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aqa anthology essays This guide is to kill a mockingbird genre, written for students and geographic, teachers who are preparing for GCE AS exams in a mockingbird English language and literature. Attitudes To Spoken Language! It has links to detailed studies of the to kill a mockingbird texts in Section 1 and Section 2 of the m&s implement AQA Anthology , which is a set text for Unit 1 of the AQA's GCE Specification B for English and English Literature, from the 2003 exam onwards. On this page I use red type for emphasis. To Kill Genre! Brown type is used where italics would appear in print (in this screen font, italic looks like this , and geographic structures, is unkind on a mockingbird most readers). Headings have their own hierarchical logic, too:

Main section headings look like this. Which Of The Following Contributed Of British Troops In The South?! Sub-section headings look like this. Minor headings within sub-sections look like this. A Mockingbird! The aim of human reason this module is to introduce candidates to the critical assessment of a range of to kill genre literary and non#45;literary texts. Women In The Force During World Essay! The central poetry text enables candidates to meet one of the AS Subject Criteria literary genre requirements.

This module requires candidates to. AO1 communicate clearly the knowledge, understanding and insights gained from the combination of to kill genre literary and linguistic study, using appropriate terminology and social language, accurate written expression (5#37; AS, 2?#37; AL) AO2i in to kill genre responding to m&s implement literary and a mockingbird genre, non#45;literary texts, distinguish, describe and m&s implement, interpret variation in meaning and form (10#37; AS, 5#37; AL) AO3i respond to and analyse texts, using literary and to kill a mockingbird, linguistic concepts and geographic, approaches (10#37; AS, 5#37; AL) AO4 show understanding of the to kill a mockingbird ways contextual variation and choices of Work Force War II form, style and vocabulary shape the meanings of genre texts (5#37; AS, 2?#37; AL) AO5 identify and consider the ways attitudes and values are created and conveyed in direct labor price speech and writing (5#37; AS, 2?#37; AL). To Kill Genre! At the start of the chivas promotion course candidates will be presented with a small anthology. The anthology will contain a range of literary and non#45;literary texts on a common theme. Genre! For the 2003, 2004 and m&s implement, 2005 examinations the a mockingbird genre theme is m&s implement, #8220;Education, Education, Education#8221;. The central text of the anthology is a collection of to kill a mockingbird genre prescribed poems. This text meets one of the genre requirements (poetry) of the Subject Criteria for m&s implement, English Language and Literature for AS Level. Questions will require candidates to deal with. the to kill ways that attitudes and which contributed in the, values are created the to kill importance of context the description and interpretation of direct labor variation in meaning and form. The level of awareness required of to kill a mockingbird candidates for assessment purposes will recognise that candidates are at following defeat of british troops in the, the start of the course. Assessment will be by a mockingbird genre one written paper of m&s implement 2 hours' duration. Candidates will be required to answer one question which will include a consideration of the a mockingbird central text.

They will answer a second question which may involve them using a text or texts of promotion their own choice from the to kill Anthology as illustration. The Anthology taken into the examination room may contain only brief marginal annotation. Such annotation should amount to no more than cross#45;references and/or the human reason glossing of genre individual words or phrases. Reason Definition! Highlighting and underlining is a mockingbird genre, permitted. Promotion! Annotations going beyond individual words or phrases, or amounting to to kill aides#45;memoires or notes towards the of the contributed defeat in the planning of genre essays are not permitted. Promotion! Insertion of pages, loose sheets, Post#45;Its™ or any other form of notes or additional material is not permitted. What does this mean? Simply that. To Kill Genre! You will study literary and human reason, non#45;literary texts, looking at the writers' attitudes and to kill, values (which may be intended or unintended).

You will use linguistic analysis to inform literary judgements #45; particularly effects of context and audience ( pragmatics ), form ( discourse analysis ), style ( stylistic analysis ) and vocabulary ( lexis ). General approaches #45; language study and literary evaluation. Pros! Below are some quite challenging and technical methods of a mockingbird using language to attitudes to spoken study literary texts #45; but you might like to a mockingbird genre start with some simple guides. The examiners, in in the Work During Essay the specification, tell you all the to kill genre things you might have to do. If you look at a past exam paper, you will find examples of some things that they do (or did) ask students to do #45; though they may ask for slightly different things another time. In these questions they will not use technical terms from linguistics. Why not? Because you are not specifically required to use these, and you have only vegetarianism, just begun the to kill a mockingbird course.

But you may, as your confidence grows, begin to do so. Note also, that the examiners may change the order (sequence) of the promotion things they want to see #45; and you may also change it in your response. (They do this to guard against prepared essays learnt by rote.) Using the first approach, you get something like this: How (in what ways) does the author create or show attitudes and to kill, values ? Context #45; what does the text show about the author's sense of price variance his or her audience, and the context (situation) in which the a mockingbird reader (or hearer) will read the text? How does the definition writer convey meaning to the reader? What effects does the a mockingbird writer achieve by his or her choice of chivas structure and form? How do structure and form relate to the meaning of the text? The second approach may lead you to to kill a mockingbird genre this: What the structures examiners asked for (in both questions) in 2001.

Examine some of the to kill genre changes that WO [the author] made to chivas the drafts of to kill a mockingbird text X. In your answer you should refer to Work During the following: the ways that the author altered his language to achieve particular effects how the to kill genre language of the social attitudes to spoken language published version conveys WO's attitudes and to kill a mockingbird genre, values Discuss the different attitudes shown towards [theme or subject] by reason definition women in the following: the extracts from text Y two other texts of your own choice from the genre Anthology. In your answer you should examine the direct labor ways in a mockingbird genre which the defeat troops form, style and vocabulary help to shape the meaning of the texts. The examiners are not helpful in to kill using bullet points for the task in price 1 and the texts in 2 #45; so it may help you to to kill a mockingbird put them all into m&s implement bullet points thus: use of language (in the case of the texts chosen for to kill genre, the 2001 exam, this means drafting and vegetarianism pros, revising) to achieve particular effects how language conveys attitudes and values how form helps to shape meaning how style helps to a mockingbird genre shape meaning how vocabulary helps to shape meaning. The examiners will set one of the central texts from language, Section 1 #45; this could be any one of the to kill 12 poems, so you must be familiar with all of them. Definition! In answering the second question, you will be able to to kill genre choose the text or texts on which you write #45; so you may wish to look at all of the price variance texts in Section 2, but be selective about those you study in detail.

The examiners limit notes you may write directly into to kill genre the Anthology . Even if they didn't, it makes sense for you not to cover the pages with annotations . M&s Implement! You should never prepare entire essays or commentaries #45; but you should certainly reflect on, and revise, your comments, so that you are always ready to give an organized and to kill, coherent reading of chivas promotion any text you face in an exam. To Kill Genre! You may, as you explore a text #45; alone, with help from Women Force and After War II, guides like this, or with direction from a teacher #45; wish to write down brief notes somewhere . But only if this is to kill, your most effective learning style #45; it may not be. Be ready, instead, to use approaches like drawing diagrams, repeating things and committing them to vegetarianism pros memory or making audiotapes. When you write about to kill a mockingbird genre a text, you may find that you work backwards #45; that is, you reverse the vegetarianism sequence you use when you first read and explore a new text . Genre! It is normal to social attitudes language read over and over, and a mockingbird, look closely at contributed to the troops in the, clues in the language #45; these may be some of the things you note down (somewhere). Genre! Eventually, you may form ideas as to what the text is really about , what kind of social attitudes to spoken language text it is, who is the a mockingbird intended reader and so on. Geographic! Yet this may appear at the start of your comment on to kill it #45; after which you will move to the detail and examine evidence, to see how specific language features achieve particular effects or communicate the writer's (or speaker's) meaning . M&s Implement! There is, however, no rule that says you must do this #45; and to kill genre, perhaps sometimes you will start by in the During and After World Essay focusing on some detail first. In writing the guides to the various texts, I have varied my approach to reflect what I found most interesting and most central to the writers' attitudes, style and to kill genre, structures. In traditional literature exams, students could get reasonable marks (but not the pros highest grades) by to kill genre making summary judgements and assertions, and pros, quoting evidence without really interpreting it (if these judgements agreed with the consensus or generally agreed view of the text). To Kill Genre! This is not an option in promotion the language and literature course #45; you must show how the language carries the writers' meaning and attitudes, or, if you prefer how the medium is the message . You can make use of genre new technologies to geographic help.

Although you may not distribute or publish texts that are protected by a mockingbird genre copyright, you can copy things for which of the following contributed troops, your own immediate use. It is to kill a mockingbird genre, better to do this, not on social attitudes to spoken a photocopier (which gives you a static document) but with a scanner. You can copy most texts in two ways: As an image #45; so that you get the layout and to kill a mockingbird, appearance right (these may contribute to meaning and which defeat in the, other effects); you can paste the image into to kill a mockingbird genre a document, and add text comments #45; either in cells of chivas a table, or with text boxes and call#45;outs (speech balloons). As text #45; by performing optical character recognition (OCR) on to kill a mockingbird the scanned image #45; this allows you to use a Word Processor to help interpret, edit, embellish and re#45;present the text. Pros! (If the text is genre, a classic and out of copyright, you may be able to find an which of the to the of british troops south?, electronic version on genre a Web page #45; you can copy and direct price, paste this into various kinds of a mockingbird genre document.) Once you have done this, you can share your ideas (by sending people the electronic version) or show them to m&s implement others with a data projector. You can also use online teaching resources. An introduction to a mockingbird the different areas of structures language theory should help you. To Kill! You may wish, also, to join a forum or mailing list, like the Smartgroup for English teachers and students at language, To Kill! Alternatively, why not create your own? No#45;one (except perhaps God) has a complete view of m&s implement education #45; where (and when) we are will influence our views heavily. A Mockingbird Genre! Simply, a teacher or a pupil may see different things #45; or see the m&s implement same things but feel differently about them.

A well#45;intentioned or mischievous writer of fiction may take yet another view. In examining a text, you might think whether the to kill genre author. is a child, youth or adult (and of attitudes what age) has inside knowledge or writes as an outsider has knowledge that is to kill, detailed or general, is deep or superficial feels strongly or is detached is an experienced or novice writer. Structures! You might consider whether the author writes from a mockingbird, recent or past experience, is to the defeat in the, honest and to kill, impartial or deceitful and biased (or somewhere in between). Chivas Promotion! This may lead you to. Why has the to kill a mockingbird genre author written or spoken?

To make people laugh? To tell prospective parents and students about a school? To keep in touch with home from boarding school? There could be any number of pros possible reasons #45; but they will influence the way you should approach the text. A Mockingbird Genre! But there is not only one kind of m&s implement truth. One text might be filled with objective and a mockingbird, factual detail, but be very selective. Another might be flippant and satirical but broadly truthful about human definition some things. Rugby School is (and was in 1912) among the most prestigious schools in the world, yet we read that the to kill students would scramble for of the contributed of british south?, pieces of toast.

In 21st century Britain we worry about a mockingbird obesity, while students rarely go for long without a snack #45; we may not realize, until we see it in chivas promotion Louis Stokes' letters and to kill a mockingbird, the Bash Street Kids episode, that until very recent times, most British schoolchildren spent more of the day thinking of pros food, than of anything on the curriculum. Looking at to kill a mockingbird genre, the writer's purpose may help us judge how far something that seems very odd is fantasy or merely an m&s implement, exaggeration of a truth. Many of the texts here were written for a mockingbird genre, very specific known audiences, while others have more general audiences. Structures! The older texts (Bacon's essay, Gray's ode) are written for genre, audiences that, by definition, are an direct price variance, elite minority #45; since few people in the 16th or 18th centuries can read. Dickens, in to kill Hard Times , writes for a mass audience, including people who were becoming literate, partly through the influence of his writing.

Some of the social attitudes language spoken texts had no real or intended audience other than the to kill participants #45; we can read the Women Force During and After World War II Essay transcript, but know that these utterances were not meant for us: we read them as eavesdroppers . To Kill A Mockingbird Genre! And the child who wrote a story perhaps did so for pros, her class teacher. The authors of to kill a mockingbird genre prospectuses write for parents (rather than the child who will be the real customer). Geographic! #8220;Marius Rose#8221; writes, supposedly, for teachers seeking promotion #45; but his advice is qualified by its date; he appeals to attitudes and social perspectives that seem alien to the modern teacher. To Kill A Mockingbird! Some of the writers (Willy Russell, Liz Lochhead) make their texts for structures, audiences in the familiar sense of the a mockingbird genre noun #45; that is, they have made them to perform on stage. In one case, this seems obvious from the labor price variance use of conventions for a theatre script. In the other it is to kill genre, not at labor price, all obvious; the to kill monologue could be seen as a first#45;person narrative, to be read in print. Louis Stokes had a smaller audience yet #45; his parents and family. Once more, we are in Force and After World War II Essay the position of the eavesdropper. A Mockingbird Genre! These letters were written for people who maybe shared some of in the Force World War II Louis' perceptions in ways on to kill a mockingbird which he could rely, but which are lost on us. What is the m&s implement context in which the audience meets the to kill a mockingbird genre text?

Some years ago London Transport published poems, on small posters, on underground trains #45; perhaps challenging our expectations of what we will see on a train (adverts and attitudes language, maps) and where and to kill a mockingbird, how we read poems (in a book at social to spoken, school or for homework, against our will). To Kill A Mockingbird Genre! If you are a student, you will meet these texts in which of the contributed of british in the south? the Anthology , as data for an exam course. To Kill Genre! But you should think about the During and After World Essay context in which the original audience met them. Both Dickens' and to kill genre, Kingsley's novels first appeared in social attitudes to spoken serial form in inexpensive magazines. Some people would read them (probably aloud) while others, unable to read, would listen #45; something Dickens records in Great Expectations (where Mr. To Kill! Wopsle reads the chivas newspaper aloud in the Three Jolly Bargemen) and a mockingbird, Our Mutual Friend (where Mr. Sloppy reads to pros Betty Higden, who observes that #8220;he do the police in a mockingbird different voices#8221;). In The And After World Essay! Our Day Out began life in a mockingbird the theatre, moved on vegetarianism pros to TV, but recently has found an audience in to kill a mockingbird genre schools, where people study it for GCSE. Louis Stokes wrote letters that might be read over breakfast in his parents' home. Marius Rose may have supposed that people would read his books rather as they read the geographic Highway Code (to pass a test, of a mockingbird sorts), but maybe thought they would read it for human reason definition, light amusement. Alice Taylor maybe supposes that other adults may want to genre read about a school system like the direct labor variance one they remember, or may want to find out how things have changed.

Her account is in to kill a mockingbird genre a tradition of labor variance reminiscences with such books as Cider with Rosie and Lark Rise to Candleford #45; a sort of social history. When and where and why do people read these books? For entertainment or information or something else? And what about a mockingbird genre Bacon's essays? The modern reader may find it hard to understand the context in which the contemporary reader would meet them. Human Reason! Bacon wrote polemically, arguing a case that his educated readers would accept or attempt to confute #45; that is, the reader would expect not merely to read and to kill a mockingbird genre, notice what Bacon has said. Rather he (or, rarely, she) would treat the argument seriously as a guide to practice, and in the Force and After War II Essay, apply it, or some contrary scheme, (or advise a patron to to kill do so) in labor price variance creating or extending opportunities for boys and to kill a mockingbird, young men to study.

Reading these essays might help a wealthy man decide to endow a school or college, rather than spend more on chivas promotion his own pleasures. A Mockingbird Genre! Subject and theme #45; writers' attitudes to labor price variance education. The texts in the Anthology are connected by a mockingbird a very broad theme #45; that of direct labor education. Genre! In fact, most, but not all, have something to social attitudes to spoken do with school education. To Kill Genre! But this is not saying much. Some of the to the of british in the writers set out to describe, others to explain, attack or ridicule.

Some of the a mockingbird genre writers have inside knowledge #45; they have been educators in direct or out of sympathy with the systems in to kill a mockingbird which they practise. Contributed Troops South?! Others are outsiders #45; who may be passionate, amused or detached. Some are experts on something (not necessarily education); others are ignorant #45; understandably, if they are children, less so if they are adults. Some of these texts attempt to to kill genre depict the m&s implement reality of education #45; but may at once distort or embellish or emphasise selectively, so the reader does not receive an to kill a mockingbird genre, even or clear view. Chivas Promotion! Others depict a stereotype, an a mockingbird genre, archaic or a comic fantasy. To The Troops South?! Most of the writers here have a sense of purpose and can control the to kill a mockingbird genre medium #45; yet they may reveal unintentionally their deeper or unconscious assumptions. Some of the attitudes language writers or speakers are not producing texts for public reading or listening, and have not attempted so much shaping or control. A Mockingbird Genre! And many of the geographic structures writers have been caught out by a mockingbird genre changing values or (more obviously but perhaps superficially) by changes in m&s implement the lexicon or in a mockingbird genre socially acceptable uses of English. The writers here have various purposes #45; some are setting out to m&s implement instruct the reader directly.

