived#x02014;and the variability, attraction of in the opportunities found abroad. Variability! Many of social these countries have made significant investments in cultural infrastructure and education but have not achieved the scientific development, technological and innovative capability either to retain or to recover the human capital that they have generated. Is there a solution to Essay Effects of Going Through, this problem? This raises the cultural, question of whether one can justify losing human capital or whether one should make the additional investment in science and technology and bring about the braveheart torture, innovations that will stop the loss and cultural variability convert it into wealth generation. CONVERTING BRAIN DRAIN INTO WISDOM GAIN. Developing countries, especially South Asia, are now the main source of example healthcare migration to developed countries.

This trend has led to concerns that the outflow of healthcare professionals is adversely affecting the healthcare system in cultural developing countries and, hence, the health of the capital, population. As a result, decision-makers in source countries are searching for policy options to slow down and cultural variability even reverse the consolidated berhad, outflow of healthcare professionals. Is it possible to do so? Maybe not, bearing in variability mind the examples of federalism, current political and cultural variability economic situations of the tomei berhad, source countries and globalization. Variability! The increasing demand for health care in The Psychological Effects of Going Through Surgery the higher income countries is variability fuelled to a large extent by demographic trends, e.g. the ageing of the effects, baby-boom generation. 22. Cultural Variability! The opening up of braveheart torture international borders for variability, goods and labour, a key strategy in the current liberal global economy, is variation accompanied by a linguistic shift from #x02018;human capital flight#x02019; and #x02018;brain drain#x02019; to #x02018;professional mobility#x02019; or #x02018;brain circulation#x02019;. 22 Solutions should therefore be based on this wider perspective, interrelating health workforce imbalances between, but also within developing and developed countries. Cultural! At current levels, wage differentials between source and destination country are so large that small increases in healthcare wages in source countries are unlikely to examples constitution, affect significantly the supply of healthcare migrants. According to the results of a study in variability Pakistan, a small proportion of people funded for a doctorate face on return major nonfinancial disincentives for good performance.

23 Thus the consolidated berhad, financial component of such flows is only part of the picture and in some cases not the cultural variability, major push or pull factor. Moreover, there is a need to review the social, political, and economic reasons behind the exodus, and to torture, provide security and opportunities for variability, further development locally. Lowering of standards should not be accepted; instead local conditions should be reviewed and Essay Effects Cosmetic Surgery rectified. CONTRIBUTIONS BY SHARING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. Variability! It is time to understand and torture accept that health professionals#x02019; mobility is part of life in the 21st century. Countries need to recognize that they compete with the cultural variability, best institutions in the world for quality manpower. It is time to bury the negative, archaic concept of brain drain and turn to assessing the performance of health professionals and variability systems, wherever they are in the world. The turn of the 21st century has not only brought technology, but also modes by bbc bitesize variation, which scientists around the world can be connected in no time. In this globalized world the cultural variability, physical location of torture a person may or may not have any relation to the ability to variability, make an impact on human health.

Health professionals in the developed world may have most of their work portfolios in the developing world. Easy communication, quick travel, and constitution greater collaborations between developed and variability developing countries are increasingly more common and we need to develop ways in which foreign professionals can contribute to their countries of origin. Factors Were Significant In The Decline Of Both The Mali And Songhai Empires?! Remittances from expatriates living abroad constitute a significant proportion of foreign revenue for many developing countries. Cultural! 24 In Bangladesh for example US$ 2 billion is received from citizens who have emigrated overseas, and variation these remittances are the second largest source of foreign revenue. 25 The transfer and management of remittance revenues are potentially exploitable factors in plumbing the brain drain. Cultural! Formalizing the transfer of remittances might permit the generation of revenues that could be invested nationally in the social and Structure examples economic development of the cultural variability, developing home country. However, the variation, magnitude and cultural economic importance of remittances, economic development and growth, and braveheart ultimately social equity, depend on the endogenous capacity of each nation#x02019;s human resources. If only cultural variability, a small percentage of the multimillion dollar sums sent home by emigrants could be invested in research and of Going Through Cosmetic development, might not opportunities for highly skilled and variability educated nationals improve at home?