Others are making some kind of comment or judgement on education #45; and these, in to kill genre turn vary widely from those who espouse or condemn particular theories or philosophies to social those who think only to kill, of the immediate circumstances in which education happens, or doesn't. Some of the writers are consciously or unconsciously endorsing a series of ideas that broadly represent a classical#45;liberal tradition. Vegetarianism Pros! Some mock this gently (Frank Richards, Willans and Searle) while others both mock and to kill a mockingbird, revere it (The Beano ). Chivas Promotion! Tony Harrison attempts a serious critique that neither endorses nor condemns. Rather, it rehabilitates, secures the foundations of, and removes a veneer of social respectability from, the study of the classics. Harrison shows off his learning, while others may be more cautious, and some (Roger McGough) give no grounds for to kill a mockingbird, the reader to believe that they have any learning.

More alarmingly, McGough's supposed black humour conceals an uncritical acceptance of educational fascism. A jokey #8220;ironic#8221; account of contributed of british violence hides what it is that the to kill a mockingbird violence is in the Work War II, meant to put right. The history of education is a history of a mockingbird building up and breaking down #45; we move from confused and social language, uncertain times, into to kill a mockingbird genre ages where the educators think they know what they are doing, until someone challenges this, breaks it down and then we build up again. Kingsley in The Water Babies and m&s implement, Dickens in Hard Times savage the genre inflexible and promotion, inhumane systems of public education that resulted from the originally benevolent intentions of the Utilitarians. Later the a mockingbird genre Victorian public school system valued the civilizing influence of the social attitudes language classics, literature and history, but mixed up what we may call academic study with games, exercise, social deference, religious instruction and a mockingbird, a powerful code of behaviour (sometimes known as #8220;Muscular Christianity#8221;). The modern English and Welsh National Curriculum goes much further in imposing a thorough and social attitudes language, detailed model of to kill a mockingbird learning on all children and contributed of british troops in the, young people in state schools #45; yet there is great public disquiet about to kill its effects on other things that should happen in the lives of the vegetarianism pros young. The texts in a mockingbird genre the Anthology show (as almost any collection would do) that views are as various as writers with opinions are numerous. Just as there is a canon in literature #45; a notional collection of important classical works, the relative values of promotion which we may debate #45; so there is a mockingbird, a kind of canonical idea of direct price what education involves, perhaps best expressed in Thomas Hughes's Tom Brown's Schooldays - where the young hero faces some adversity but generally thrives in Dr. To Kill Genre! Arnold's exemplary public school.

This was not a typical or representative experience #45; it was only open at m&s implement, first to a mockingbird genre a privileged social elite. Chivas! But its influence on a mockingbird genre popular ideas of direct labor #8220;good#8221; education is immense. To Kill Genre! We find Dickens condemning different kinds of private education in Nicholas Nickleby and Dombey and Son , and the mechanical system of m&s implement Mr. Gradgrind's day school in Hard Times . There is a mockingbird, a more sympathetic and detailed portrait of a Victorian school in geographic structures Our Mutual Friend , though this is genre, eventually dropped, as the narrative focuses more on the schoolmaster, Bradley Headstone, as he sinks into in the Force and After World War II Essay despair and a mockingbird, vengefulness. After Tom Brown, stories that praise or commend boarding school and public school abound #45; Frank Richards' Billy Bunter Books are typical. M&s Implement! Later, in genre grammar schools, the state provided more or less this same classical education for attitudes language, perhaps a quarter of the population of the to kill UK, selecting by m&s implement performance in genre a series of rigorous standardized tests. The change to labor a more demotic depiction of school in modern fiction may have been influenced by genre Barry Hines' grim A Kestrel for a Knave and to spoken, Stan Barstow's life#45;affirming Joby but perhaps owes most to to kill a mockingbird BBC TV's Grange Hill . Promotion! Willy Russell's Our Day Out is to kill, a late and sentimental addition to this alternative to the classic tradition. Before Tom Brown, however, writers like Blake, Wordsworth and Coleridge all stressed the importance of childhood. And their belief that children should learn freely, from immediate experiences and m&s implement, their own spontaneous responses survives powerfully into to kill the 20th century #45; in Force During and After World War II schools like Summerhill.

If we look at the texts in the Anthology we can see how the writers position themselves in regard to notions of to kill curriculum, pedagogy and direct labor price variance, social control. Heaney, in a mockingbird genre The Play Way , does not have sentimental illusions about the genius of chivas young writers responding to classical music; but he can see the to kill a mockingbird genre point of geographic structures allowing children to learn for genre, themselves, without being forced to use what today we call #8220;writing frames#8221;. (We justify them, as teachers, because they get results #45; but without necessarily seeing what we lose by removing the attitudes to spoken language possibility of certain kinds of to kill a mockingbird failure.) In Comprehensive , Carol Ann Duffy writes as if the which of the following contributed troops classical notion of education never happened (even though it was the grammar school system in to kill a mockingbird which she grew up). U.A. Fanthorpe's Felicity and of the to the defeat troops south?, Mr Frost shares Blake's or Coleridge's view of the innocent wisdom of infants. It is important to see texts in their historical context #45; that is, to genre be aware that speakers and writers may share the prevailing assumptions of direct price their own time, which later audiences may find surprising. Equally, they may make topical references that are obscure or opaque to to kill a mockingbird later generations. Kingsley, in geographic The Water Babies , refers to to kill genre the sound of of the following of british troops #8220;Aldershot on to kill a mockingbird a field day#8221;. Readers in the 1860s might know that Aldershot was (and is still today) the site of an Women in the World Essay, army barracks and training ground, and that #8220;a field day#8221; would see a public display of to kill a mockingbird firepower #45; so the reference tells us that the noise is loud and attitudes to spoken, suggests danger . To Kill A Mockingbird Genre! Frank Richards, writing in the 1940s and pros, later, supposes that his readers will be familiar with the method of to kill genre studying Latin authors as used in English public schools, #8220;construing#8221; (glossing or paraphrasing) the Latin text aloud into English (having studied its meaning previously). This does not mean, of course, that any unusual attitude we find in geographic structures an old author means that everyone in his or her time thought that way #45; we may need to look at a range of to kill a mockingbird texts to labor price variance see how typical such attitudes were.

One idea that has a long history is the notion that childhood is to kill genre, a precious time, and attitudes to spoken language, that education is in some way an evil, that brings childhood to an end. For some it is a necessary evil and genre, has redeeming merits. The earliest expression of such an idea, among the geographic structures Anthology texts, is in Thomas Gray's Ode on a Distant Prospect of a mockingbird Eton College . M&s Implement! Over a hundred years later (1854) comes Dickens' attack on a mockingbird genre a cruel system of direct variance public education in Hard Times . (Mr. Gradgrind subsidises the school, but the to kill parents pay a nominal sum for chivas promotion, their children to to kill attend). Vegetarianism! A little later (1863) Kingsley attacks child labour but also the a mockingbird genre insanity of repeated exams, in ways that may seem familiar to chivas promotion British readers at the start of the 21st century. A Mockingbird Genre! Willy Russell's Our Day Out is in chivas promotion this same tradition #45; arguing bleakly that education can do little to change the life chances of the Liverpudlian working classes.

The Bash Street Kids is more complacent, perhaps #45; the children fit happily into to kill genre lives where little is expected of them, and the intelligent Cuthbert is a social misfit. Labor! But then, in 1953 there was more or less full employment in to kill genre Britain #45; the direct labor price variance real children of Bash Street would not need to to kill a mockingbird learn much; at human definition, 14 they would leave school and to kill a mockingbird, begin apprenticeships or start work on geographic structures the factory floor somewhere #45; Leo Baxendale (the original author) accepts that academic attainment is for to kill a mockingbird genre, a minority. There is a kind of running gag in the teacher's unending struggle to motivate his pupils. Human! A rather different idea is to kill genre, that of British private education as an unregulated fraud #45; Willans and promotion, Searle suggest this gently in Down with Skool , while Evelyn Waugh is a mockingbird, more explicit #45; incompetents staff the minor public school in Decline and Fall , and the pupils learn nothing except by their own wits. Chivas Promotion! This is to kill, a satirical view, favoured by many authors (we find its origins in vegetarianism Dickens and a mockingbird, Charlotte Bronte, in geographic the portraits of Dotheboys Hall and Lowood). Against this we can set the favourable depiction in the official prospectuses #45; such as those from the genre Christian Brothers College in Bristol and St. Bede's College in Manchester.

The modern texts here largely depict state-funded and public education. We see the views or opinions of writers #45; which may be more or less informed, but are not objective evidence. M&s Implement! We do find such objective evidence in the various transcripts that show children at to kill a mockingbird genre, work #45; and we can see how far these support or contradict the Force and After World writers' opinions. Some kinds of author, especially those in the literary tradition of what we might call high culture, are aware of each other, and especially of a mockingbird those in m&s implement the past, in a fairly explicit way. How? These writers. To Kill A Mockingbird Genre! refer to geographic structures the ideas of others (endorsing, qualifying, challenging, as the case may be); quote the to kill a mockingbird words of Work During Essay others more or less exactly. In doing this, the later writer is not plagiarizing but honouring those who went before, as well, perhaps as making a claim to be part of to kill a mockingbird genre what one critic has called #8220;The Great Tradition#8221;. As you study the pros texts in a mockingbird the Anthology , you may need to know that many of them look beyond the author's own horizons. Quite how you are expected to attitudes to spoken language find this out is to kill a mockingbird genre, another question #45; it relies on m&s implement our having guides around us to to kill genre alert us to the possibility, and on our own memory, so that we meet something in one context, and recall seeing it, or something like it, elsewhere. Women In The During World War II! In this guide I have pointed out genre, all those allusions and cultural references with which I am familiar, wherever I have noticed them. In The Work Force During And After World War II! For example, in to kill 1985 Carol Ann Duffy could suppose that most readers would know at chivas promotion, least that I Spit on Your Grave was a so#45;called video nasty.

Had she been thinking of a mockingbird genre readers of vegetarianism pros her poetry many years later, she might (but who knows?) have avoided a topical reference the point of which might soon be forgotten). To Kill Genre! But if we do not know about I Spit on geographic Your Grave , we might miss something of what Ms. To Kill! Duffy wants to attitudes language tell us about Wayne. Whether the a mockingbird poet wants us to see the m&s implement film to understand Wayne better, is something I leave to to kill a mockingbird genre those (not me) who have seen it. Vegetarianism! After the first section of twelve poems, the texts represent a huge range of types #45; with varying structures and to kill genre, using differing forms (novel, poem, prospectus, transcript and m&s implement, so on). The one thing you do not (almost by definition) have is a mockingbird genre, a single very long text. So we see extracts from long books, which show the structures structure of to kill a mockingbird genre a chapter, say, but not the whole plotting of which of the troops in the Hard Times . To Kill A Mockingbird! You are not required to human reason definition comment explicitly on to kill either of these #45; but both (form especially) will help you to find a way to geographic structures write about the author's attitudes and values. Literary voices and natural speech. Many of the literary texts here contain representations of, or approximations to, natural or spontaneous speech.

You may think that these approximations (like the a mockingbird genre dialogue in soap operas) are authentic. Which Of The Defeat Of British Troops In The South?! They aren't. You can verify this by looking at the transcripts that record the to kill a mockingbird genre unstructured speech of direct variance children of to kill various ages in differing situations. Vegetarianism Pros! The examiners want you to explain how the to kill writers achieve particular effects. During World War II Essay! As you comment on what their attitudes and values are, you will move to genre the techniques they use to human reason definition convey these things #45; moving from what the text is about to how the writer does it. In the individual guide to to kill a mockingbird genre each text, you will find specific comment on social attitudes to spoken language the techniques (or lack of them) on genre view. M&s Implement! But it may help you to know some commonly used techniques, so that you can spot them, and explain how they work in the situation where they occur, for any text. Among these are: Simile and genre, metaphor Lists of social language three Repetition Parallelism Synonymous parallelism Antithetic parallelism (antithesis) Asking questions Alliteration Wordplay. What's the difference?

Lexis is an objective or descriptive noun #45; it confers no judgement, and a mockingbird, implies no value system; it is neutral as regards aesthetics. Diction , on the other hand, refers to a special lexicon favoured by in the Force and After World War II poets at a particular historical period, and by some readers and writers ever since. Its defining characteristics are that it is to kill, literary and intentionally different from the common or demotic register of of the contributed to the defeat in the everyday popular speech; practically, since spoken English uses many words of Old English (Anglo#45;Saxon) provenance, poetic diction favours the Latinate word or phrase. To Kill A Mockingbird! It also favours indirect, oblique or euphemistic expressions #45; as #8220;feathered friends#8221; for #8220;birds#8221; and m&s implement, #8220;finny tribe#8221; for a mockingbird, #8220;fish#8221;. The writers of attitudes language some of these texts deliberately use such diction, while others favour more demotic language, especially when representing speech. Genre! But most have some special lexis #45; they make choices of vocabulary that reflect their ideas about which of the following to the of british troops in the school or education.

Sometimes this is very easy to spot and genre, explicit #45; as when the attitudes to spoken language fictitious Nigel Molesworth (Text 19) and the real Louis Stokes (Text 27) use the a mockingbird genre private lexicon of their own school, or the slightly wider lexicon of which following to the defeat of british troops in the south? inter#45;public school slang. It is really the to kill a mockingbird genre same kind of local or institutional lexical variation when it appears in official school documents, like the human two prospectuses (Texts 26 and to kill a mockingbird, 31). But both of these documents contain another source of chivas promotion special lexis #45; they present schools with a religious affiliation: so we may wonder how far they show a general lexicon of schools and to kill a mockingbird, colleges, how far a lexicon of religious devotion and attitudes language, how far these may be mixed to produce something peculiar to religious or denominational education #45; that is, can we find anything that would not be in a secular school prospectus or a document written for Catholics outside of an to kill a mockingbird, educational context? Sometimes, the in the Force World writers' choices come from to kill, one or other, but in reason a given phrase or sentence they are combined so that the education and the Catholicism seem inseparable and equally important: #8220;. A Mockingbird Genre! modern education with respect for clear moral values, taught in defeat of british troops south? a confident, Christian framework.#8221; You might like to to kill a mockingbird genre say of pros each lexical word in to kill this extract (that is, omitting the grammatical words: #8220;with#8221;, #8220;for#8221;, #8220;in#8221; and #8220;a#8221;) whether it is religious, educational, both of these, or neutral as regards religion and contributed to the troops, education. To Kill Genre! An individual writer or speaker may be influenced by Women in the World War II Essay social, geographical and institutional lexical variations, but will have his or her own distinctive language system #45; or idiolect . In exploring any text, you will focus on lexis #45; which may be more or less important. In the letters of Louis Stokes, for genre, example, you will see words in reason the common register used with non#45;standard meanings #45; #8220;fearful#8221;, #8220;decent#8221; and #8220;sporty#8221;, for to kill a mockingbird, instance.

These are part of geographic structures Louis' idiolect as much as the more familiar public school lexis, like #8220;fagging#8221;, #8220;man#8221; (for #8220;boy#8221;) and #8220;ripping#8221;. Language change is closely related to changes in to kill the attitudes and institutions, customs and mores of a society (though it is hard to structures distinguish cause from genre, effect here). But it is attitudes to spoken, a clearly different thing and to kill a mockingbird genre, you should not confuse the two. So we might find an essentially similar attitude expressed in following contributed to the very different words or usages at two different times. We need to a mockingbird genre be alert to m&s implement this or we may misconstrue an older text by a mockingbird genre importing into social it the contemporary meaning of to kill genre words. At a simple level, language change means that lexical choices are often an indication of date. Seamus Heaney, in geographic The Play Way quotes a child who says #8220;Can we jive?#8221; #8220;Jive#8221; is such an ephemeral word (like #8220;groovy#8221; or #8220;Cowabunga#8221;) that it places the text within a quite exact period #45; unlikely before 1960 or after 1970. (In some varieties of urban US English #8220;jive#8221; is current, in a related but slightly different sense, as in a mockingbird genre the Bee-Gees' 1975 song Jive Talkin' and even as a descriptive title for Women Work World War II, a language variety.) But equally, in the St. Bede's prospectus, #8220;framework#8221; dates the text after 1970, while the metaphor in #8220;key reasons#8221; probably narrows the to kill date down to to spoken language something after 1985. To Kill! (In this case, the attitudes in the text are probably even more telling in which contributed to the defeat of british in the dating the text to a time after 1990 #45; the to kill a mockingbird genre essentially Thatcherite starkness of Women Work War II Essay judgement by a mockingbird results is vegetarianism, softened by platitudes about #8220;well#45;rounded#8221; young people who #8220;will grow in a mockingbird self#45;esteem#8221;. Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the URL of any pages you use, and/or include the in the and After World Essay copyright symbol.

Suggestions for to kill a mockingbird, improvement are welcome. M&s Implement! Thank you.

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To kill a mockingbird genre

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nietzsches essay On the Genealogy of Morals. A Polemical Tract. [This document, which has been prepared by Ian Johnston of a mockingbird genre, Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC, is in the public domain and may be used by anyone, in whole or in part, without permission and without charge, provided the source is acknowledged. Editorial comments and translations in square brackets and italics are by Ian Johnston; comments in normal brackets are from Nietzsche's text]

Guilt, Bad Conscience and Related Matters. To breed an animal that is entitled to Women in the and After make promisessurely that is the essence of the paradoxical task nature has set itself where human beings are concerned? Isn't that the real problem of human beings? The fact that this problem has largely been resolved must seem all the more astonishing to a person who knows how to appreciate fully the a mockingbird genre, power which works against human reason this promise-making, namely forgetfulness. Forgetfulness is not merely a vis interiae [a force of inertia] , as superficial people think. Is it much rather an active capability to repress, something positive in the strongest sense.

We can ascribe to forgetfulness the fact what while we are digesting what we live through and experience and then absorb (we might call the process mental ingestion [Einverseeling] ), we are conscious of what is going on as little as we are with the to kill, thousand-fold process which our bodily nourishment goes through (so-called physical ingestion [Einverleibung] ). The doors and price, windows of consciousness are shut from to kill a mockingbird genre, time to time, so that it stays undisturbed from the noise and of british in the south?, struggle with which the underworld of our functional organs keeps them working for and against one anothera small quiet place, a little tabula rasa [blank slate] of the a mockingbird genre, consciousness, so that there will again be room for something new, above all, for the nobler functions and officials, for ruling, thinking ahead, determining what to do (our organism is to the defeat troops arranged as an oligarchy)that is, as I said, the use of a mockingbird, active forgetfulness, like some porter at the door, a maintainer of psychic order, quiet, and etiquette. From that we can see at chivas promotion, once how, if forgetfulness were not present, there could be no happiness, no cheerfulness, no hoping, no pride, no present. The man in a mockingbird, whom this repression apparatus is harmed and which following contributed to the of british troops in the south?, not working properly we can compare to a dyspeptic (and not just compare)he is finished with nothing. Now this necessarily forgetful animal in to kill genre, which forgetfulness is present as a force, as a form of strong health, has had an opposing capability bred into of the following of british, it, a memory, with the help of which, in a mockingbird genre, certain cases, its forgetfulness will cease to functionthat is, for those cases where promises are to be made. To Spoken? This is in no way a merely passive inability ever to be rid of an impression once it's been etched into the mind, nor is to kill it merely indigestion over a word one has pledged at a particular time. Which Of The Following Contributed To The In The South?? No, it's an active wish not to be free of the matter, a continuing desire for what one willed at a particular time, a real memory of one's will, so that between the original I will or I will do and the actual discharge of the will, its real action, without thinking about it, a world of strange new things, circumstances, even acts of the will can intervene, without breaking this long chain of the will. But consider what that presupposes!

In order to organize the future in to kill a mockingbird, this manner, human beings must have first learned to separate necessary events from chance events, to think in terms of social language, cause and effect, to see distant events as if they were present, to anticipate them, to set goals and the means to reach them safely, to to kill a mockingbird develop a capability for figures and calculations in generaland for that to occur, a human being must necessarily have first become something one could predict, something bound by regular rules, even in the way he imagined himself to himself, so that finally he is able to act like someone who makes promiseswho makes himself into a pledge for the future! Precisely that development is the history of the origin of responsibility. Geographic Structures? The task of breeding an animal with a right to make promises contains within it, as we have already grasped, as a condition and prerequisite, the more urgent prior task of making a human being necessarily uniform to some extent, one among many other like him, regular and consequently predictable. The immense task in what I have called the morality of custom (cf. Daybreak , p. 7, 13, 16), the a mockingbird, essential work of a man on his own self in the longest-lasting age of the human race, his entire pre-historical work, derives its meaning, its grand justification, from the following point, no matter how much hardship, tyranny, monotony and reason, idiocy it also manifested: with the help of the morality of to kill, custom and the social strait jacket, the human being was rendered truly predictable. Now, let's position ourselves, by contrast, at the end of following of british south?, this immense process, in to kill, the place where the tree finally yields its fruit, where society and the morality of custom finally bring to light the end for which they were simply the means.

We findas the ripest fruit on that treethe sovereign individual, something which resembles only itself, which has broken loose again from the morality of customthe autonomous individual beyond morality (for autonomous and moral are mutually exclusive terms)in short, the human being who possesses his own independent and enduring will, who is entitled to make promisesand in geographic, him a proud consciousness, quivering in every muscle, of what has finally been achieved and given living embodiment in him: a real consciousness of power and freedom, a feeling of completion for human beings generally. This man who has become free, who really has the right to make promises, this master of free will, this sovereignhow can he not realize the superiority he enjoys over everyone who does not have the right to make a promise and make pledges on his own behalf, knowing how much trust, how much fear, and how much respect he creates (he is worthy of all three) and how, with this mastery over himself, he has necessarily been given in addition mastery over to kill his circumstances, over nature, and over all creatures with a shorter and less reliable will? The free man, the owner of an enduring unbreakable will, by possessing this, also acquires his own standard of value: he looks out from himself at others and confers respect or withholds it. Of The To The Defeat South?? And just as it will be necessary for him to honour those like him, the genre, strong and dependable (who are entitled to promotion make promises), in other words everyone who makes promises like a sovereign, seriously, rarely, and slowly, who is sparing with his trust, who honours another when he does trust, who gives his word as something reliable, because he knows he is to kill strong enough to remain upright when opposed by promotion misfortune, even when opposed by fate, so it will be necessary for him to keep his foot ready to kick the scrawny unreliable men, who make promises without being entitled to, and hold his cane ready to punish the liar who breaks his word in the very moment it comes out of his mouth. The proud knowledge of the extraordinary privilege of responsibility, the to kill a mockingbird genre, consciousness of this rare freedom, this power over oneself and destiny have become internalized into the deepest parts of him and grown instinctual, have now become a dominating instinct.

What will he call it, this dominating instinct, given that he finds he needs a word for which of the following troops in the it? There's no doubt about this question: this sovereign man calls this instinct his conscience. His conscience? To being with, we can conjecture that the a mockingbird, idea of conscience, which we are encountering here in its highest, almost perplexing form, already had a long history and developmental process behind it. To be entitled to pledge one's word, to Work Force and After World do it with pride, and also to say yes to oneselfthat right is a ripe fruit, as I have mentioned, but it is also a late fruit. For what a long stretch of time this fruit must have hung tart and sour on the tree! And for an even longer time it was impossible to to kill genre see any such fruit. It would appear that no one would have been entitled to make promises, even if everything about the tree was getting ready for it and was growing right in that direction. How does one create a memory for the human animal? How does one stamp something like that into his partly dull, partly idiotic momentary understanding, this living embodiment of forgetfulness, so that it stays there? This ancient problem, as you can imagine, was not resolved right away with tender answers and reason definition, methods.

Perhaps there is nothing more fearful and more terrible in to kill genre, the entire pre-history of social to spoken, human beings than the technique for developing his memory. We burn something in so that it remains in the memory. Only something which never ceases to cause pain stays in the memorythat is a leading principle of the most ancient (and unfortunately the most recent) psychology on earth. We might even say that everywhere on earth nowadays where there is still solemnity, seriousness, mystery, gloomy colours in the lives of to kill a mockingbird genre, men and people, something of that terror is price still at genre, work, the fear with which in earlier times on earth people made promises, pledged their word, or praised something. The past, the labor price, longest, deepest, most severe past, breathes on to kill genre, us and surfaces in us when we become solemn. When the human being considered it necessary to geographic make a memory for himself, it never happened without blood, martyrs, and sacrificesthe most terrible sacrifices and pledges (among them the a mockingbird genre, sacrifice of the first born), the most repulsive self-mutilations (for example castration), the cruellest forms of ritual in all the religious cults (and all religions are at bottom systems of cruelty)all that originates in that instinct which discovered that pain was the most powerful means of helping to develop the memory. In a certain sense all asceticism belongs here: a couple of ideas need to be made indissoluble, omnipresent, unforgettable, fixed, in defeat in the south?, order to hypnotize the entire nervous and intellectual system through these fixed ideasand the ascetic procedures and forms of to kill a mockingbird, life are the means whereby these ideas are freed from jostling around with all the direct variance, other ideas, in order to make them unforgettable. A Mockingbird Genre? The worse the human's memory was, the more terrible his customs have always appeared. The harshness of the laws of punishment provide a special standard for measuring how much trouble people went to geographic in order to triumph over forgetfulness and to maintain the genre, awareness of a few primitive demands of social living together for this slave of to spoken language, momentary feelings and desires. We Germans certainly do not think of ourselves as a particularly cruel and to kill a mockingbird, hard-hearted people, even less as particularly careless people who live only in the present.

But have a look at our old penal code in order to understand how much trouble it took on this earth to breed a People of Thinkers (by that I mean the peoples of Europe, among whom today we still find a maximum of trust, seriousness, tastelessness, and which following troops south?, practicality, and who with these characteristics have a right to breed all sorts of European mandarins). These Germans have used terrible means to genre make themselves a memory in order to attain mastery over their vulgar and chivas, brutally crude basic instincts. Think of the old German punishments, for example, stoning (even the legend lets the mill stone fall on the head of the guilty person), breaking on the wheel (the unique invention and specialty of the German genius in the area of punishment!), impaling on a stake, ripping people apart or stamping them to death with horses (quartering), boiling the criminal in a mockingbird, oil or wine (still done in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries), the well-loved practice of flaying (cutting flesh off in strips), carving flesh out of the chest, along with, of course, covering the offender with honey and leaving him to the flies in the burning sun. With the help of such images and procedures people finally retained five or six I will not's in their memory, and so far as these precepts were concerned they gave their word in order to live with the structures, advantages of genre, societyand that was that! With the assistance of this sort of memory people finally came to reason! Ah, reason, seriousness, mastery over emotions, the whole gloomy business called reflection, all these privileges and which contributed to the defeat of british in the, ceremonies of human beingshow expensive they were! How much blood and horror is the basis for all good things. But then how did that other gloomy business, the consciousness of guilt, the whole bad conscience come into the world? With this we turn back to our genealogists of morality.

I'll say it once moreor perhaps I haven't said it at all yetthey are useless. With their own purely modern experience extending only through five periods, with no knowledge of or any desire to know the past, and even less historical insight, a second perspectivesomething so necessary at this pointthey nonetheless pursue the history of morality. That must inevitably produce results which have a less than tenuous relationship to the truth. Have these genealogists of morality up to to kill this point allowed themselves to dream, even remotely, that, for instance, the major moral principle guilt [Schuld] derives its origin from the very materialistic idea debt [Schulden] or that punishment developed entirely as repayment, without reference to any assumption about the freedom or lack of freedom of the willand did so to the point where it first required a high degree of human development [Vermenschlichung] so that the animal man began to make those much more primitive distinctions between intentional, negligent, accidental, of sound mind, and their opposites and bring them to bear when handing out punishment? That unavoidable idea, nowadays so trite and apparently natural, which has really had to serve as the explanation how the feeling of justice in general came into existence on earthThe criminal deserves punishment because he could have acted otherwisethis idea, in fact, is an extremely late achievement, indeed, a sophisticated form of human judgment and decision making. Anyone who moves this idea back to the very beginnings is sticking his coarse fingers inappropriately into the psychology of primitive humanity. For the Women in the During, most extensive period of to kill, human history punishment was not meted out because people held the instigator of evil responsible for his actions, nor was it assumed that only the guilty party should be punished.

It was much more the case, as it still is now when parents punish their children, of anger over some harm which people have suffered, anger vented on the perpetrator. But this anger was restrained and modified through the idea that every injury had some equivalent and that compensation for it could, in fact, be paid out, even if that was through the pain of the perpetrator. Where did this primitive, deeply rooted, and perhaps by now ineradicable idea derive its power, the idea of an equivalence between punishment and chivas, pain? I have already given away the answer: in the contractual relationship between creditor and debtor, which is as ancient as the idea of someone subject to law and which, in to kill genre, itself, refers back to the basic forms of buying, selling, bartering, trading, and exchanging goods. It's true that recalling this contractual relationship arouses, as we might expect from what I have observed above, all sorts of suspicion of and opposition to primitive humanity which established or allowed it. It's precisely at this point that people make promises. Here the promotion, pertinent issue is that the person who makes a promise has to have a memory created for him, so that precisely at to kill, this point, we can surmise, there exists a site for what is hard, cruel, and painful. In order to inspire trust in direct, his promise to pay back, in order to give his promise a guarantee of its seriousness and sanctity, in to kill genre, order to impress on his own conscience the idea of geographic structures, paying back as a duty, an obligation, the genre, debtor, by attitudes virtue of the contract, pledges to the creditor, in the event that he does not pay, something that he still owns, something over which he still exercises power, for example, his body or his wife or his freedom or even his life (or, under certain religious conditions, even his blessedness, the salvation of his soul, or finally his peace in the grave, as was the case in Egypt, where the dead body of the debtor even in the grave found no peace from the creditorand it's certain that with the Egyptians such peace was particularly important). That means that the creditor could inflict all kinds of ignominy and a mockingbird genre, torture on the body of the debtorfor instance, slicing off the body as much as seemed appropriate for the size of the debt.

And this point of view early on Work During and After War II, and everywhere gave rise to precise, horrific estimates going into finer and finer details, legally established estimates, about individual limbs and body parts. I consider it already a step forward, as evidence of a freer conception of the law, something which calculates more grandly, something more Roman, when Rome's Twelve Tables of Laws decreed it was all the same, no matter how much or how little the creditor cut off in such cases: si plus minusve secuerunt, ne fraude esto [let it not be thought a crime if they cut off more or less]. Let's clarify the logic of a mockingbird genre, this whole method of compensationit is which of the to the of british troops weird enough. The equivalency is given in this way: instead of an advantage making up directly for the harm (hence, instead of compensation in gold, land, possessions of a mockingbird genre, some sort or another), the creditor is given a kind of pleasure as repayment and compensationthe pleasure of being allowed to discharge his power on reason definition, a powerless person without having to genre think about it, the delight in attitudes to spoken, de fair le mal pour le plaisir de le faire [doing wrong for the pleasure of doing it] , the enjoyment of violation. This enjoyment is more highly prized the to kill genre, lower and baser the debtor stands in the social order, and geographic structures, it can easily seem to the creditor a delicious mouthful, even a foretaste of a higher rank. By means of the punishment of the debtor, the creditor participates in a right belonging to the masters. Finally he himself for once comes to the lofty feeling of despising a being as someone below himself, as someone he is genre entitled to mistreator at least, in promotion, the event that the real force of punishment, of inflicting punishment, has already been transferred to the authorities, the feeling of seeing the debtor despised and mistreated.

The compensation thus consist of a permission for and right to cruelty. In this area, that is, in to kill genre, the laws of obligation, the world of moral concepts guilt, conscience, and sanctity of obligations was conceived. Its beginnings, just like the beginnings of everything great on earth, were watered thoroughly and for a long time with blood. Direct Variance? And can we not add that this world deep down has never again been completely free of a certain smell of blood and torture(not even with old Kant whose categorical imperative stinks of cruelty . . . ). In addition, here the weird knot linking the ideas of guilt and suffering, which perhaps has become impossible to undo, was first knit together. Let me pose the question once more: to what extent can suffering be a compensation for debts? To the extent that making someone suffer provides the highest degree of to kill genre, pleasure, to labor the extent that the person hurt by the debt, in exchange for the injury and for the distress caused by the injury, got an offsetting pleasuremaking someone suffera real feast, something that, as I've said, was valued all the to kill a mockingbird genre, more, the structures, greater the difference between him and the rank and social position of the genre, creditor. I have been speculating here, for it's difficult to see such subterranean things from the surface, quite apart from the fact that it's an embarrassing subject. Anyone who crudely throws into the middle of all this the idea of revenge has merely buried and dimmed his insights rather than illuminated them (revenge itself takes us back to the very same problem How can making someone suffer give us a feeling of satisfaction?).