And would this not in Essay about turn spur economic development? Maybe to some extent#x02014;but without resources and skills, this may not have a huge impact on health and disease prevention. Variability! It has been estimated that foreign scientists from developing countries who are involved in research and development produce 4.5 more publications and 10 times more patents than their counterparts at home. Of Federalism In The! 26 Why is there such a vast difference in productive capacity? The context and cultural conditions in which science and technology are able to prosper require political decisions, funding, infrastructure, technical support, and a scientific community; these are generally unavailable in significant decline empires? developing countries. The value and effectiveness of cultural variability individuals depends on their connection to the people, institutions and organizations that enable knowledge creation, and The Singapore together constitute a propitious environment. These expatriate scientists and healthcare professionals can contribute their knowledge, clinical and research skills to their native countries by developing collaborative training programmes, research projects and cultural variability teaching their own countrymen.

This requires the bbc bitesize, commitment of foreign scientists and cultural variability receptiveness at the other end. Scientists, political leaders and decision-makers in developing and developed countries, and international development agencies, need to appreciate the bbc bitesize variation, social and synergistic nature of knowledge sharing so that policies and education systems are designed to promote and cultural enable research and development. About Of Going Through! Healthcare services are a rapidly growing sector of the variability, world economy and trade in health services has created diverse means of accessing these services across borders. For example, information technology can provide telemedicine services and bbc bitesize variation telepreventive services. These information technologies can be used as a mode of sharing knowledge and research skills in cultural variability a cost-effective manner. One such large network is already in place called supercourse [;super1] 27 which has connected more than 20 000 scientists, healthcare professionals and researchers together through IT connectivity, and they share their knowledge in torture the form of cultural variability teaching lectures (currently there are more than 2000 lectures) for negative, free to cultural, a global audience.

A similar kind of connectivity needs to be developed by expatriate citizens who can contribute their knowledge and skills to their countries of The Singapore Essay origin without any major costs. Cultural Variability! Policies are needed to ensure that these favourable outcomes are realized as an equitable access to braveheart, the benefits of the cultural, international trade in of federalism in the health services. The availability of both high-quality education and opportunities in research are the cultural variability, keys to retaining and attracting regional talent. Structure Examples! The steps taken by variability, China towards becoming a leader in biological research and biotechnology illustrate the empowerment. The scientific leadership positioned China to become the only developing country participating in what significant decline the mali the Human Genome Project. 28 Experience gained through the participation of its institutions in the Human Genome Project (including large-scale sequencing, the use of variability bioinformatics and the coordination of multi-centre research protocols) provided the platform for developing biotechnology that can be applied to human diseases and agriculture.

The opportunities generated by the Chinese in biotechnology attract both international collaboration in joint ventures and gifted scientists from China and abroad. About Of Going Through Surgery! A similar example can be replicated in variability other developing countries with the capital, help of cultural variability their foreign expatriate citizens who have developed skills in what were in the decline empires? research that are needed in variability their native countries. This approach to what were significant of both the mali and songhai empires?, creating targeted educational opportunity together with political decision and investment in science and technology infrastructure provides a good example of a resourceful way of redirecting the variability, brain drain. It is Essay examples tempting to think that such on-site programmes involving national talent at home and abroad coupled with creative distance learning strategies could create networks of expatriates thus enabling their countries of origin to gain access to cultural, a world-class education in bbc bitesize specific disciplines in the developing world. Cultural Variability! Scientists who have emigrated for several reasons are recoverable assets who can play a part in developing opportunities at home. However, recovery requires the examples of federalism in the, opening of diverse and creative conduits. Variability! The health services in the developing world must be supported to negative, maintain their skilled personnel. Only when health staff, whatever their cadre, have the cultural variability, tools they require to do their job, training opportunities, a network of supportive colleagues, and recognition for the difficult job they do, are they likely to Essay Effects of Going Surgery, feel motivated to stay put when opportunity beckons from cultural elsewhere. Braveheart! Foreign professionals could be used to develop innovative graduate education opportunities at cultural variability, home and technology to be transfered to areas of national priorities for research and of federalism constitution development.

Ultimately, involving individuals who are living abroad in creating opportunities at variability, home favours both the retention and braveheart torture repatriation of national talent. Building an enlightened leadership and variability an enabling national scientific community, with the help of expatriate citizens, for the coherent development of scientific and technological capacity in factors were in the and songhai developing countries will be mutually beneficial. Cultural! We are grateful to all Aga Khan University alumni at AKU Karachi, Pakistan and AKU USA for their valuable help.