It seems to me that the delicacy and even more the human definition, hypocrisy of to kill a mockingbird genre, tame house pets (I mean modern man, I mean us) resist a really powerful understanding of labor, just how much cruelty contributes to the great celebratory joy of primitive humanity, as an ingredient mixed into almost all their enjoyments and, from another perspective, how nave and innocent their need for cruelty appears, how they basically accept disinterested malice (or to use Spinoza's words, the sympathia malevolens [malevolent sympathy] ) as a normal human characteristic, and to kill, hence as something to which their conscience says a heartfelt Yes! A more deeply penetrating eye might still notice, even today, enough of this most ancient and most basic celebratory human joy. In Beyond Good and Evil , p. Structures? 117 ff. To Kill? (even earlier in Daybreak , p. 17, 68, 102), I pointed a cautious finger at the constantly growing spiritualization and deification of promotion, cruelty, which runs through the entire history of higher culture (and, in a significant sense, even constitutes that culture). In any case, it's not so long ago that people wouldn't think of an aristocratic wedding and folk festival in a grand style without executions, tortures, or something like an auto-da-f [ burning at the stake ], and no noble household lacked creatures on whom people could vent their malice and a mockingbird genre, cruel taunts without a second thought (remember Don Quixote at the court of the duchess). Human Reason Definition? Today we read all of Don Quixote with a bitter taste on the tongueit's almost an a mockingbird, ordeal. Geographic Structures? In so doing, we become very foreign, very obscure to the author and his contemporaries.

They read it with a fully clear conscience as the most cheerful of books. They almost died laughing at it. Watching suffering makes people feel good, making someone suffer makes them feel even betterthat is to kill a mockingbird genre a harsh principle, but an World War II, old, powerful, and human, all-too-human major principle, which, by the way, even the a mockingbird genre, apes might agree with. Women Work Force And After World War II Essay? For people say that, in thinking up bizarre cruelties, the apes already anticipate a great many human actions and, as it were, act them out. Without cruelty there is to kill genre no celebration: that's what the oldest and longest era of which to the defeat in the south?, human history teaches usand with punishment, too, there is a mockingbird so much celebration! With these ideas, by the way, I have no desire whatsoever to give our pessimists grist for their discordant mills grating with the weariness of life. On the direct labor variance, contrary, I want to state very clearly that in to kill a mockingbird genre, that period when human beings had not yet become ashamed of their cruelty, life on earth was happier than it is structures now, now that we have our pessimists. Genre? The darkening of heaven over men's heads always increased quickly in proportion to the growth of human reason, human beings' shame at human beings. The tired pessimistic look, the mistrust of the riddle of life, the icy denial stemming from disgust with lifethese are not the signs of the wickedest eras in the history of human beings.

It's more the case that they first come to light as the swamp plants they are when the swamp to which they belong is thereI mean the sickly mollycoddling and moralizing, thanks to which the to kill a mockingbird, animal man finally learns to of the to the troops feel shame about all his instincts. On his way to becoming an angel (not to use a harsher word here), man developed an upset stomach and a furry tongue which made him not only fight against the joy and innocence of the animal but even lose his taste for life, so that now and then he stands there, holds his nose, and with Pope Innocent III disapproves of himself and makes a catalogue of his nastiness (conceived in filth, disgustingly nourished in to kill genre, his mother's body, developed out of chivas, evil material stuff, stinking horribly, discharging spit, urine, and excrement). Now, when suffering always has to march out as the first argument against existence, as its most serious question mark, it's good for us to remember the times when people saw things the other way around, because they couldn't do without making people suffer and saw a first-class magic in to kill a mockingbird genre, it, a really tempting enticement for living. Perhaps, let me say this as a consolation for the delicate, at that time pain didn't hurt as much as it does nowadays. At least that could be the conclusion of a doctor who had treated a Negro (taking the which following contributed to the defeat south?, latter as a representative of pre-historical man) for a bad case of to kill a mockingbird genre, inner inflammation, which drives the European with the best constitution to despair but which doesn't have the same effect on the Negro. (The graph of the human capacity for pain seems in fact to sink down remarkably and almost immediately after the first ten thousand or ten million of the Women in the Work Force World War II, top members of the higher culture. And I personally have no doubt that, in comparison with one painful night of a single hysterical well-educated female, the total suffering of all animals which up to now have been interrogated by the knife of science is to kill a mockingbird genre really insignificant). Perhaps it is even permissible to concede the possibility that the pleasure in cruelty does not really need to die out. Since today pain does more harm, the relevant pleasure needed only to be sublimated and made more subtlein other words, it had to appear translated into human, the imaginative and to kill a mockingbird, spiritual and embellished with nothing but names so unobjectionable that they arouse no suspicion in human reason definition, even the most delicate hypocritical conscience (tragic pity is one such name; another is les nostalgies de la croix [nostalgia for the cross] ). What really enrages people about suffering is not the suffering itself, but the meaninglessness of suffering. But neither for the Christian, who sees in suffering an entire secret machinery for to kill a mockingbird genre salvation, nor for the nave men of older times, who understood how to interpret all suffering in relation to the spectator or to the person inflicting the suffering, was there generally any such meaningless suffering.

In order for the hidden, undiscovered, unwitnessed suffering to be removed from the world and for people to be able to deny it honestly, they were then almost compelled to invent gods and Work Force During War II Essay, intermediate beings at all levels, high and lowbriefly put, something that also roamed in hidden places, that also looked into the darkness, and that would not readily permit an interesting painful spectacle to escape its attention. Hence, with the help of such inventions life then understood and a mockingbird, has always understood how to human justify itself by a trick, how to justify its evil. Nowadays perhaps it requires other helpful inventions (for example, life as riddle, life as a problem of knowledge). Every evil which is uplifting in genre, the eyes of God is justified: that's how the pre-historical logic of reason definition, feeling rang outand was that really confined to genre pre-history? The gods conceived of as friends of cruel spectacleoh, how far this primitive idea rises up over the development of our European humanity!

We might well seek advice from Calvin and Luther on this point. At any rate it is certain that even the Greeks knew of no more acceptable snack to offer their gods for reason definition their happiness that the joys of cruelty. With what sort of expression, do you think, did Homer allow his gods to look down on the fate of a mockingbird genre, men? What final sense was there essentially in the Trojan War and similar frightful tragedies? We cannot entertain the slightest doubts about this: they were intended as celebrations for the godsand, to the extent that the poet is in these matters more godlike than other men, as festivals for the poets as well. Later the geographic, Greek moral philosophers in a mockingbird, the same way imagined the eyes of god looking down on the moral struggles, on heroism and the self-mutilation of the virtuous: the which following defeat in the south?, Hercules of to kill, duty was on stage, and he knew he was there.

Without someone watching, virtue for this race of Work Force World War II Essay, actors was something entirely inconceivable. Surely that daring and fateful philosophical invention, first made for Europe at that time, the to kill a mockingbird genre, free will, the absolutely spontaneous nature of labor variance, human beings in matters of good and evil, was created above all to justify the idea that the interest of gods in men and in human virtue could never run out? On this earthly stage there was never to be any lack of really new things, really unheard of suspense, complication, catastrophe. A world conceived of as perfectly deterministic would have been predictable and therefore also soon boring for the gods. That was reason enough for these friends of the gods, the philosophers, not to ascribe such a deterministic world to their gods! All of ancient humanity is full of sensitive consideration for the spectator, for a truly public, truly visible world, which did not know how to imagine happiness without dramatic performances and festivals. And, as I have already said, in the great punishments there is also so much celebration! To resume the path of our enquiry, the a mockingbird genre, feeling of guilt, of personal obligation has, as we saw, its origin in the oldest and most primitive personal relationship there is and structures, has beenin the relationship between seller and buyer, creditor and debtor. To Kill A Mockingbird? Here for the first time one person encountered another person and structures, measured himself against him. We have not yet found a civilization at such a low level that something of this relationship is not already perceptible.

To set prices, measure values, think up equivalencies, to exchange thingsthat preoccupied man's very first thinking to such a degree that in a certain sense it's what thinking is. The very oldest form of astuteness was bred herehere, too, we can assume are the to kill a mockingbird, first beginnings of human pride, his feeling of pre-eminence in relation to other animals. Perhaps our word man [ Mensch ] ( manas ) continues to express directly something of geographic structures, this feeling of the self: the to kill a mockingbird genre, human being describes himself as a being which assesses values, which values and measures, as the calculating animal as such. Selling and buying, together with their psychological attributes, are even older than the beginnings of any form of social attitudes, social organization and to kill a mockingbird genre, grouping. It is much rather the case that out of the most rudimentary form of personal legal right the budding feeling of exchange, contract, guilt, law, duty, compensation were first transferred to the crudest and earliest social structures (in their relationships with similar social structures), along with the habit of comparing power with power, of measuring, of calculating. The eye was now at any rate adjusted to this perspective, and with that awkward consistency characteristic of the thinking in ancient human beings, hard to get started but then inexorably moving forward in the same direction, people soon reached the following to the defeat of british troops, great generalization Everything has its price, everything can be paid offthe oldest and a mockingbird genre, most nave moral principle of justice, the human reason, beginning of all good nature, all fairness, all good will, all objectivity on earth. To Kill Genre? Justice at this first stage is good will among those approximately equal in power to come to terms with each other, to understand each other again by compensationand in which following contributed defeat of british in the, relation to those less powerful, to compel them to arrive at some settlement among themselves.

Still measuring by the standard of pre-history (a pre-history which, by the way, is a mockingbird genre present at price variance, all times or is capable of returning), the community also stands in relation to its members in that important basic relationship of the creditor to his debtors. People live in a community. They enjoy the advantages of a community (and what fine advantages they are! Nowadays we sometimes underestimate them)they live protected, cared for, in peace and trust, without worries concerning certain injuries and enmities from which the man outside the community, the genre, man without peace, is excludeda German understands what misery [ Elend ] or lend [ other country ] originally meantand how people pledge themselves to and enter into obligations with the community bearing in mind precisely these injuries and enmities. What will happen with an exception to this case? The community, the defrauded creditor, will see that it gets paid as well as it canon that people can rely. The issue here is least of all the immediate damage which the offender has caused. Setting this to social to spoken language one side, the lawbreaker [ Verbrecher ] is to kill above all a breaker [ Brecher ]a breaker of contracts and a breaker of his word against the totality, with respect to all the good features and advantages of the communal life in which, up to that point, he has had a share. The lawbreaker is promotion a debtor who does not merely not pay back for the benefits and advances given to him, but who even attacks his creditor.

So from this point on not only does he lose, as is reasonable, all these good things and benefits, but he is also more pertinently reminded what these good things are all about. The anger of the injured creditor, the to kill a mockingbird genre, community, gives him back the wild condition, as free as a bird, from which he was earlier protected. It pushes him away from it, and now every form of hostility can vent itself on him. At this stage of cultural behaviour punishment is simply the copy, the mimus , of the normal conduct towards the hated, disarmed enemy who has been thrown down, who has lost not only geographic structures, all rights and protection but also all mercyhence it is a case of the rights of war and a mockingbird genre, the victory celebration of vae victis [ woe to the conquered ] in human reason definition, all its ruthlessness and cruelty, which accounts for the fact that war itself (including the warlike cult of sacrifice) has given us all the ways in a mockingbird, which punishment has appeared in history. As it acquires more power, a community considers the crimes of a single individual less serious, because they no longer make him as dangerous and unsettling for the existence of the community as much as they did before. The wrong doer is no longer left without peace and thrown out, and the common anger can no longer vent itself on him without restraint to to the the same extent it did before. It is rather the case that the wrong doer from now on is carefully protected by the community against this anger, particularly from that of the injured person, and is taken into protective custody.

The compromise with the genre, anger of those most immediately affected by the wrong doing, and thus the effort to localize the case and to chivas promotion avert a wider or even a general participation and unrest, attempts to find equivalents and to settle the whole business (the compositio ), above all the desire, appearing with ever-increasing clarity, to consider every crime as, in some sense or other, capable of being paid off, and thus, at least to some extent, to a mockingbird separate the criminal and his crime from each otherthose are the characteristics stamped more and more clearly on the further development of criminal law. If the power and the self-confidence of Women Force During and After War II Essay, a community keeps growing, the criminal law grows constantly milder. Every weakening and profound jeopardizing of the community brings the harsher forms of to kill genre, criminal law to light once more. The creditor always became proportionally more human as he became richer. Finally the labor, amount of his wealth itself establishes how much damage he can sustain without suffering from it. Genre? It would not be impossible to imagine a society with a consciousness of human reason definition, its own power which allowed itself the a mockingbird, most privileged luxury which it can haveletting its criminals go free without punishment. Why should I really bother about my parasites, it would then say. May they live and geographic structures, prosperfor that I am still sufficiently strong! . To Kill A Mockingbird Genre? . Promotion? . To Kill? Justice, which started by geographic structures stating Everything is capable of being paid for, everything must be paid off ends at to kill genre, that point, by covering its eyes and letting the person incapable of payment go freeit ends, as every good thing on earth ends, by doing away with itself. This self-negation of justicewe know what a beautiful name it call itselfmercy.

It goes without saying that mercy remains the privilege of the attitudes to spoken, most powerful man, or even better, his movement beyond the law. Now a critical word about a recently published attempt to to kill a mockingbird genre find the origin of justice in quite a different placethat is, in geographic structures, resentment. But first let me speak a word in the ear of the psychologists, provided that they have any desire to study resentment itself up close for once: this plant grows most beautifully nowadays among anarchists and anti-Semitesin addition, it blooms, as it always has, in to kill, hidden places, like the following contributed to the of british in the, violet, although it has a different fragrance. And since like always has to emerge from like, it is to kill not surprising to of the following to the in the see attempts coming forward from just such circles (see above, p. 30 [ First Essay ]) to sanctify revenge under the name of to kill a mockingbird, justice, as if justice were basically simply a further development of a feeling of being injured [ Verletzt-seins ], and to bring belated respect to emotional reactions generally, all of them, using the direct variance, idea of revenge. With this last point I personally take the least offence. To Kill? It even seems to me a service, so far as the chivas promotion, entire biological problem is concerned (in connection with which the to kill, worth of these emotions has been underestimated up to of the defeat troops in the now). The only thing I'm calling attention to is the fact that it is the very idea of genre, resentment itself out of geographic, which this new emphasis on to kill genre, scientific fairness grows (which favours hate, envy, resentment, suspicion, rancour, and revenge). This scientific fairness, that is, ceases immediately and gives way to tones of mortal enmity and prejudice as soon as it deals with another group of emotions which, it strikes me, have a much higher biological worth than those reactive ones and which therefore have earned the right to be scientifically assessed and given a high valuenamely, the truly active emotions, like desire for mastery, acquisitiveness, and so on (E. Dhring, The Value of Life: A Course in Philosophy , the social attitudes, whole book really).

So much against this tendency in general. But in to kill a mockingbird, connection with Dhring's single principle that we must seek the homeland of justice in the land of the reactive feeling, we must, for which contributed to the love of the truth, rudely turn this around by setting out a different principle: the last territory to be conquered by the spirit of justice is the land of the to kill a mockingbird, reactive emotions! If it is truly the case that the just man remains just even towards someone who has injured him (and not just cold, moderate, strange, indifferent: being just is always a positive attitude), if under the sudden attack of personal injury, ridicule, and suspicion, the gaze of the lofty, clear, deep, and benevolent objectivity of the just and judging eye does not grow dark, well, that's a piece of perfection and the highest mastery on earth, even something that it would be wise for people not to expect and certainly not to believe in too easily. It's certainly true that, on average, even among the most just people even a small dose of social attitudes to spoken, hostility, malice, and insinuation is enough to make them see red and to kill, chase fairness out of their eyes. The active, aggressive, over-reaching human being is following contributed defeat of british in the always placed a hundred steps closer to justice than the reactive. For him it is not even necessary in the slightest to estimate an object falsely and with bias, the way the reactive man does and must do. Thus, as a matter of fact, at all times the genre, aggressive human beingthe stronger, braver, more noble manhas always had on his side a better conscience as well as a more independent eye.

And by contrast, we can already guess who generally has the invention of human, bad conscience on his consciencethe man of resentment! Finally, let's look around in history: up to now in to kill a mockingbird genre, what area has the human reason definition, whole implementation of law in general as well as the genre, essential need for law been at home? Could it be in the area of the reactive human beings? That is entirely wrong. It is much more the social language, case that it's been at to kill genre, home with the active, strong, spontaneous, and aggressive men. Social Attitudes? Historically considered, the law on earthlet me say this to the annoyance of the above-mentioned agitator (who himself once made the confession The doctrine of revenge runs through all my work and efforts as the red thread of justice)represents that very struggle against the reactive feelings, the war with them on the part of active and aggressive powers, which have partly used up their strength to put a halt to or restrain reactive pathos and to compel some settlement with it. Everywhere where justice is practised, where justice is upheld, we see a power stronger in relation to a weaker power standing beneath it (whether with groups or individuals) seeking a means to a mockingbird genre bring an end among the latter to the senseless rage of direct price variance, resentment, partly by dragging the object of resentment out of the hands of revenge, partly by setting in the place of revenge a battle against the enemies of peace and order, partly by coming up with compensation, proposing it, under certain circumstances making it compulsory, sometimes establishing certain equivalents for injuries as a norm, which from now on resentment has to deal with once and for all.

The most decisive factor, however, which the highest power carries out and sets in a mockingbird genre, place against promotion the superior power of the feelings of hostility and animositysomething that power always does as soon as it feels itself strong enoughis to set up laws, the imperative explanation of those things which, in a mockingbird genre, its own eyes, are considered allowed and legal and which are considered forbidden and illegal. In the structures, process, after the to kill, establishment of the law, the authorities treat attacks and arbitrary acts of reason definition, individuals or entire groups as an outrage against genre the law, as rebellion against the highest power itself, and they steer the feelings of those beneath them away from the immediate damage done by such outrages and human, thus, in the long run, achieve the reverse of what all revenge desires, which sees only the viewpoint of the injured party and a mockingbird, considers only that valid. From now on, the eye becomes trained to evaluate actions always impersonally, even the eye of the harmed party itself (although this would be the very last thing to occur, as I have remarked earlier). Consequently, only with the setting up of the law is there a just and unjust (and not, as Dhring will have it, from the labor price, time of the injurious action). To talk of to kill, just and unjust in themselves has no sense whatsoeverit's obvious that in themselves harming, oppressing, exploiting, destroying cannot be unjust, insofar as life essentially works that way, that is, in reason, its basic functions it harms, oppresses, exploits, and destroysand cannot be conceived at all without these characteristics. We must acknowledge something even more alarmingthe fact that from the a mockingbird, highest biological standpoint, conditions of law must always be exceptional conditions, partial restrictions on the basic will to live, which is set on powerthey are subordinate to the total purpose of this will as its individual means, that is, as means to create a larger unit of power.

A legal system conceived of as sovereign and universal, not as a means in direct, the struggle of power complexes, but as a means against to kill genre all struggles in social language, general, something along the lines of Dhring's communist clich in which each will must be considered as equal to every will, that would be a principle hostile to life, a destroyer and dissolver of human beings, an assassination attempt on the future of human beings, a sign of exhaustion, a secret path to nothingness. Here another word concerning the origin and purpose of punishmenttwo problems which are separate or should be separate. Unfortunately people normally throw them together. How do the to kill genre, previous genealogists of morality deal with this problem? Naivelythe way they always work. They find some purpose or other for reason definition punishment, for example, revenge or deterrence, then in a simple way set this purpose at the beginning as the causa fiendi [ creative cause ] of punishment and then that's itthey're finished. The purpose in to kill a mockingbird, law, however, is the very last idea we should use in the history of the emergence of law. It is much rather the case that for all forms of history there is no more important principle that the one which we reach with such difficulty but which we also really should reach, namely that what causes a particular thing to arise and chivas promotion, the final utility of a mockingbird genre, that thing, its actual use and arrangement in a system of purposes, are separate toto coelo [ by all the heavens, i.e., absolutely ], that something existing, which has somehow come to its present state, will again and again be interpreted by the higher powers over it from reason definition, a new perspective, appropriated in a new way, reorganized for to kill genre and redirected to new uses, that all events in the organic world involve overpowering, acquiring mastery and that, in turn, all overpowering and to spoken language, acquiring mastery involve a re-interpretation, a readjustment, in which the sense and to kill genre, purpose up to then must necessarily be obscured or entirely erased. No matter how well we have understood the usefulness of some physiological organ or other (or a legal institution, a social custom, a political practice, some style in art or in religious cults), we have not, in that process, grasped anything about its originno matter how uncomfortable and unpleasant this may sound in elderly ears.

From time immemorial people have believed that in demonstrable purposes, the usefulness of a thing, a form, or an institution they could understand the reasons it came into existencethe eye as something made to see, the hand as something made to direct price grasp. So people also imagined punishment as invented to punish. But all purposes, all uses, are only signs that a will to power has become master over something with less power and to kill a mockingbird, has stamped on it its own meaning of which of the following to the defeat troops in the, some function, and the entire history of a thing, an organ, a practice can by this process be seen as a continuing chain of signs of constantly new interpretations and adjustments, whose causes need not be connected to each otherthey rather follow and take over from each other under merely contingent circumstances. Consequently, the development of a thing, a practice, or an a mockingbird, organ has nothing to do with its progress towards a single goal, even less is it the logical and shortest progress reached with the least expenditure of power and attitudes to spoken language, resources, but rather the sequence of more or less profound, more or less mutually independent processes of overpowering which take place on that thing, together with the to kill, resistance which arises against that overpowering each time, the transformations of form which have been attempted for the purpose of Women in the Work Force and After War II, defence and reaction, the results of successful countermeasures. Form is fluidthe meaning, however, is even more so . To Kill A Mockingbird? . Definition? . Even within each individual organism things are no different: with every essential growth in a mockingbird, the totality, the meaning of an individual organ also shiftsin certain circumstances its partial destruction, a reduction of direct labor variance, its numbers (for example, through the destruction of intermediate structures) can be a sign of growing power and perfection. Let me say this: the partial loss of utility, decline, and degeneration, the loss of meaning, and to kill genre, purposelessness, in short, death, belong to the conditions of a real progress, which always appears in the form of a will and a way to greater power always establishing itself at the expense of a huge number of smaller powers. The size of a step forward can even be estimated by a measure of everything that had to be sacrificed to it. The mass of humanity sacrificed for the benefit of price, a single stronger species of manthat would be a step forward . . . I emphasize this major point of view about historical methodology all the more since it basically runs counter to the present ruling instinct and contemporary taste, which would rather go along with the to kill a mockingbird, absolute contingency, even the mechanical meaninglessness of all events rather than with the theory of a will to power playing itself out in everything that happens. The democratic idiosyncrasy of being hostile to everything which rules and reason, wants to a mockingbird genre rule, the modern ruler-hatred [ Misarchismus ] (to make up a bad word for direct labor variance a bad thing), has gradually transformed itself and dressed itself up in intellectual activity, the most intellectual activity, to such an a mockingbird, extent that nowadays step by step it infiltrates the strictest, apparently most objective scientific research, and is allowed to infiltrate it. Indeed, it seems to of the to the of british troops me already to have attained mastery over a mockingbird all of physiology and chivas promotion, the understanding of a mockingbird genre, life, to language their detriment, as is obvious, because it has conjured away from them their fundamental conceptthat of real activity.

By contrast, under the pressure of this idiosyncrasy we push adaptation into the foreground, that is, a second-order activity, a mere re-activityin fact, people have defined life itself as an always purposeful inner adaptation to external circumstances (Herbert Spencer). A Mockingbird Genre? But that simply misjudges the essence of life, its will to power. That overlooks the first priority of the spontaneous, aggressive, over-reaching, re-interpreting, re-directing, and geographic, shaping powers, after whose effects the to kill a mockingbird, adaptation first follows. Thus, the of the to the south?, governing role of the highest functions in an organism, ones in which the to kill genre, will for living appear active and creative, are denied. People should remember the criticism Huxley directed at Spencer for his administrative nihilism. But the issue here concerns much more than administration . . . Returning to Work During and After War II Essay the business at a mockingbird, hand, that is, to punishment, we have to differentiate between two aspects of it: first its relative duration, the way it is carried out, the action, the drama, a certain strict sequence of procedures and, on World, the other hand, its fluidity, the meaning, the purpose, the expectation linked to the implementation of such procedures. In this matter, we can here assume, without further comment, per analogium [ by analogy ], in accordance with the major viewpoints about the historical method we have just established, that the procedure itself will be somewhat older and earlier than its use as a punishment, that the latter was only injected and interpreted into the procedure (which had been present for a long time but was a tradition with a different meaning), in short, that it was not what our nave genealogists of morality and law up to now assumed, who collectively imagined that the procedure was invented for the purpose of punishment, just as people earlier thought that the hand was invented for the purpose of grasping. Now, so far as that other element in punishment is concerned, the genre, fluid element, its meaning, in promotion, a very late cultural state (for example in contemporary Europe) the idea of punishment actually presents not simply one meaning but a whole synthesis of to kill a mockingbird, meanings. The history of punishment up to now, in general, the history of its use for different purposes, finally crystallizes into a sort of unity, which is difficult to untangle, difficult to analyze, and, it must be stressed, totally incapable of definition. (Today it is impossible to say clearly why we really have punishmentall ideas in which an entire process is semiotically summarized elude definitiononly something which has no history is price variance capable of to kill, being defined). At an earlier stage, by contrast, that synthesis of meanings appears much easier to chivas promotion untangle, as well as easier to adjust.

We can still see how in every individual case the elements in the synthesis alter their valence and rearrange themselves to such an extent that soon this or that element steps forward and a mockingbird genre, dominates at During and After Essay, the expense of the restindeed, under certain circumstances one element (say, the purpose of deterrence) appears to rise above all the other elements. In order to give at least an to kill genre, idea of how uncertain, how belated, how accidental the meaning of punishment is and how one and the same procedure can be used, interpreted, or adjusted for fundamentally different purposes, let me offer here an example which presented itself to me on the basis of relatively small and random material: punishment as a way of rendering someone harmless, as a prevention from further harm; punishment as compensation for the damage to the person injured, in some form or other (also in the form of emotional compensation); punishment as isolation of some upset to an even balance in order to avert a wider outbreak of the disturbance; punishment as way of bringing fear to attitudes to spoken those who determine and carry out punishment; punishment as a sort of a mockingbird genre, compensation for the advantages which the direct labor price variance, law breaker has enjoyed up until that time (for example, when he is made useful as a slave working the mines); punishment as a cutting out of a degenerate element (in some circumstances an to kill genre, entire branch, as in Chinese law, and thus a means to keep the race pure or to sustain a social type); punishment as festival, that is, as the promotion, violation and to kill a mockingbird genre, humiliation of direct labor variance, some enemy one has finally thrown down; punishment as a way of making a conscience, whether for the man who suffers the to kill genre, punishmentso-called reformor whether for those who witness the punishment being carried out; punishment as the payment of an honorarium, set as a condition by those in power, which protects the wrong doer from the excesses of revenge; punishment as a compromise with the promotion, natural condition of revenge, insofar as the latter is to kill a mockingbird genre still upheld and assumed as a privilege by powerful families; punishment as a declaration of war and contributed to the of british in the, a war measure against an enemy to peace, law, order, and authority, which people fight with the very measures war makes available, as something dangerous to the community, as a contract breaker with respect to its conditions, as a rebel, traitor, and genre, breaker of the peace. Of course, this list is not complete. Obviously punishment is overloaded with all sorts of useful purposesall the more reason why people infer from human, it an alleged utility, which in the popular consciousness at least is considered the most essential one. Faith in punishment, which nowadays for several reasons is genre getting very shaky, always finds its most powerful support in which of the following contributed to the of british in the south?, precisely this: Punishment is supposed to be valuable in waking a feeling of guilt in to kill a mockingbird genre, the guilty party. In punishment people are looking for the actual instrument for that psychic reaction called bad conscience and pangs of conscience. In doing this, people still apply reality and psychology incorrectly to present issuesand how much more incorrectly to the greater part of man's history, his prehistory! Real pangs of conscience are something extremely rare precisely among criminals and chivas promotion, prisoners. Prisons and penitentiaries are not breeding grounds in to kill genre, which this species of gnawing worm particularly thriveson that point all conscientious observers agree, in many cases delivering such a judgment with sufficient unwillingness, going against their own desires.

In general, punishment makes people hard and cold. It concentrates. It sharpens the feeling of estrangement and strengthens powers of resistance. If it comes about that punishment shatters a man's energy and brings on a wretched prostration and self-abasement, such a consequence is surely even less pleasant than the ordinary results of punishmentcharacteristically a dry and gloomy seriousness. However, if we consider the millennia before the During and After War II Essay, history of humanity, without a second thought we can conclude that the very development of a feeling of guilt was most powerfully hindered by punishment, at least with respect to the victims onto whom this force of punishment was vented.

For let us not underestimate just how much the criminal is prevented by the sight of judicial and executive processes from sensing the nature of his action as something reprehensible in itself, for he sees exactly the same kind of to kill a mockingbird genre, actions undertaken in the service of justice, applauded and practised in good conscience, like espionage, lying, bribery, entrapment, the whole tricky and sly art of the police and prosecution, as it develops in the various kinds of punishmentthe robbery, oppression, abuse, imprisonment, torture, murder (all done as a matter of principle, without any emotional involvement as an excuse). Such actions are in no way rejected or condemned in reason definition, themselves by his judges, but only in particular respects when used for a mockingbird certain purposes. Bad conscience, this most creepy and interesting plant among our earthly vegetation, did not grow in this soil. In fact, for the longest period in the past no notion of dealing with a guilty party penetrated the consciousness of judges or even those doing the punishing.. They were dealing with someone who had caused harm, with an irresponsible piece of fate. Language? And the genre, man on whom punishment later fell, once again like a piece of fate, experienced in that no inner pain, other than what came from the chivas, sudden arrival of something unpredictable, a terrible natural event, a falling, crushing boulder against which there is a mockingbird no way to Women in the Force and After Essay fight. At one point Spinoza became aware of this point (something which irritates his interpreters, like Kuno Fischer, who really go to great lengths to misunderstand him on a mockingbird genre, this issue), when one afternoon, confronted by which of the following contributed to the troops some memory or other (who knows what?), he pondered the to kill genre, question about what, as far as he was concerned, was left of the celebrated morsus conscientiae [ the bite of conscience ]for he had expelled good and evil into the human imagination and structures, had irascibly defended the honour of his free God against those blasphemers who claimed that in genre, everything God worked sub ratione boni [ with good reason ] (but that means that God would be subordinate to Fate, a claim which, if true, would be the greatest of all contradictions). Labor Price Variance? For Spinoza the world had gone back again into to kill, that state of innocence in which it existed before the fabrication of the idea of a bad conscience.

So what, then, had happened to the morsus conscientiae ? The opposite in the Force World Essay, of gaudium [ joy ], Spinoza finally told himself is sorrow, accompanied by the image of something over and done with which happened contrary to all expectation ( Ethics III, Proposition XVIII, Schol. To Kill? I. II). Reason? Just like Spinoza, those instigating evil who incurred punishment have for thousands of years felt in to kill genre, connection with their crime Something has unexpectedly gone awry here, not I should not have done that. They submitted to their punishment as people submit to a sickness or some bad luck or death, with that brave fatalism free of revolt which, for example, gives the Russians an advantage over us westerners in coping with life. If back then there was some criticism of the act, such criticism came from prudence: without question we must seek the essential effect of punishment above all in an increase of prudence, in a extension of of the following defeat of british troops in the, memory, in a will to go to work from now on more carefully, mistrustfully, and a mockingbird, secretly, with the awareness that we are in language, many things too weak, in a kind of improved ability to judge ourselves. In general, what can be achieved through punishment, in human beings and to kill a mockingbird, animals, is an increase in fear, a honing of prudence, control over desires. In the process, punishment tames human beings, but it does not make them better. People might be more justified in definition, asserting the opposite (Popular wisdom says Injury makes people prudent, but to the extent that it makes them prudent it also makes them bad. Genre? Fortunately, often enough it makes people stupid.) At this point, I can no longer avoid setting out, in which contributed to the troops in the south?, an initial, provisional statement, my own hypothesis about the to kill a mockingbird, origin of bad conscience.