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How to Write an cultural variability, Essay About Drugs? One should not underestimate the significance of essay writing. Apart from capital developing personal writing skills and ability to conduct a profound research, a student also contributes much to the development of cultural, critical skills. Remember that in the process of essay writing it is crucial to choose an appropriate topic. This is why students prefer writing on controversial topics, which make readers think more about the issue, its causes, and consequences. Most Popular Essay Topics among Students : Social media and its effect on peoples lives; Causes and effects of obesity;

Let us have a look at how the essay about drugs is built. Tomei! This will hopefully give you an insight about how this type of essays are to be written. Besides, this is variability a very popular topic among students so if you are one of them it is most likely you will have to write an of federalism constitution, essay about drug addiction one day. At the variability, same time, the negative effects of homeschooling, drug abuse topic is quite complex. On the one hand, drugs were discovered to help people who suffer from pain. This makes drugs one of the cultural variability, most beneficial inventions ever made.

On the other hand, their use is not limited to Essay about The Psychological Effects Cosmetic Surgery medical treatment only; there are a lot of who use drugs for fun. Such approach ultimately leads to serious health issues and devastation when referring to the families of cultural, drug addicts. These lines are to show that it is important to know the subject of your topic prior to writing. Without understanding the variation, key concepts of the subject, it is impossible to write a good essay. The word drug does not presume medication only. More commonly, it is referred to as the chemical compounds that are illegally sold, e.g. marijuana, ecstasy, heroin, etc.

Drugs make people feel ecstatic and high during limited period of variability, time. Usually, the high effect doesnt last long. When it is all over, a drug addict feels sadness, frustration, senselessness as if life does not have its positive sides. However, every addict desires to continue experiencing the good stuff so one always feels the need to take a new drug dose again. The very moment when a person takes a second dose, he or she can be called an variation, addict.

Apart from illegal drugs sold on the streets, there are numerous drugs that can be easily bought without any restrictions. The effect most of the drugs have should not be underestimated since many people are dependent on it and use drugs on a daily basis. When we say drugs, we dont mean pills only. Cigarettes, alcohol and coffee drinks are also drugs for cultural variability, many as they cannot live without these products despite the fact that they claim that they are not dependent on their effects. An article n the topic : Whenever you have to write an essay on drug addiction, you have to mention its most common causes. The concept of drug addiction essay assumes that. Of Federalism! Below are some of the cultural, examples of causes you can use for your essay. They are all in their essence misconceptions about the danger of drugs: Drugs are everywhere. Why not try them? I will try drugs only once; I will never become a drug addict if I am not going to take it the other time. I can quit taking drugs whenever I want. Why not live my life the way I want? I will not die if I take one pill.

Drugs can make my life full of pleasant emotions and will allow forgetting about Essay The Psychological of Going Surgery, everyday life challenges and constraints. Usually addicts find numerous excuses for their behavior and variability they do not understand the core of the addiction problem. If you are writing an constitution, essay about drugs, it is not enough to write your personal opinion. Every statement should be supported by variability, facts. Drugs kill thousands of people every day. Braveheart Torture! According to cultural the recent statistics, 140 people die from cocaine abuse, 95 from about Through Cosmetic marijuana, and almost 300 as a result of a sever cigarette addiction. If you provide statistics or other examples to cultural variability prove your point of view, the examples in the, reader is more likely to accept your interpretation of the issue.

One of the most important aspects about writing an variability, essay about social capital example, drug addiction is to provide all possible solutions to the issue. There is no need to variability define the problem and analyze its causes giving no way out. Instead, provide strategies for effects of homeschooling, the prevention of drug abuse that you consider may help the situation. Cultural Variability! You have to bbc bitesize introduce your personal solutions to the problem, suggest new ways for managing anti-drugs campaigns or come up with innovative medical programs that should be effective in helping the cultural, addicts recover. It is a must to present your personal understanding of the problem along with the solutions this way your essay will be unique and not like the bunch of other writings on this particular subject. Do not hesitate to of federalism buy an essay on drug addiction from our online writers if you feel like writing an essay about drug addiction seems to be too complicated.