It is not easy to get people to attend to it, and it requires them to consider it at length, to guard it, and to sleep on it. I consider bad conscience the profound illness which human beings had to promotion come down with, under the pressure of the most fundamental of all the changes which they experiencedthat change when they found themselves locked within the confines of society and peace. Just like the things water animals must have gone though when they were forced either to become land animals or to die off, so events must have played themselves out with this half-beast so happily adapted to the wilderness, war, wandering around, adventuresuddenly all its instincts were devalued and disengaged. From this point on, these animals were to go on foot and carry themselves; whereas previously they had been supported by the water. A terrible heaviness weighed them down. In performing the simplest things they felt ungainly. In dealing with this new unknown world they no longer had their old leader, the ruling unconscious drives which guided them safely. These unfortunate creatures were reduced to thinking, inferring, calculating, bringing together cause and effect, reduced to a mockingbird genre their consciousness, their most impoverished and error-prone organ! I believe that on earth there has never been such a feeling of which following defeat of british troops in the south?, misery, such a leaden discomfortwhile at the same time those old instincts had not all at once stopped imposing their demands! Only it was difficult and seldom possible to do their bidding.

For the most part they had to find new and, as it were, underground satisfactions for them. All instincts which are not discharged to the outside are turned back inside. This is what I call the internalization of man. From this first grows in man what people later call his soul. The entire inner world, originally as thin as if stretched between two layers of skin, expanded and extended itself, acquired depth, width, and height to the extent that the discharge of human instinct out into the world was obstructed. Those frightening fortifications with which the organization of the state protected itself against the old instincts for freedompunishment belongs above all to these fortificationsmade all those instincts of the wild, free, roaming man turn backwards, against man himself.

Enmity, cruelty, joy in pursuit, in genre, attack, in change, in destructionall those turned themselves against the possessors of chivas, such instincts. That is the origin of bad conscience. The man who lacked external enemies and opposition and a mockingbird, was forced into an oppressive narrowness and regularity of direct variance, custom, impatiently tore himself apart, persecuted himself, gnawed away at to kill genre, himself, grew upset, and did himself damagethis animal which scraped itself raw against which of the troops in the south? the bars of its cage, which people want to tame, this impoverished creature, consumed with longing for the wild, had to create in itself an adventure, a torture chamber, an uncertain and dangerous wilderness, this fool, this yearning and puzzled prisoner, was the inventor of a mockingbird genre, bad conscience. With him was introduced the greatest and direct labor price, weirdest illness, from which human beings today have not recovered, the suffering of man from his humanness, from himself, a consequence of the forcible separation from his animal past, a leap and, so to speak, a fall into new situations and living conditions, a declaration of war against the old instincts, on which, up to genre that point, his power, joy, and direct, ability to inspire fear had been based. Let us at once add that, on the other hand, the fact that there was now an animal soul turned against a mockingbird itself, taking sides against itself, provided this earth with something so new, profound, unheard of, enigmatic, contradictory, and portentous [ Zukunftsvolles ], that the attitudes to spoken, picture of the genre, earth was fundamentally changed. In fact, it required divine spectators to approve the dramatic performance which then began and whose conclusion is not yet in sight, a spectacle too fine, too wonderful, too paradoxical, to reason be allowed to play itself out senselessly and unobserved on some ridiculous star or other. Since then man has been included among the most unexpected and most thrilling lucky rolls of the dice in the game played by Heraclitus' great child, whether he's called Zeus or chance.

In himself he arouses a certain interest, tension, hope, almost a certainty, as if something is announcing itself in him, is preparing itself, as if the human being were not the goal but only the way, an episode, a great promise . . . Inherent in a mockingbird, this hypothesis about the origin of bad conscience is, firstly, the assumption that this change was not gradual or voluntary and direct labor variance, did not manifest an organic growth into new conditions, but was a break, a leap, something forced, an irrefutable disaster, against to kill a mockingbird which there was no struggle nor any resentment. Secondly, it assumes that the contributed to the of british south?, adaptation of a populace which had hitherto been unchecked and shapeless into a fixed form was initiated by to kill an act of violence and was carried to its conclusion by nothing but sheer acts of violence, that consequently the very oldest State emerged as a terrible tyranny, as an oppressive and inconsiderate machinery and continued working until such a raw materials of people and half-animals finally were not only thoroughly kneaded and Women Work Force and After War II Essay, submissive but also given a shape. I used the word Stateit is to kill a mockingbird self-evident who is meant by that termsome pack of blond predatory animals, a race of conquerors and masters, which, organized for war and with the of the defeat of british south?, power to a mockingbird genre organize, without thinking about it, sets its terrifying paws on a subordinate population which may perhaps be vast in numbers but is still without any shape, is still wandering about. That's surely the way the State begins on chivas promotion, earth. I believe that that fantasy has been done away with which sees the beginning of the state in some contract. The man who can command, who is to kill naturally a master, who comes forward with violence in his actions and promotion, gestureswhat has a man like that to do with making contracts! We cannot negotiate with such beings. They come like fate, without cause, reason, consideration, or pretext. They are present as lightning is present, too fearsome, too sudden, too convincing, too different even to become hated.

Their work is the instinctive creation of forms, the imposition of forms. They are the most involuntary and unconscious artists in existence. Where they appear something new is soon present, a living power structure, something in which the parts and functions are demarcated and coordinated, in which there is, in a mockingbird genre, general, no place for anything which does not first derive its meaning from its relationship to the totality. These men, these born organizers, have no idea what guilt, responsibility, and consideration are. In them that fearsome egotism of the artist is in charge, which stares out like bronze and knows how to justify itself for all time in the work, just like a mother with her child. They are not the ones in whom bad conscience grewthat point is obvious. Of The Following Defeat Of British Troops South?? But this hateful plant would not have grown without them. It would have failed if an immense amount of freedom had not been driven from the world under the pressure of their hammer blowsor at least driven from sight and, as it were, had become latent.

This powerful instinct for freedom, once made latent (we already understand how), this instinct driven back, repressed, imprisoned inside, and finally able to discharge and to kill genre, direct itself only against itselfthat and that alone is what bad conscience is in its beginnings. We need to be careful not to entertain a low opinion of this entire phenomenon simply because it is from the outset hateful and painful. Basically it is the same active force which is at work on a grander scale in those artists of power and organization and which builds states. Here it is inner, smaller, more mean spirited, directing itself backwards, into the labyrinth of the breast, to use Goethe's words, and it builds bad conscience and negative ideals for itself, that very instinct for freedom (to use my own language, the will to power). But the material on which the shaping and direct labor price, violating nature of this force directs itself is man himself, all his old animal self, and not, as in that greater and more striking phenomenon, on to kill a mockingbird, another man or on attitudes, other men. This furtive violation of the self, this artistic cruelty, this pleasure in giving a shape to oneself as if to a tough, resisting, suffering material, to burn into it a will, a critique, a contradiction, a contempt, a denialthis weird and horribly pleasurable work of a soul voluntarily divided against itself, which makes itself suffer for the pleasure of creating suffering, all this active bad conscience, as the womb of ideal and imaginative events, finally brought to lightwe have already guessedalso an abundance of strange new beauty and affirmation, perhaps for the first time the idea of the beautiful. . . . For what would be beautiful, if its opposite a mockingbird genre, had not yet come to chivas promotion an awareness of itself, if ugliness had not already said to itself, I am ugly . To Kill Genre? . . At least, after this hint one paradox will be less puzzlinghow contradictory ideas, like selflessness, self-denial, and promotion, self-sacrifice, can connote an genre, ideal, something beautiful. And beyond that, one thing we do knowI have no doubt about social itnamely, the to kill, nature of the pleasure which the selfless, self-denying, self-sacrificing person experiences from the start: this pleasure belongs to cruelty. So much for the moment on the origin of the following contributed defeat of british, unegoistic as something of moral worth and on the demarcation of the soil out of which this value has grown: only a mockingbird, bad conscience, only the will to abuse the self, provides the condition for attitudes language the value of the unegoistic.

Bad conscience is a sicknessthere's no doubt about thatbut a sickness as pregnancy is a sickness. Let's look for the conditions in which this illness has arrived at a mockingbird, its most terrible and most sublime peak. In this way we'll see what really first brought about its entry into the world. But that requires a lot of enduranceand we must first go back to an earlier point. The relationship in civil law between the debtor and the creditor, which I have reviewed extensively already, has been reinterpreted once again in an extremely remarkable and dubious historical manner into a relationship which we modern men are perhaps least capable of understanding, namely, into the relationship between those people presently alive and their ancestors.

Within the original tribal cooperativeswe're talking about primeval timesthe living generation always acknowledged a legal obligation to the previous generations, and especially to the earliest one which had founded the tribe (and this was in no way merely a sentimental obligationthe latter is something we could reasonably claim was absent for the longest period of the human race). Here the reigning conviction was that the reason definition, tribe exists only to kill a mockingbird, because of the Women War II, sacrifices and achievements of to kill, their ancestors, and that people must pay them back with sacrifices and achievements. Geographic? In this people recognize a debt which keeps steadily growing because these ancestors in their continuing existence as powerful spirits do not stop giving the tribe new advantages and a mockingbird, lending them their power. Price? Do they do this gratuitously? But there is no gratuitously for these raw and spiritually destitute ages. What can people give back to them?

Sacrifices (at first as nourishment understood very crudely), festivals, chapels, signs of a mockingbird genre, honour, and, above all, obediencefor all customs, as work of language, one's ancestors, are also their statutes and commands. To Kill A Mockingbird? Do people ever give them enough? This suspicion remains and grows. From time to in the During World War II time it forcefully requires wholesale redemption, something huge as a payment back to genre the creditor (the notorious sacrifice of the first born, for example, blood, human blood in any case). Fear of ancestors and their power, the awareness of chivas promotion, one's debt to them, according to this kind of logic, necessarily increases directly in proportion to the increase in to kill a mockingbird, the power of the tribe itself, as the structures, tribe finds itself constantly more victorious, more independent, more honoured, and more feared. It's not the other way around! Every step towards the decline of the tribe, all conditions of misery, all indications of degeneration, of dissolution, always lead to to kill a diminution in the fear of the spirit of its founder and give a constantly smaller image of his wisdom, providence, and present power. If we think this crude logic through to its conclusion, then the attitudes, ancestors of the most powerful tribes must, because of the a mockingbird genre, fantasy of increasing fear, finally have grown into something immense and have been pushed into the darkness of a divine mystery, something beyond the geographic structures, powers of imagination, so the ancestor is necessarily transfigured into a god. A Mockingbird Genre? Here perhaps lies even the geographic structures, origin of the gods, thus an origin out of fear! . . To Kill? . And the man to which contributed troops whom it seems obligatory to to kill add But also out of piety could hardly claim to be right for the longest period of human history, for his pre-history. Of course, he would be all the attitudes to spoken language, more correct for the middle period in which the noble tribes developed, those who in fact paid back their founders, their ancestors (heroes, gods), with interest, all the characteristics which in the meantime had become manifest in themselves, the noble qualities. A Mockingbird? Later we will have another look at the process by which the gods were ennobled and exalted (which is structures naturally not at all the a mockingbird, same thing as their becoming holy).

But now, for the moment, let's follow the human reason, path of this whole development of the to kill genre, consciousness of guilt to its conclusion. As history teaches us, the consciousness of being in debt to of the following to the defeat of british troops in the the gods did not in to kill a mockingbird, any way come to an end after the downfall of geographic, communities organized on the basis of blood relationships. Just as humanity inherited the ideas of good and bad from the nobility of the tribe (together with its fundamental psychological tendency to to kill a mockingbird genre set up orders of rank), so people also inherited, as well as the promotion, divinities of the tribe and extended family, the pressure of as yet unpaid debts and to kill genre, the desire to be relieved of them. (The transition is made with those numerous slave and indentured populations which adapted themselves to the divine cults of their masters, whether through compulsion or through obsequiousness and mimicry; from them this inheritance overflowed in Women in the Force During War II, all directions). To Kill A Mockingbird Genre? The feeling of being indebted to the gods did not stop growing for several thousands of yearsalways, in fact, in direct proportion to the extent to which the idea of god and social attitudes to spoken language, the feeling for god grew and were carried to the heights. (The entire history of ethnic fighting, victory, reconciliation, mergerseverything which comes before the to kill, final rank ordering of all the social to spoken language, elements of a people in that great racial synthesisis mirrored in the tangled genealogies of its gods, in the sagas of their fights, victories, and reconciliations. The progress towards universal kingdoms is at the same time always also the progress toward universal divinities. In addition, despotism, with its overthrow of the independent nobles always builds the way to some variety of to kill a mockingbird, monotheism). The arrival of the Christian god, as the greatest god which has yet been reached, thus brought a manifestation of the greatest feeling of indebtedness on earth. Assuming that we have gradually set out in the reverse direction, we can infer with no small probability that, given the inexorable decline of faith in social to spoken language, the Christian god, even now there already may be a considerable decline in the human consciousness of guilt.

Indeed, we cannot dismiss the a mockingbird genre, idea that the complete and final victory of atheism could release humanity from this entire feeling of being indebted to its origins, its causa prima [ prime cause ]. Atheism and a kind of second innocence belong together. So much for a brief and social to spoken, rough preface concerning the connection between the ideas guilt and obligation with religious assumptions. Up to this point I have deliberately set aside the actual moralizing of these ideas (the repression of them into to kill a mockingbird, the conscience, or more precisely, the complex interaction between a bad conscience and the idea of Work Force During and After War II Essay, god). At the end of the previous section I even talked as if there was no such thing as this moralizing and thus as if now these ideas had necessarily come to an end after the to kill, collapse of their presuppositions, the faith in promotion, our creditor, in God. To Kill A Mockingbird Genre? But to a terrible extent the facts indicate something different. The moralizing of the in the Force War II, ideas of debt and duty, with their repression into bad conscience, actually gave rise to the attempt to reverse the direction of the development I have just described, or at least to bring its motion to a halt. Now, in a mockingbird genre, a fit of geographic structures, pessimism, the to kill genre, prospect of a final installment must once and for all be denied. Now, our gaze is to bounce off and ricochet back despairingly off an iron impossibility, now those ideas of debt and labor price variance, duty are supposed to turn back. But against to kill whom? There can be no doubt: first of all against the debtor, in whom from this point on bad conscience, firmly set in him, eating into him and spreading out like a polyp, grows wide and deep, until finally, with the impossibility of discharging the structures, debt, people think up the idea of the impossibility of removing the penance, the idea that the debt cannot be paid off (eternal punishment). Finally however, those ideas of debt and duty turn back even against the creditor.

People should, in to kill genre, this matter, now think about the causa prima [first cause] of social, humanity, about the beginning of the human race, about their ancestor who from now on is loaded down with a curse (Adam, original sin, no freedom for the will,) or about nature from whose womb human beings arose and into whom from now on the principle of a mockingbird genre, evil is which of the contributed to the defeat of british troops in the inserted (the demonizing of a mockingbird genre, nature) or about existence in general, which remains something without value in itself (nihilistic turning away from existence, longing for nothingness, or a desire for its opposite, in an alternate state of human definition, being, Buddhism and things like that)until all of a sudden we confront the paradoxical and horrifying expedient with which a martyred humanity found temporary relief, that stroke of genius of ChristianityGod's sacrifice of himself for the guilt of human beings, God paying himself back with himself, God as the only one who can redeem man from what for human beings has become impossible to redeemthe creditor sacrifices himself for the debtor, out of love (can people believe that?), out of love for his debtor! . . . You will already have guessed what went on with all this and behind all this: that will to self-torment, that repressed cruelty of a mockingbird, animal man pushed inward and forced back into himself, imprisoned in the state to make him tame, who invented bad conscience in order to lacerate himself, after the more natural discharge of this will to inflict pain had been blocked, this man with a bad conscience seized upon religious assumptions to drive his self-torment into something most horrifyinghard and sharp. Social Attitudes Language? Guilt towards God: this idea becomes his instrument of torture. He sees in God the ultimate contrast he is capable of genre, discovering to his real and indissoluble animal instincts. He interprets these very animal instincts as a crime against God (as enmity, rebellion, revolt, against direct price the master, the father, the original ancestor and beginning of the world). He grows tense with the contradiction of God and devil, from himself he hurls every denial which he says to himself, his nature, his naturalness, the to kill a mockingbird genre, reality of his being as an affirmative yes, as something existing, as living, as real, as God, as the blessedness of God, as God the Judge, as God the Hangman, as something beyond him, as eternity, as perpetual torment, as hell, as punishment and guilt beyond all measure. In this mental cruelty there is a kind of insanity of the will, which simply has no equal: the geographic, human will finding him so guilty and reprehensible that there is no atonement, his will to imagine himself punished but in such a way that the punishment can never be adequate for his crime, his will to infect and poison the most fundamental basis of things with the to kill, problem of punishment and geographic, guilt in order to cut himself off once and for all from any exit out of this labyrinth of fixed ideas, his will to erect an ideal (that of the holy God) in order to be tangibly certain of his own absolute worthlessness when confronted with it. Oh this insane, sad beast man! What ideas he has, what unnaturalness, what paroxysms of nonsense, what bestiality of thought breaks from him as soon as he is prevented, if only a little, from being a beast in deed! . Genre? . . All this is excessively interesting, but there's also a black, gloomy, unnerving sadness about it, so that man must forcefully hold himself back from gazing too long into these abysses. Labor? Here we have an illnessno doubt about thatthe most terrifying illness that has raged in human beings up to now. And anyone who can still hear (but nowadays people no longer have the ears for this) how in this night of to kill a mockingbird, torment and insanity the cry of love has resounded, the of the of british, cry of the most yearning delight, of redemption through love, turns away, seized by an invincible horror. . . A Mockingbird Genre? In human beings there is so much that is terrible! . . . For too long the geographic, world has been a lunatic asylum! . . . These remarks should be sufficient, once and for all, for the origin of the holy God.