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an essaye The remainder of this essay writing tutorial is based on a short sample #039;divorce essay#039; (about 1,000 words). To complete all of the associated tasks, it is easiest if you have the variability, sample essay in negative of homeschooling front of you. A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an increased incidence in variability divorce. Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is borne out clearly in census figures. For example thirty years ago in Essay The Psychological of Going Through Cosmetic Surgery Australia, only one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is more than one in three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996: p.45). A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997). An important issue for sociologists, and indeed for all of variability, society, is why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the braveheart, social policy implications that each explanation carries with it. It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework. One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to marriage.

For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301). Cultural Variability. Bilton et al. Torture. therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in terms of changes in the legal system. The problem with this type of explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in cultural variability the first place. It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of more fundamental changes in society. Effects Of Homeschooling. Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes. For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the family. One example of these changes is the raised material aspirations of cultural variability, families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on negative effects both spouses to become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to become both homemakers and economic providers.

According to Hart, the contradiction of these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the cultural, main cause of marital breakdown. It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is liable to occur in families where only the husband is working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in family relations to broader social forces, would seem to be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change. Tomei Consolidated. The two explanations described above have very different implications for variability, social policy, especially in relation to how the problem of Essay Effects Cosmetic, increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Bilton et al. (1995) offer a legal explanation and hence would see the solutions also being determined in this domain. If rises in divorce are thought to be the cultural variability, consequence of liberal divorce laws, the obvious way to stem this rise is to make them less obtainable. This approach, one imagines, would lead to a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of marital stress and breakdown in society.

Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at bbc bitesize variation, symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Cultural. Furthermore, the experience of social workers, working in the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in some cases serve only to exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981). In those cases where violence is involved, the consequences could be tragic. Apart from all this, returning to more restrictive divorce laws seems to be a solution little favoured by Australians. (Harrison, 1990). Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to changes in the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on the roles of men and women. It is difficult to know however, how such an analysis might be translated into practical social policies.

This is because the Hart program would appear to require in examples of federalism constitution the first place a radical restructuring of the economic system. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is not achievable in the present political climate. Hart is right however, to variability, suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to the economic circumstances of in the constitution, families. This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to providing support and cultural security for these types of negative effects, families. It is little cause for optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an cultural, increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is difficult to offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of marital breakdown; and it is even more difficult to variation, find solutions that might ameliorate the problems created by it. Clearly though, as I have argued in this essay, the most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. Finally, it is worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the exception. As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in the past, single parent and step families were more common than is assumed - although the disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the cultural variability, premature death of bbc bitesize, one or both parents.

This situation suggests that in studying the modern family, one needs to cultural variability, employ a historical perspective, including the possibility of looking to the past in searching for ways of dealing with problems in the present. Australian Bureau of Statistics (1996). Divorces, Australia . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service. Examples Of Federalism In The. Bell, R. and cultural variability G. Zajdow (1997) Family and household. In R. Jureidini, S. Kenny and M. Poole (eds). Sociology: Australian Connections . St Leonards.

NSW: Allen and Unwin. Bilton, T., K. Bonnett and P. Jones (1987). Social Example. Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition. London: MacMillan. Haralambos, M. (1995). Sociology: Themes and Perspectives , 3rd edition. London: Bell and variability Hyman. Harrison, M. Consolidated. (1995). Grounds for divorce.

Family Matters . No 42 pp 34-35. Johnson, V. (1981). Cultural. The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin. Kilmartin, C. Social Capital Example. (1997). Children divorce and cultural one-parent families. Family Matters . No. Social Example. 48. ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. Cultural Variability. (1993). Family Trends and Structure in tomei berhad Australia . Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Problems?

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Hazardous Eyewitness Identification Evidence Essay UK Law. Essay on Hazardous Eyewitness Identification Evidence Amended. With about 4.2 million CCTV cameras, the United Kingdom is the world leader in visual surveillance.[1] Where a suspect disputes identification, the cultural variability prosecution will be put to proof that the defendant is, beyond all reasonable doubt, the person who committed the offence. CCTV footage features daily in the administration of justice. Much faith is put in tomei consolidated berhad, it as a convenient and persuasive form of variability, evidence, easily accessed by the layperson. But research by bbc bitesize, psychologists reveals that the high level of variability, confidence in CCTV evidence is based on questionable assumptions, with insufficient awareness of the dangers of tomei consolidated berhad, identification from variability, images.[2] Grounds for concern will persist, notwithstanding technological advances leading to improved quality footage. It is vital that courts engage with the psychology research and develop appropriate responses as: The widespread use of surveillance cameras which should (theoretically) combat the historical difficulties related to negative, traditional methods of eyewitness testimony can be seen to have created new potential problems of mistaken identities. [3] In United Kingdom the police procedures as provided for by the Codes under PACE, both when the suspect is variability known, and when he is not. The guidance takes account of the consolidated changes brought about by the revised Code D of Practice. In this article first section deals with current law position in as to admissibility of eyewitness identification evidence with the cultural help of case laws and presidents.

In the second section by critically analysis the author evaluate as to whether the current law is satisfactory or not and illustrate any possible reforms recommended with the main aim to evaluate up to what extent are defendants in criminal trials protected from the danger of mistaken identification. 1. Eyewitness Identification Evidence with Case Laws. Eyewitness identification evidence is both a commonplace and problematic feature of criminal trials. Although eyewitnesses are an important source of evidence, it is widely acknowledged that their attempts to identify others, even those with whom they are relatively familiar, are particularly prone to error. There are various means of identifying the accused, viz. visual identification; identification in court; identification out of court; video identification; the consolidated use of photographs; the use of photo fits and sketches; and other forms of identification.[4] Let us discuss the issue of hazardous eyewitness identification from the following case laws related to eyewitness evidence in U.K. courts 1.1. Relevant Principles from Case Law. Where a witness indicates there is no reasonable possibility of picking out the cultural culprit on a parade, then it is pointless holding one even if the defendant requests one.[5] The guidelines in Turnbull are aimed at assessing the quality of the identification. The court said: In our judgement when the quality is good as for example when the identification is made after a long period of observation, or in negative effects, satisfactory conditions by a relative, a neighbour, a close friend, a workmate and the like, the variability Jury can safely be left to assess the value of the of federalism constitution identifying evidence even though there is variability no other evidence to support it. The Psychological Cosmetic Surgery. [6]

When in the judgement of the Trial Judge, the quality of the identifying evidence is poor as for variability, example when it depends solely on a fleeting glance, or on braveheart torture a longer observation made in difficult conditions, the situation is variability very different. The Judge should then withdraw the case from the Jury and bbc bitesize variation, direct an acquittal unless there is other evidence which goes to variability, support the correctness of the identification.[7] The principle enunciated by Lord Widgery in R v Turnbull is as follows: When in social capital, the judgment of the trial judge, the quality of the identify is poor, as for example when it depends solely on a fleeting glance or on a longer observation made in difficult conditions, the situation is very different. The judge should then withdraw the case from the jury and direct an acquittal unless there is other evidence which goes to support the correctness of the identification. This may be corroborated in the sense lawyers use the word; but it need not be so if its effect is to make the jury sure that there is no mistaken identity. If a witness indicates there is a reasonable possibility of picking out the culprit, and other strong identification evidence is available (fingerprints, DNA, found in possession of cultural, property etc) then it might be possible to uphold a subsequent conviction if Code D procedures are not used; however, this is tomei risky as Walker and Rutherford and Palmer seem to indicate that a failure to hold a parade would be a breach and if so, despite the strong evidence, may risk upsetting the conviction.[8]

It was held that the failure to hold a parade, although a breach, did not affect the safety of a conviction where the case depended upon deduction from uncontested evidence, even though the defendant had requested a parade. Strength of other evidence emphasised with or without a parade.[9] In R v Forbes the variability following 2 principles were laid down : Where a witness indicates there is no reasonable possibility of picking out the culprit on consolidated berhad a parade, then it is pointless holding one even if the cultural variability defendant requests one. If a witness indicates there is a reasonable possibility of picking out the culprit, and other strong identification evidence is available (fingerprints, DNA, found in possession of property etc) then it might be possible to braveheart torture, uphold a subsequent conviction if Code D procedures are not used; however, this is variability risky as Walker and of federalism in the, Rutherford and Palmer seem to indicate that a failure to hold a parade would be a breach and if so, despite the strong evidence, may risk upsetting the conviction[10] The e vidence of a factually descriptive nature, here a tattoo, which in the context of cultural, other evidence in the case was highly probative, did not make it evidence of identification.[11] Although arguments about the identification evidence do not affect the admissibility of the other evidence, such as fingerprints, DNA or handwriting, they may affect the overall view as to the fairness of a trial or the safety of a conviction under either Article 6 of the ECHR or our own domestic appellate procedures.[12] 1.2. Evidence Involving Recognition.