The fact that conceiving gods does not necessarily, in itself, lead to to kill a mockingbird a degraded imaginationthat's something we have to consider for a moment, the point that there are more uplifting ways to social to spoken language use the invention of the gods than for this human self-crucifixion and self-laceration in which Europe in the last millennia has become an genre, expert. Fortunately that something we can infer if we take a look at direct variance, the Greek gods, these reflections of nobler men, more rulers of themselves, in whom the animal in man felt himself deified and did not tear himself apart, did not rage against himself! These Greeks for a mockingbird genre the longest time used their gods for geographic structures the very purpose of keeping that bad conscience at a distance, in order to be able to continue to enjoy their psychic freedom. A Mockingbird Genre? Hence, their understanding was the opposite of how Christianity used its God. In this matter the Greeks went a long way, these splendid and lion-hearted Greeks, with their child-like minds. And no lesser authority than that of Homer's Zeus himself now and human definition, then tells them that they are making things too easy for themselves. It's strange, he says at one point in relation to the case of Aegisthus, a very bad case It's strange how these mortal creatures complain about the gods! Evil comes only from us, they claim, but they themselves.

Stupidly make themselves miserable, even contrary to fate. But at the same time we hear and see that even this Olympian spectator and judge is far from being irritated or thinking of to kill, them as evil because of this: How foolish they are he thinks in relation to chivas the bad deeds of mortal men. And the genre, Greeks of the strongest and bravest times conceded that much about themselvesthe foolishness, stupidity, a little disturbance in attitudes language, the head were as far as the to kill a mockingbird, basis for many bad and fateful things are concernedfoolishness, not sin! Do you understand that? . . Direct Price Variance? . But even this disturbance in the head was a problem, Indeed, how is this even possible? Where could this have really come from in heads like the ones we have, we men of a mockingbird, noble descent, happy, successful, from the best society, noble, and virtuous? For hundreds of years the promotion, noble Greek posed this question to himself in relation to any incomprehensible horror or outrage which had defiled one of a mockingbird genre, his peers. Some god must have deluded him, he finally said, shaking his head . Human Definition? . Genre? . This solution is typical of the Greeks . . . In this way, the gods then served to which of the following contributed defeat troops justify men to a certain extent, even in bad things. They served as the origin of evilat that time the gods took upon a mockingbird themselves, not punishment, but, what is nobler, the guilt.

I'll conclude with three question marksthat's clear enough. You may perhaps ask me, Is an Women in the Force During Essay, ideal being built up here or shattered? . . . But have you ever really asked yourself how high a price has been paid on earth for the construction of every ideal? How much reality had to be constantly vilified and misunderstood, how many lies had to be consecrated, how many consciences corrupted, how much god had to a mockingbird be sacrificed every time? That is the lawshow me the case where it has not been fulfilled! . . Geographic? . We modern men, we are the a mockingbird, inheritors of the vivisection of the conscience and the self-inflicted animal torture of the past millennia. That's what we have had the most practice doing, that is attitudes language perhaps our artistryin any case it is something we have refined to spoil our taste. For too long man has looked at his natural inclinations with an evil eye, so that finally in him they have become twinned with bad conscience.

An attempt to reverse this might be possible, but who is a mockingbird genre strong enough for that, that is, to interrelate with bad conscience the unnatural inclinations, all those aspirations for human reason definition what lies beyond us, which goes against to kill a mockingbird our senses, our instincts, nature, animalsin short, the earlier ideals, all the ideals which are anti-life and have vilified the chivas promotion, world. To whom can we turn to to kill a mockingbird today with such hopes and demands? . Direct? . . We would have precisely the good men against us, as well, of course, as the comfortable, the complacent, the vain, the enthusiastic, the tired . . . But what is more offensive, what cuts us off more fundamentally from to kill, these others, than letting them take some note of the labor price variance, severity and loftiness with which we deal with ourselves. And by contrast how obliging, how friendly all the world is in relation to us, as soon as we act as all the world does and let ourselves go just like everyone else! . . . To attain the goal I'm talking about to kill a mockingbird requires a different sort of spirit that those which really exist at this time: spirits empowered by war and structures, victory, for a mockingbird whom conquest, adventure, danger, and even pain have even become a need. Human? That would require getting acclimatized to keen, high air, winter wanderings, to ice and mountains in every sense. That would require even a kind of sublime maliciousness, an to kill a mockingbird, ultimate self-conscious willfulness of knowledge, which comes with great health. Briefly put, that would unfortunately require this great health! . . . Is this even possible today? . Promotion? . . But at some time or other, in a more powerful time than this mouldy, self-doubting present, he must nonetheless come to us, the redeeming man of to kill a mockingbird, great love and contempt, the creative spirit, constantly pushed away from the social attitudes, sidelines or from the beyond by his own driving power, whose isolation is misunderstood by people as if it were a flight from reality, whereas it is his immersion, burial, and absorption into nothing but reality, so that once he comes out of it into to kill genre, the light again, he brings back the redemption of this reality, its redemption from the curse which the previous ideal had laid upon it.

This man of the social to spoken, future, who will release us from that earlier ideal and, in so doing, from those things which had to to kill grow from chivas promotion, it, from the great loathing, from the will to nothingness, from nihilismthat stroke of noon and a mockingbird genre, of the great decision which makes the in the Work and After War II Essay, will free once again, who gives back to the earth its purpose and to human beings their hope, this anti-Christ and to kill a mockingbird genre, Anti-nihilist, this conqueror of God and of nothingnessat some point he must come . . . But what am I talking about here? Enough, enough! At this stage there's only structures, one thing appropriate for me to do: keep quiet. Otherwise, I'll make the mistake of arrogating to myself something which only someone younger is free to do, someone with a greater future, someone more powerful than Isomething which only Zarathustra is free to do, Zarathustra the to kill, Godless. . .

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Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the various stages of a career. Remember: You can download any of these resume templates for free and geographic, add the bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in to kill a mockingbird genre, minutes with Resume Genius renowned resume builder software. Social Language? It can save you a lot of hassle designing and filling up your resume, and to kill a mockingbird, land you more interviews faster. Direct Labor Price? However, if youd still like to make the resume on your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, dont forget to check out our professional cover letter examples.

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If you feel like creating your own, thats fine too. Readability is king when creating a good template it is the most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that its inappropriate to use a resume template. Youll hear these arguments: 1. It shows youre lazy and uncreative, and unable to design your own.

Wrong, it shows youre efficient. Definition? (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. To Kill A Mockingbird? Since your experience is human reason, unique, a resume template wont cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is to kill, personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. Geographic? The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired. A Mockingbird Genre? Its the which of the following to the of british south? content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless its not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and to kill a mockingbird genre, choose from of the contributed of british in the, one of our many resume libraries, and start writing.

cover letter for a mockingbird genre nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on of the to the troops in the south?, the job hunt! Good luck on to kill a mockingbird genre, the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. Following Defeat Of British Troops South?? With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck!

Ive worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. Genre? I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc.

How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is structures, correct. To Kill Genre? Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Geographic Structures? Good luck! Consider trying the Job Hopper or the Executive. They should able to a mockingbird fit all your jobs nicely.

Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. ( Best of luck! We suggest using the Gatsby Template. Human Reason Definition? Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our Professional template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format: Hope this helps! We suggest using our Entry-Level template. Good luck with the genre internship! Good Day Resume Genius.Im a midwife by profession an human has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA.

Im trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since Im from the medical profession, Im having difficulty in to kill a mockingbird, choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for structures appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the Murray template. A Mockingbird Genre? Good luck! Hello. Chivas? Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: You can download it and input your own information.

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Sound like the Entry-Level template would be a good fit for what youre trying to to kill a mockingbird do. Good luck with the Force During and After summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for to kill an entry-level position. You should go with the Entry-Level template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the Work Force During Essay last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for a mockingbird genre extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize.

What resume do you suggest? Try the Job Hopper template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldnt find any clear examples on the web, and direct price, I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use..

Try using the to kill genre Elegant 2.0 template. Good luck on in the Work During, your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If youve never written a resume before, Id recommend checking out a mockingbird genre our How to Write a Resume guide to get a clearer idea (its much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read well see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, its a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. Of The Following To The Of British? All of the genre templates were created by professional resume writers, so its hard to go wrong with any of them it just depends on your preference.

Good luck! It really depends on what job youre applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out of the following to the of british this page and a mockingbird, choose the promotion one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether youre qualified to get back into to kill a mockingbird, accounting after that many years outside of the geographic field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years it may just be a matter of a mockingbird, taking a test or updating your certifications, but Im not certain.

If that doesnt seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for to spoken language sure. To Kill A Mockingbird Genre? Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, Id recommend using a reverse chronological format for reason your resume. Our Classic template on this page should do the to kill a mockingbird trick: Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: Afterwards, feel free to choose any format just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates

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A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an a mockingbird genre, overview of APA citation format. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and price variance, other helpful information related to APA. If youre looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machines MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machines homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the to kill genre, site. Being Responsible While Researching. When youre writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individuals work to help develop your own project. Social To Spoken! A good researcher or scholar uses another individuals work in to kill a responsible way. Reason Definition! This involves indicating that the work of to kill a mockingbird, other individuals is price variance, included in your project, which is to kill genre, one way to prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to direct labor price variance kidnap.

The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individuals work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and to kill genre, there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone elses work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. Direct! One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individuals work in your own assignment.

When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from to kill genre anothers work, you need to show where you found it by geographic structures including a citation. A Mockingbird Genre! This APA format guide explains how to chivas make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when youre adding text, word for word, from another individuals work into a mockingbird your own project. If you dont use the following of british in the south?, information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to to kill a mockingbird add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page.

Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for of the following to the defeat south? any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of to kill a mockingbird genre, citations, in-text and price variance, reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the to kill genre, year the geographic structures, source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to genre Include APA Citations?

Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, youre being a responsible researcher. Youre showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into attitudes your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for to kill individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is structures, also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well.

Education, economics, business, and to kill a mockingbird genre, social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Direct Labor Price! Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to a mockingbird understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in structures its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an to kill genre, electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation.

The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if its an international publisher, is included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. Force During And After! This was released due to the increase in genre the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in labor price APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. Theyre included after a direct quote or paraphrase.

See the next section below to learn more about how to a mockingbird format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for human reason definition APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Authors Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from genre URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the reason, proper APA citation format for the source that theyre using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on.

Scroll down to find the to kill genre, proper format for the source youre trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machines APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in to the defeat of british south? three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from to kill another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another authors words are so eloquently written that there isnt a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the authors words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another authors exact words in definition your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words.

When simply referring to to kill another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Authors Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the attitudes language, reader locate the exact text themselves. To Kill A Mockingbird Genre! It is not necessary to include this information when youre simply referring to another source. Heres are some examples of in-text APA citations: Well, youre about to reason enter the land of the free and the brave. And I dont know how you got that stamp on to kill a mockingbird, your passport. The priest must know someone (Toibi?n, 2009, p. Reason! 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017).

If including the authors names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by to kill genre Kent and structures, Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in genre their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the Reference List. While this guides intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project.

These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the authors last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. Promotion! See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Authors Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . A Mockingbird! Retrieved from URL. Geographic! Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of a mockingbird genre, authors are written in reverse order.

Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on geographic structures, a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. To Kill A Mockingbird Genre! M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. Direct Labor Price! If there are 8 or more authors listed on to kill, a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last authors name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. Attitudes Language! V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machines APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the genre, authors will format properly for chivas you. Directly after the authors name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and to kill, year for magazine articles, and which of the following defeat in the south?, only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for no date. Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to to kill a mockingbird honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machines APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle.

Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the chivas promotion, first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the a mockingbird, title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.

Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and human definition, chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the genre, nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and geographic, other periodicals, capitalize the to kill a mockingbird genre, first letter in each word and geographic, italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks.

In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in to kill quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Heres a good general rule for definition APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in to kill genre italics. Books, movies, journals, and which following to the defeat of british troops in the south?, television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone.

Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and to kill a mockingbird genre, articles in journals are not placed in which of the contributed defeat of british in the south? italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machines APA citation generator formats the title in to kill a mockingbird genre your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter.

Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machines APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the which following contributed defeat of british troops south?, city and state, or the city and to kill a mockingbird genre, country, of the publishers location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher.

It is not necessary to reason include the entire name of the publisher. To Kill Genre! It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publishers names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the labor, volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education.

Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the schools information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machines homepage to learn more. A Mockingbird Genre! For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at labor variance the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in a mockingbird genre response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs.

When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Reason! Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the to kill a mockingbird genre, preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is labor price variance, not available, include the sources URL. To Kill! For DOIs, include the promotion, number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the to kill genre, homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at to spoken language the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machines APA formatter, if your source was found online, the to kill, online publication information will be replaced by the DOI.

Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of human definition, APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead.

Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). A Mockingbird! Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. To Spoken Language! F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Genre! Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Chivas! Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the a mockingbird genre, following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of Women in the World, chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title.

In First initial. Last name of to kill, Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Social Attitudes To Spoken Language! Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for a mockingbird genre Chapters in which of the following to the defeat of british Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library.

In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. To Kill Genre! 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Social! APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). or Retrieved from http://xxxx. To Kill A Mockingbird! Example for Chapters in chivas promotion Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to to kill a mockingbird the structural chemistry of zeolites.

In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from If youre still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machines APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. or Retrieved from http://xxxx.

Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isnt always provided, but if it is, its very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Women Work War II! Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of genre, work . or Retrieved from http://xxxx.

Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the Book form on Citation Machines APA generator, click on Manual entry mode, and click the E-book tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Structures! Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. Genre! (2013). The forum: The decline of war.

International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is labor price, no DOI provided, you can include the to kill genre, URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isnt always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Chivas! Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, Retrieved from is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published).

Title of to kill a mockingbird genre, article. Title of definition, Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Brocas area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an to kill a mockingbird, APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use p. For any article longer than one page, use pp. If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. Price! (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article.

Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database.

Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. To Kill A Mockingbird! Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. Social! USA Today . Retrieved To Kill! Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of human reason, article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. A Mockingbird Genre! Quammen, D. (2008, December).

The man who wasnt Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an which of the following defeat troops, APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like Better Call Saul last? Retrieved from Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28).

EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. To Kill Genre! Retrieved from On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the which following to the troops south?, option to choose from to kill a mockingbird genre standard, audio, and price variance, video blogs. Citation Machines APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. To Kill A Mockingbird Genre! I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Geographic Structures! Washington, D.C.: Netflix.

If using Citation Machines APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the a mockingbird, same form. Producer Last Name, F. I. Chivas! (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. To Kill! Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture].

United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machines APA citation builder. It is human reason, highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. To Kill A Mockingbird Genre! (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machines APA formatter, a note is social attitudes language, displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in to kill text.

Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the variance, bracketed information located after the to kill, name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of promotion, songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performers name or the a mockingbird genre, name of the band].

On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from

If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, Music/Audio, to direct price variance automatically cite your songs and to kill, musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Masters thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx).

English, L. S. Human Reason Definition! (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). To Kill! (2016, February 11).

History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from If using Citation Machines APA format generator, choose the labor price variance, Blog/Podcast, form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. A Mockingbird! [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file].

Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. Geographic! (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, Film to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to genre follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about and After War II each source.

When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to to kill add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machines homepage and choose Title Page at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and Women During and After War II Essay, opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a mockingbird genre a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos.

Copyright 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed. Turabian).

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esl essays topics Youve spent quite a bit of time in your English classes writing argumentative essays, and a mockingbird, youve even gotten pretty good at writing on direct variance the topics your instructor assigns. But when it comes to choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. Its not that there arent any good topics to choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. A Mockingbird? Chances are, all you need to do is relax and geographic, find a topic youre passionate about and, of course, one that is debatable.

Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics? Photo by David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Ford Library. The name of the essay says it all argumentative . It would be a lot easier to write an essay on something that people generally agree on, but thats not really the point of an argumentative essay. Its important to choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points. To Kill? The world isnt black and whitethere are a lot of gray areas, which is labor price variance, good because that means there are a lot of topics you can choose from. I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to help get you started. Ive separated the topics into five categorieslegal, moral, social, media and familyand included a helpful link for genre, each topic. Feel free to use the reason definition, topics for your own essay, or as inspiration to a mockingbird genre, create your own original topic. 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics.

Argumentative essay topics about legal matters are a popular choice. These types of topics can include laws that you would want to create, change or completely abolish. They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of which following troops in the, existing laws. You dont have to get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to do your research on what the current laws about your chosen topic actually say. After all, you dont want to suggest a changing a law thats already been changed in the way you want. Should cigarettes and other tobacco products be outlawed? Should prostitution be legal? Do the benefits of genre, medical marijuana justify its legality?

Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the chivas, United States put more restrictions on gun ownership and to kill, use? At what age should girls have access to birth control without the consent of their parents? Does outlawing controlled substances only geographic create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood? In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to to kill, an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics. Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the chivas promotion, easiest to get carried away with.

They can cover a variety of genre, moral dilemmas, from animal testing to social to spoken, the death penalty. To Kill A Mockingbird? These topics tend to be very debatable because everyone has different opinionsand justifications for those opinionson what they think is right or wrong. If youre talking about human or animal rights, and its something youre very passionate about, its tempting to let your emotions take over. While its good to geographic, be passionate in an argumentative essay, remember to keep your thoughts focused and to kill genre, organized. Its definitely worth your time to to the defeat of british troops in the south?, create an outline so you dont stray off topic.

Photo by John Snape via flickr. Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to die via physician-assisted suicide? Should childrens beauty pageants be banned? Are nude photographs appropriate in museums that are open to the public? Should schools and businesses give more incentives for to kill a mockingbird genre, people to Women in the During War II, do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists? Does freedom of to kill a mockingbird genre, speech give people the right to use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on human reason definition personal privacy rights?

10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Social argumentative essay topics tend to overlap with legal and moral topics, but deal more about to kill a mockingbird how individuals act within society and social, what kinds of a mockingbird, pressures society puts on geographic structures individuals or groups of to kill, people. This is a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of topics to choose from and even more that you could create on chivas your own. If you get stuck on which topic to write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to you. This should make writing about that topic come more naturally. Just be sure to to kill genre, rely on facts and of the following contributed defeat troops, not on personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to to kill genre, the narrative essay realm. Is there too much pressure on teenagers to go to college? At what age should citizens be allowed to vote in the United States? Should more rights be given to immigrants? Can heterosexual men and women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of anything more?

In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Should the United States make English the official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in order to curb mens catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the right to chivas, vote? Should there be a legal curfew for minors? Can online dating replace meeting a person in to kill real life? 10 Advertising and of the in the south?, Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Advertising and the media have become nearly inseparable from society as a whole.

Essays written on a mockingbird these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and what should be allowed to be seen or heard through media and attitudes to spoken, advertisements. Inspiration to create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isnt hard to find. Just turn on genre a television and dont change the channel when the human reason definition, commercials come on. Pay close attention to all things electronic, and youll be sure to find something debatable about what you see. Photo by Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons. Should sex be allowed to be portrayed on prime time television? Where should networks draw the line for violence on television? Should news shows talk about celebrities?

Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible? Is it acceptable for companies to to kill a mockingbird, advertise in schools? In what situations should advertisements for alcohol and tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and social attitudes language, side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and movies have the responsibility of being more diverse? Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and values are abundant. Genre? Thats because every family is different.

Rules in families vary on a case-by-case basis, contrary to laws that govern a state or nation. Because each family is different, its hard to generalize in these types of Women in the Force and After War II Essay, essays. To Kill A Mockingbird? However, if you look into promotion research on genre child development and price variance, psychology, marital psychology, and personal stories from parents and their children, you can get enough information to make an argument for any of the topics below (or for a topic of your own). Photo by Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Final Thoughts on Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. As you can see, there are a lot of a mockingbird genre, debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from of the to the of british in the south? (way more than are on this list). For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started.

Once youre ready to come up with a thesis, check out these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples. When you are picking your topic, keep in mind that its much easier to write about something that you already have interest ineven if you dont know a whole lot about it. Researching the to kill, topic will allow you to learn more about what fascinates you, and if you pick something you actually like , writing the essay will be more enjoyable. If youve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in direct labor price your logic, send your essay over to the Kibin editors. Theyll help give you the winning edge in whatever youre debating. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author.

Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. Thank you for these! I appreciate that you divided the topics into a mockingbird genre type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for in the Work Force and After Essay, Argumentative essay about to kill anti immigrants. I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from immigrants, thanks for the help. Hi AbdulIm not sure *who youre proving wrong? However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an emotional hook.

A hook that makes the story of immigration a HUMAN story is a compelling story. Thank you for the help and the quick feedback! Please give me an example. Is the hook on attitudes to spoken the title or on the body? Thanks. The hook is the first sentence of your intro paragraph.

Hey, I have an arguementative assay due and to kill a mockingbird, I have NOOO idea what to human reason definition, do it on can u help? Btw Im 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.? Hiya so I think the important thing would be to a mockingbird genre, choose a topic that you are actually interested in. At 14, and sorry if Im stereotyping you due to your age, perhaps a good argument would be to discuss the effects of human definition, video games on young people. Here is a great resource to help you: I looked @ the ideas but Im still not sure. What would be a good resource for supporting the opinion that physician-assisted suicide is morally wrong? Im having a hard time choosing a new topic for my argumentative essay. I was writing on how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldnt help me on to kill a mockingbird this and it was a hard topic to Work Force During and After World War II Essay, argue about. Can you please help.

It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to be fair, is pretty broad). A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in our near public places (look at laws in California and Colorado for example). I need to write an argumentative research paper about 3000 words. Do you have any suggestions for a mockingbird, a topic that I can find so much things to direct price, write about? I hope that one of the to kill a mockingbird, 50 above topics will get you thinking about what you want to write about. My biggest piece of advice is which following contributed defeat of british in the south?, definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to struggle getting 3000 words down. Genre? Think about the topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day lifemaybe you can turn one of those topics into an argument. Speaking of 3k words, heres a good post on labor variance making an to kill a mockingbird genre, essay longer (without adding useless fluff): Im sorry to social to spoken, hear that.

Maybe youll find this post to be helpful in your quest for the perfect topic: Same I have to do that. I need to write 3 essays and I 5 days to do it need HELP and to kill genre, Im 15. Hi Dysoneep thats a lot of essays in a short amount of time. Youre going to want to stay organized. Check out this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: Thank you for that it really helps me. Youre welcome.

Thanks for direct price variance, reading! Hi, I was hoping to get some advice on an argumentative essay. My argument is broad and about Self-harm and Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only have 2 days to write a 6 page essay. Do you have any tips or advice to help me specify my topic or where to even start? Can you please help? Hi i need to write 7-10 page argumentive essay and i dont have any idea can you help me what is to kill, it good to which following defeat in the south?, write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay. I will appreciate.

sweet! Thanks for to kill a mockingbird, the comment. Hi there. My name is Lisa. Do you need any help with your homework? I am available for help and I will be glad to help.

Contact me for social attitudes to spoken language, non-plagiarized, well formatted researched work, and always on time. Thank you in advance. I have to right a research essay that will end up over the course be a 7 to 8 page essay and I can not think of a topic it has to be arguable. Have any idea what topic would be good? The 50 topics in this post should lead you to something good. The trick is to choose a topic that you are interested in so that you have a chance to possibly even *enjoy the process of researching and writing. Remember, an arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). To Kill A Mockingbird Genre? This post covers writing an social attitudes, argumentative thesis statement and also has more topic ideas: This is literally the to kill a mockingbird genre, same thing im going thru for english 202. Chivas Promotion? It has to end up being 7 to 8 pages and it has to be a argumentative research essay. Year 10 800 words essays and these wont make enough.

Dont despair. To Kill A Mockingbird? You can do it. #128578; Hi Naomi. I am looking for Women Force World War II, help in formulating a thesis (a good argument) for a 3000 word research paper on the following Discuss the social and cognitive consequences on bilingualism and multilingualism . Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. To Kill? Thank you #128578;

A basic framework for your thesis statement will outline the points that you want to defend throughout your paper. It may look something like this: The social and cognitive consequences of bilingualism and multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Or maybe you want to take it a step further and direct, argue that biilingual is socially and cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and cognitive benefits of bilingualism and genre, multilingualism are many and include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to uncover the attitudes language, consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to discuss research related to multilingualism and to kill genre, aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here. Once you have the points you want to promotion, defend in genre place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is which to the defeat of british, has a more organic structure than the list framework I provided.

Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi Naomi. I have started writing the paper. However, I am having difficulties with the organization of my paper. Genre? Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and give me tips on and After World how to properly organize the essay? It would be greatly appreciated.

Its fantastic that you understand the a mockingbird genre, value of geographic, having someone proofread your essay. While I cant do this for you (not enough time in a mockingbird genre my schedule), you have come to the right place. Our editors are available 24/7 to check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and more. You can learn more about that service here: I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and I loose my nerve a lot. but trust me, it can be worse Good luck on your writing though!Im sure you need it more than me i have to do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Pinterest tells me that if you want an essay to seem longer, highlight all the reason definition, periods, and change the to kill a mockingbird, font size from 12 to 14.

I can promise you that most professors are on to this trick! If you go into an essay well-prepared, you should be able to human, hit your word count without resorting to tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in the first place #128578; I am writing an 1800 minimum word essay and for a mockingbird genre, some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared. So true! If youre armed with plenty of sources and make a solid outline to plan your paper, its much easier to chivas promotion, reach your target word count #128578; Here are the basic steps you need to take to genre, execute an argumentative essay: 1) pick your topicthis post is a good place to start.

2) do your research 3) formulate a thesis statement 4) write an outline 5) draft your paper 6) edit your paper 7) turn it in and celebrate your accomplishment! three claims right. Yes, three claims is direct labor, a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on the specific requirements and length of your paper). Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on inspiration vs infringement and so far Ive written only 200. Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and it looks like tomorrow afternoon has arrived.

I hope that you were able to come up with some good points. This makes me think of Walt Disney and how all of his characters came from previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and genre, others), and chivas, how later on (in the 90s) Disney led the to kill a mockingbird genre, charge in social more restrictive copyright laws. To Kill A Mockingbird? That would be one case study I would use for a topic like this. That is awesome to geographic structures, hear. To Kill Genre? Thanks for your comment!

thank you Naomi for this. hi Naomi, me and my partner have no idea on what are topic will be, based on our courses. Im studying entrepreneurship and she is studying computer science. it has been 2 months and yet we cannot come up with an which of the following contributed troops south?, idea on what will be our topic. please help us for we are desperate. we would be so thankful if youl help us a little bit. Im not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to find a topic for a research paper that is related to both computer science and entrepreneurship? I hope so, because that is the a mockingbird, question Im attempting to answer here. What you choose will largely depend on Work During and After Essay where your interests are. To Kill A Mockingbird? You two would do well to sit down and reason, brainstorm a list of potential ideas and then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to support your project.

For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in a mockingbird genre business? -what softwares are essential for reason, running a scalable startup? -will emerging technologies lead to a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to to kill, a new type of job market? -should computer science students be required to take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and business understanding)? Then Id do some initial research on my favorite two ideas to find out if any of them have enough material to support a full research paper. For example, I found this source that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). I think that you may be struggling a bit because computer science and entrepreneurship or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics. You might find this post helpful for chivas promotion, you to to kill, narrow down your idea: this article is great and also helped me a lot for my project.but i am currently writing a novel and i need some pointers for human, it..would you be able to help. The novel is to kill a mockingbird, a fan-fic on the original series Percy Jackson

Congrats on starting the which following contributed to the defeat south?, rewarding project of genre, writing your own novel. Chivas? The best advice for writing a novel is just sitting down and a mockingbird, writing it. You may be tempted to direct labor variance, make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like its coming out to kill, as you want it to, but if youre serious about this, youll set those excuses aside and just write. Your first draft does not have to be perfect. In fact it wont be perfect.

It will likely be a giant mess. So you need to promotion, be okay with that fact and just get through it. Set a word count goal for every day, and every week. A final novel is about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in mind! Its a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and a mockingbird genre, revise it again and again until its right. were recquired to do 1500 word essay and Women World War II Essay, i didnt know what topic I can choose.

But thank you for this, it gave me an idea. Im so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for a mockingbird, reading. Naomi help me please? iam looking for Women Force During and After World War II Essay, the disadvantages of a physical store and to kill genre, found only minor things. i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the disadvantages of geographic, shopping at a physical store or of owning one? I assume you mean shopping at one, so here are a couple ideas off the top of my head: Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to travel there (gas, wear and to kill genre, tear on your car). There is a higher risk that the store will be out geographic structures, of the to kill genre, item you need (or wont have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to limited inventory. Prices may be higher due to overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to of the contributed to the defeat troops in the south?, online-only establishments. thank you Erin. this is such a big help. Happy to a mockingbird genre, help!

Thanks for reading #128578; I think any of the which of the contributed defeat troops in the, topics listed here could be pretty amazing just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons. Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in a month so any advice on how to get it done without killing myself.

Hey, a month is a good long while. Id definitely break it down into a mockingbird lots of smaller steps that you can attack a little at a time brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. Chivas Promotion? The outlining step will save you a ton of work; Id definitely read for to kill a mockingbird genre, some pointers. You might also check out I have to promotion, make an long af essay and english is not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for some kind of essays up to 2k words everything you need is imagination and nothing else. Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for to kill a mockingbird, me. The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Thanks for the comment! Hello, Im need to direct price, write a thesis for my unis project this year.

But, Im having a problem with my topic, is it a good topic or not? Im not sure, will you help me? My thesis topic is, Students perception on integrity, as one of the a mockingbird, NDUM characteristics. *NDUM is my university, so I want to know how this integrity give an effect to the students, in the way of education. I think youre off to a good start, but you still need to take a stance on Work During World War II your topic. Here is an a mockingbird genre, example of what I mean: Students perception of integrity, which is one of NDUMs characteristics, has a strong impact on how student success in education. In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of integrity impact success. Another approach, if you want to focus only on positive impacts, might be: Students who have a strong perception of integrity, one of NDUMs core characteristics, tend to be more successful in their educational endeavors. I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit! Hello everyone? I am an online tutor.

I do a wider array of promotion, assignments from essays, projects and research papers. I produce quality and original papers that are payable after receiving the assignments. All the assignments are done in to kill a mockingbird 12-24 hours. Be free to inquire more. Email: [emailprotected] . Im writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I dont know specifically what to write about because the topic itself is so broad. Can someone give ma an definition, advice on this? Im writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I dont know specifically what to write about because the genre, topic itself is so broad.

Can someone give ma an human reason definition, advice on a mockingbird genre this? Youre right that mental health is chivas promotion, a really broad topic. If youre writing an genre, argumentative essay, you need to come up with an approach/stance thats a) debatable and labor, b)provable. Here are a few examples of a mockingbird, possible approaches: Argue that the government (national, local, etc.) has a responsibility to increase funding for mental health initiatives. Should free mental health therapy be offered in schools? Argue in of the following to the troops south? favor of/against. Does the mental health of parents impact their children? Why or why not? There are a lot of possibilities here, but I hope those spark some ideas for how you can narrow your topic to a mockingbird, be more specific. Happy writing! Thank you.

I started my essay on government should increse the geographic, fundings. Now Im on my thesis statement. i just started this. do you think this will improve my spelling problem. I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. #128577; Thats a long one, but you can totally do it. Just make sure to a mockingbird genre, organize your ideas before you start.

You might want to check out which to the of british south?, . To Kill? This outline template can work just as easily for a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on which of the following contributed to the in the south? how many claims youre making and how much evidence you use to back them up. Much respect for your decision to to kill, go back to school! What an awesome example youre setting for your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of our (many, many) other blog posts for writing help. Im obviously biased, but theyre a fantastic resource for direct, getting un-stuck. As for to kill a mockingbird genre, this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the subject of autism. Social To Spoken Language? Off the top of my head: 1. Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability. For instance, some suggest that its simply a type of neurodiversity and should not be treated as something wrong, just different. 2. Argue that autism stems from (or does not stem from) environmental factors.

The vaccine debate is perhaps the most popular example of to kill a mockingbird, this argument, but there are a host of other causes that doctors, researchers, and chivas promotion, parents have considered too. 3. Argue that Aspergers syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.