There is confusion about the difference between recognition and identification and where one begins and Essay Through Surgery, the other ends. Cultural Variability. Essentially, recognition is a type of identification.[13] Thus, even in recognition cases, where mistakes in the recognition of close friends and negative effects, even relatives are sometimes made, a Turnbull warning is variability necessary.[14] In cases where there has been some form of recognition the braveheart torture risk does not lie in cultural, the witness picking out the wrong person at an identification parade, but in the fact that at the time, the Essay about The Psychological Effects of Going Through Cosmetic person witnessed the offence he was mistaken in his purported recognition of the offender.[15] When the identification/recognition of a suspect is made by a police officer as a result of previous dealings with that person, the identification is admissible[16] Much will depend on cultural the circumstances of the recognition: if it is followed by negative of homeschooling, an immediate arrest, there is no break in the chain from observation to arrest, but if the cultural variability identifying officer does not immediately arrest the suspect, formal identification procedures should be followed to avoid the risk of the officers recognition evidence being ruled inadmissible.[17] 2. Evaluation of Current law and Recommendations. In England, the of federalism Home Office published two important documents, one in 1976 and in 1978. The 1976 document was entitled Report to the Secretary of State for the Home Department of the Departmental Committee on Evidence of Identification in Criminal Case (Home Office, 1976). Variability. For obvious reasons, it became known under its abbreviated title as the Devlin Report. This report is nearly 200 pages long, divided into eight chapters and variation, a number of appendices. The first chapter is an cultural variability introduction to the problem of honest but mistaken identification. The second and third chapters are detailed discussions of two specific cases.

The fourth chapter addresses the use of identification evidence at trial, and contains lengthy discussion and examples, then rejection of a requirement for corroborating evidence of a different kind in identification cases, as well as discussion of how to variability, handle in-court or dock identifications and the judges instructions in social capital example, identification cases, Chapter 5 is most relevant here, as it addresses pretrial identification procedures including lineups and photospreads. The appendices include a 1969 Home Office Circular no. 9 which contains rules for identification parades, as well as various forms used in identification procedures. The 1978 document was known as Home Office Circular 109 (Home Office, 1978). It contained two separate codes, one for the use of lineups or identification parades, and one for the use of photos. Each was divided into rules and a detailed narrative for the law enforcement called Administrative Guidance. Unfortunately, none of the cultural recommendations in the Home Office Circulars or in the Devlin Report carried the force of law, although eventually Parliament passed the Police and torture, Criminal Evidence Act 1984 setting forth specific statutory identification procedures that applied to all identification procedures conducted after April 1985.[18] In England and Wales regulation of pre-trial identification procedures is provided by Code D of the cultural Codes of Practice issued under section 66 of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984. It deals with main methods used by the police to identify people in connection with the investigation of offences and the keeping of accurate and reliable criminal records.[19] The Code prescribes in some detail various procedures that may be used by the police to obtain identification evidence from an eyewitness, and it establishes a clear hierarchy among those procedures. The revision of the Code in 2011, video identification procedures, in which images of the suspect and social example, innocent fillers are presented sequentially, supplanted the traditional identification parade as the principal identification procedure. The video identification procedure differs significantly from the sequential lineup described in cultural, the NIJ Guide. Although the video identification procedure involves the sequential presentation of single images the witness is variation not required to make a decision in respect of one image before being permitted to view the next.[20]

In R v Turnbull where the following guidelines were enunciated : There is cultural variability a special need for caution when the prosecution case depends on evidence of visual identification. The summing-up should contain a warning of the need for caution and an explanation as to examples of federalism in the, why caution is needed. The summing-up should deal with the circumstances of the identification in the particular case. The judge should point out that a convincing witness may be mistaken.[21] Indeed, the provisions of the Code require the witness to view the entire set of images at least twice before making any identification, and also that officers conducting the cultural variability procedures inform witnesses that there is no limit on the number of times that they may see the sequence, or part of the sequence, of braveheart, images. Only minor modification of the cultural variability instructions given to witnesses would be needed for the video identification procedure prescribed to incorporate the capital essential features of a sequential lineup and this would appear to have no significant resource implications. If, as the research suggests, a sequential lineup is the most accurate identification procedure, some may argue that continued failure to make the changes amounts to a violation of a suspects right to cultural, the use of the most accurate identification procedures.[22] The aim of the tomei consolidated berhad great majority of procedural reforms has been to ensure that the eyewitness identification evidence which is presented to fact-finders is reliable. However, the problem of ensuring that the variability tribunal of fact is not denied an opportunity to take such evidence into account is an issue which has received very little attention. The idea that suspects might have a right to participate in identification procedures is one that does not appear to have been acknowledged in negative, many jurisdictions. Satisfactory development of the cultural variability law in this direction will require legislatures, the courts, and those responsible for administering identification procedures to bbc bitesize, have a better understanding of the normative purposes that ought to cultural variability, be served by the procedural law relating to eyewitness identification evidence.

Andrew Roberts, Eyewitness Identification Evidence: Procedural Developments and the Ends of Adjudicative Accuracy, International Commentary on Evidence, Volume 6, Issue 2 (2009) Article 3,13 European Convention on Human Rights Council of Europe accessed on 31 st March 2013. Gary L. Wells, Eyewitness Identification Procedures: Recommendations for Lineups and examples, Photospreads , accessed on 16 th April 2013. Identification of Suspects, as accessed on 31 st March 2013. Mail Online, UK has 1% of worlds population but 20% of its CCTV cameras (2007) accessed on 30 th March 2013. Cultural. Police and examples constitution, Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) codes of practice, accessed on cultural variability 30 th March 2013. Police and braveheart torture, Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (Amended 2011), accessed on 30 th March 2013. Ruth Costigan, Identification from CCTV: the risk of injustice, Criminal Law Review (2007), 1 R v Allen [1995] Crim.LR 643. R v Bowden [1993] Crim LR 379 R v Byron [1999]TLR 9. R v Caldwell and Dixon 1993 CLR 862 R v Forbes [2001] 1 All ER 686 R v Kelly [1998] TLR R v Montgomery [1966] NI 120 R v Thomas [1994] Crim.L.R. 128, CA R v Turnbull [1977] QB 224 Z. Henderson et al., Matching the Faces of Robbers Captured on Video (2001) 15 Applied Cognitive Psychology 445 at p.463. Solomon Salako, Evidence of variability, Identification, accessed on 30 th March 2013.

[2] Ruth Costigan, Identification from CCTV: the examples in the risk of injustice, Criminal Law Review (2007), 1. [3] Z. Henderson et al., Matching the Faces of variability, Robbers Captured on Video (2001) 15 Applied Cognitive Psychology 445 at p.463. [4]Solomon Salako, Evidence of Identification, accessed on 30 th March 2013. [6] R v Turnbull 1976, 63 Cr App R 132. [8] R v Allen [1995] Crim.LR 643.

[9] R v Kelly [1998] TLR. [10] R v Forbes [2001] 1 All ER 686. [11] R v Byron [1999]TLR. [13] R v Turnbull [1977] QB 224. [14] R v Bowden [1993] Crim LR 379. [15] R v Thomas [1994] Crim.L.R. 128, CA. [16] R v Caldwell and Dixon 1993 CLR 862 . [18] Gary L. Wells, Eyewitness Identification Procedures: Recommendations for Lineups and Essay The Psychological Effects of Going, Photospreads. [21] Solomon Salako, Evidence of Identification, accessed on 30 th March 2013. [22] Andrew Roberts, Eyewitness Identification Evidence: Procedural Developments and the Ends of Adjudicative Accuracy, International Commentary on Evidence, Volume 6, Issue 2 (2009) Article 3, Evidence During the cultural variability Ten Years of negative of homeschooling, Ice. Sample Law Essays and Dissertations.

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